What is a factoid?
A FACTOID is an assertion that a source says something about one or more
How have names been normalized?
In order to make identification and indexing easier – indeed possible – PASE has
adopted a scheme of name normalization on the following scheme. This process has
not been followed religiously. As with any index, users should become accustomed
to the house style.
- Ælf- (first element)
- Æthel- will be used, and not Oethel-, Æthil-, or Aedil-
- Beorht- will be used as a first element.
- -berht is to be preferred as a second element for English names (However,
for Continental names -bert will be used instead).
- -burg rather than –burh should be used as a second element for female
names as in Cyneburg.
- Cen- is the form to choose for names such as Cenred, Cenwealh and so
- Cyne- is probably to be preferred as a first element in such names as
Cyneburg, although we need to seek advice on this one. (Should it be
- Ead- should be used, although exceptions include: Edgar, Edwin, Edward,
Edmund and so on
- Eald- (exception Aldhelm?)
- -eald will be kept as a second element, except in Æthelbald, Willibald
- Ecg- will be used as a first element (and not Eg-). Example:
- -flæd will be used as a second element (not –fleda). Example:
- -frith (second element)
- Gar-, -gar
- -gifu should be preferred to –giefu in female names
- -gyth (f.) should usually be employed. Exception: Edith
- Heard- and -heard for Old English names, whereas Old Germanic names will
have Hard- and –hard
- Here-, -here
- Hun-, -hun
- -red should be used as a second element (Æthelred), but Ræd- should be
preferred as a first element (as in Rædwald)
- -sige should be used as a second and a first element (Sige-) and not
- Swith-, -swith
- Thryth-, -thryth (f.) as a second element
- -waru (f.)
- Weald- has to be used as a first element, but –wald should be preferred as
a second element (except for Bishop Æthelwold, of the Benedictional)
- Wealh-, but -walh or -wealh?
- -weard should be used as a second element. Exceptions include Edward and
- Wig- and –wig should be used instead of wi or wih
- With- not Wioht-
- -wine should be used in names such as Trumwine. Exception: Edwin
- Wulf- and -wulf
- Wynn- (f.) and -wynn
How do I search by date?
Searches can be refined by Floruit bands. Check the boxes of elements you wish to
search by, go to the Selected Persons link on the top bar, select the
combination of classifications you wish to use and then choose your floruit
What is Floruit dating?
Because of the scarcity of precise dates in Anglo-Saxon history, most people in
the database have been given floruit bands on the form early / middle / late’
and ‘century’. E.g. l viii-e ix, would mean ‘late eighth century to early ninth
century’. Currently you cannot perform searches by date in PASE. PASE has been
source-led; if a source did not supply a date for a factoid, one has normally
not been provided.
Why can’t I find...?
PASE’s brief has been to enter all information from all sources written between
597 and 1042. If you cannot find the person you are looking for it may be
because that person is known only in later sources. In these cases the
information will become available in PASE2. Alternatively you may not have found
the normalized PASE name. See the guidelines under ‘How have names been