Eadgyth 3 (Female) Edward 15 the Confessor's queen, c. 1029 ? 1075; Edith.
m/l xi

Factoid List

Recorded Name (188)
E (3)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:9)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:8)
 LDB  433 (Suffolk 52:1)
Eadgað (1)
 S1016   
Eadgið (7)
 S1059   
 S1026   
 S1038   
 S1154   
 S1408   
 S1238   
 S1475   
Eadgiþ (1)
 S1138   
Eadgyda (1)
 S1042   
Eadgyth (2)
 S1031   
 S1040   
Eadgytha (1)
 S1011   
Eadgyð (10)
 S1007   
 S1008   
 S1010   
 S1028   
 S1029   
 S1033   
 S1240   
 S1426   
 S1479   
 S1478   
Eadgyða (4)
 S1036   
 S1041   
 S1043   
 S1480   
Eadithe (1)
 S1116   
Eadiða (1)
 S1037a   
Edded (1)
 GDB  176 (Worcestershire 15:13)
Eddeua (1)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:13)
Eddid (118)
 GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 2:1)
 GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 1:4)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:17)
 GDB  60 (Berkshire 20:3)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:16)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:5)
 GDB  56v (Berkshire 1:4)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:14)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:15)
 GDB  58 (Berkshire 1:47)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:6)
 GDB  144 (Buckinghamshire 4:11)
 GDB  149v (Buckinghamshire 21:1)
 GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 14:40)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 26:8)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 26:3)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:1)
 GDB  151 (Buckinghamshire 29:2)
 GDB  149 (Buckinghamshire 19:2)
 GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:16)
 GDB  149 (Buckinghamshire 19:1)
 GDB  147v (Buckinghamshire 14:27)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 25:1)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:2)
 GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:18)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 57:13)
 GDB  151v (Buckinghamshire 41:1)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 55:1)
 GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 16:2)
 GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:14)
 GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:20)
 GDB  152 (Buckinghamshire 43:11)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:1)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:2)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:26)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:25)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:27)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:28)
 GDB  77 (Dorset 2:6)
 GDB  163 (Gloucestershire 1:20)
 GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:1)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:4)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:5)
 GDB  43v (Hampshire 10:1)
 GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:9)
 GDB  43v (Hampshire 13:1)
 GDB  49v (Hampshire 69:6)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:7)
 GDB  50 (Hampshire 69:26)
 GDB  45 (Hampshire 23:7)
 GDB  38v (Hampshire 1:24)
 GDB  40 (Hampshire 1:W22)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  184 (Herefordshire 10:29)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180v (Herefordshire 1:39)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:9)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  137v (Hertfordshire 18:1)
 GDB  139v (Hertfordshire 33:2)
 GDB  139v (Hertfordshire 33:4)
 GDB  139 (Hertfordshire 32:2)
 GDB  142 (Hertfordshire 42:7)
 GDB  135 (Hertfordshire 7:1)
 GDB  136v (Hertfordshire 15:5)
 GDB  14v (Kent 13:1)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 GDB  336v (Lincolnshire S:9)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:2)
 GDB  129v (Middlesex 9:1)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:2)
 GDB  220 (Northamptonshire 1:32)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:1)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:3)
 GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 35:2)
 GDB  157v (Oxfordshire 20:4)
 GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 34:2)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:19)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:17)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:20)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:31)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:30)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:29)
 GDB  99 (Somerset 47:20)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:26)
 GDB  91 (Somerset 11:1)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:13)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:10)
 GDB  30 (Surrey 1:7)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:12)
 GDB  18v (Sussex 9:35)
 GDB  22 (Sussex 10:90)
 GDB  21v (Sussex 10:44)
 GDB  26 (Sussex 12:3)
 GDB  21v (Sussex 10:63)
 GDB  73 (Wiltshire 59:1)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:16)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:17)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:15)
 GDB  176v (Worcestershire 19:5)
Eddida (4)
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:32)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:15)
 GDB  97 (Somerset 32:2)
 GDB  97 (Somerset 32:3)
Eddidue (1)
 GDB  357 (Lincolnshire 26:26)
Eddied (2)
 GDB  183v (Herefordshire 9:7)
 GDB  176v (Worcestershire 18:2)
Edeiha (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Edeua (4)
 LDB  27 (Essex 20:8)
 LDB  54 (Essex 27:15)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:7)
 LDB  393v (Suffolk 25:56)
Edeue (2)
 LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:26)
 LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:27)
Edgitha (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Edid (11)
 GDB  218v (Bedfordshire 57:6)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:4)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:6)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:9)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:81)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:9)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:14)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:91)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:35)
 LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:1)
 LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:2)
Edidda (1)
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:29)
Edit (2)
 LDB  421 (Suffolk 37:2)
 LDB  421 (Suffolk 37.2)
Egeda (1)
 S1055   
Etgith (1)
 Bates139   
regina (3)
 LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122a)
 LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122b)
 LDB  427 (Suffolk 41:13)
Ædgith (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Æditha (1)
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
Personal Information (14)
(1)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1043 ()
(Other) (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (Eadgyth 3 provided the king, who took no interest in such matters, with royal finery. In this she seemd more like a daughter than a wife, not so much a spouse as a good mother. Eadgyth 3, from the very beginning of her marriage, clad him in raiments either embroidered by herself or of her choice... in the ornamentation of these no count was made in the cost. Edward 15's saddle and horse trappings were hung with little beasts and birds made from gold by smiths under her direction. Finally, any object that she thought would become him was brought to peerfection without the slightest delay.)
intellectual (4)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (Inferior to none, superior to all... recommended by both the distinction of her family and the ineffable beauty of her surpassing youth.. who was famous and distinguished for her verse and prose, and in her needlework and painting was another Minerva.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (From infancy Eadgyth 3 was immersed in the study of letters in the monastery at Wilton, and, it was reported, shone not only in letters but also in her handicraft and all of her behaviour. Christ had indeed prepared her for his beloved Edward 15, kindling in her from very childhood the love of chastity, the hatred of vice, and the desire for virtue. Such a bride... was therefore entirely suitable for this great king. Fair she was in face and even fairer in her faith, quite outstanding in both body and soul, most intelligent and a skilful and ready counsellor... She diligently read religious and secular books, and she herself excelled in the writing of prose and verse. In the arts of painting and needlework she was, as they say, another Minerva. )
 WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8 (Eadgyth 3 was a woman of masculine wisdom, who knew what was good and revered it in her life.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (shone above all in counsel.)
language competence (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (She could speak the general language used in Gaul, as well as Danish and Irish, as though they were her mother tongues; and in all these she attained not merely an average standard but perfection.)
physical (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (Fair she was in face and even fairer in her faith, quite outstanding in both body and soul.)
piety (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 (Edward 15 and Eadgyth 3 zealously showed their devout faith in the church of Christ.)
psychological (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 (Although by custom and law a royal throne was always prepared for [Eadgyth 3] at the king's [Edward 15] side, she preferred, except in church and at the royal table, to sit at his feet, unless perchance he should reach out his hand to her, or with a gesture of the hand invite or command her to sit next to him. She was a woman to be placed before all noble matrons or persons of royal and imperial rank as a model of virtue and integrity for maintaining both the practices of the Christian religion and worldly dignity.)
reputation (4)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (Dignified and reserved, not inclined to talk freely with just anyone, likewise not easily approachable, [Eadgyth 3] she spoke quietly, and, with her cloak of seriousness and modesty, never with shouts or laughter or a raised voice. When offended, she curbed or hid her anger by holding her tongue, in order to give hope...when faced with some distressful or squalid scene, she could barely pause for a moment, but immediately made a suitable comment on it to the company. Her generosity was incomparable, whether she was giving to her own people or bestwoing largess on visitors from foreign parts. Those to whom she pledged her word were in no need of oaths; those she deemed worthy of help had no need of subvention from any other source.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (How zealously [Eadgyth 3] reared, educated, adorned and showered with motherly love those boys who were said to be of royal stock... how many and what sorts of requitals and gifts she made to her benefactors amd servants... for surely her parents from childhood had wanted her from childhood to be incomparable.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 (By [Eadgyth 3's] advice peace wraps the kingdom round and keeps mankind from breaking pacts of peace.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 (faithful and blessed by God)
Education (1)
 [Eadgyth 3] was a woman in whose breast was a school of all the liberal arts but small inclination for worldly things. On seeing her, you would have been amazed at her education and attracted by her intellectual modesty.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Office (288)
Queen (288)
 S787   
 S1000   
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1052
 S1059   
 S1010   
 S1026   
 S1029   
 S1031   
 S1036   
 S1037a    (queen of the English)
 S1038   
 S1041   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 S1042   
 S1043   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
 S1055   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 S1240   
 S1241   
 S1426   
 S1408    (queen of the English)
 S1480   
 S1479   
 S1238   
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132.4
 Bates139   
 S1475   
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:28)
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:29)
 GDB  218v (Bedfordshire 57:6)
 GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 2:1)
 GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 1:4)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:4)
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:32)
 GDB  60v (Berkshire 21:20)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:17)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:15)
 GDB  60 (Berkshire 20:3)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:16)
 GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:5)
 GDB  56v (Berkshire 1:4)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:14)
 GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:15)
 GDB  58 (Berkshire 1:47)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:6)
 GDB  144 (Buckinghamshire 4:11)
 GDB  149v (Buckinghamshire 21:1)
 GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 14:40)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 26:8)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 26:3)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:1)
 GDB  151 (Buckinghamshire 29:2)
 GDB  149 (Buckinghamshire 19:2)
 GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:16)
 GDB  149 (Buckinghamshire 19:1)
 GDB  147v (Buckinghamshire 14:27)
 GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 25:1)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:13)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:2)
 GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:18)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 57:13)
 GDB  151v (Buckinghamshire 41:1)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:6)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 55:1)
 GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 16:2)
 GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:14)
 GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:20)
 GDB  152 (Buckinghamshire 43:11)
 GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:1)
 GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:2)
 GDB  101v (Devon 1:71)
 GDB  100 (Devon C2)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:26)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:25)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:27)
 GDB  100v (Devon 1:28)
 GDB  77 (Dorset 2:6)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:9)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:8)
 LDB  27 (Essex 20:8)
 LDB  54 (Essex 27:15)
 LDB  87 (Essex 42:7)
 GDB  163 (Gloucestershire 1:20)
 GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:1)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:4)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:5)
 GDB  43v (Hampshire 10:1)
 GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:9)
 GDB  43v (Hampshire 13:1)
 GDB  49v (Hampshire 69:6)
 GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:7)
 GDB  50 (Hampshire 69:26)
 GDB  45 (Hampshire 23:7)
 GDB  38v (Hampshire 1:24)
 GDB  40 (Hampshire 1:W22)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  184 (Herefordshire 10:29)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  183v (Herefordshire 9:7)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10c)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180v (Herefordshire 1:39)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:9)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 GDB  137v (Hertfordshire 18:1)
 GDB  139v (Hertfordshire 33:2)
 GDB  139v (Hertfordshire 33:4)
 GDB  139 (Hertfordshire 32:2)
 GDB  142 (Hertfordshire 42:7)
 GDB  135 (Hertfordshire 7:1)
 GDB  136v (Hertfordshire 15:5)
 GDB  14v (Kent 13:1)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:5)
 GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:73)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:9)
 GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:72)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:6)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:8)
 GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:7)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:88)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:88)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:23)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:19)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  371 (Lincolnshire 68:24)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:96)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  368v (Lincolnshire 59:1)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:36)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:36)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:21)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  357 (Lincolnshire 26:26)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:95)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:95)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:98)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:98)
 GDB  369v (Lincolnshire 63:21)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:81)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:81)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:85)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:85)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:9)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:9)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:10)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:10)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:14)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:14)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:84)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:84)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:97)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:97)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:11)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:20)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:91)
 GDB  353 (Lincolnshire 18:26)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:94)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:94)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:22)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:83)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:83)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:102)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:102)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:101)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:101)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:35)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:13)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:13)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:12)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:16)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:16)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:99)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:99)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:82)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:82)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:17)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:100)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:100)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:89)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:89)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:25)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:86)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:86)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:12)
 GDB  336v (Lincolnshire S:9)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:92)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:92)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:1)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:2)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:93)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:93)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:106)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:106)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:18)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:90)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:90)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:105)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:105)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:104)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:104)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:103)
 GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:103)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:87)
 GDB  129v (Middlesex 9:1)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:2)
 GDB  220 (Northamptonshire 1:32)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:1)
 GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:3)
 GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 35:2)
 GDB  157v (Oxfordshire 20:4)
 GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 34:2)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:19)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:17)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:20)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:31)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:30)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:29)
 GDB  99 (Somerset 47:20)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 GDB  97 (Somerset 32:2)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 GDB  87 (Somerset 1:26)
 GDB  91 (Somerset 11:1)
 GDB  97 (Somerset 32:3)
 LDB  337v (Suffolk 7:63)
 LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:26)
 LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:1)
 LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:27)
 LDB  393v (Suffolk 25:56)
 LDB  332 (Suffolk 7:15)
 LDB  332v (Suffolk 7:15)
 LDB  433 (Suffolk 52:5)
 LDB  433v (Suffolk 52:9)
 LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122a)
 LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122b)
 LDB  427 (Suffolk 41:13)
 LDB  421 (Suffolk 37:2)
 LDB  421 (Suffolk 37.2)
 LDB  433 (Suffolk 52:1)
 LDB  314v (Suffolk 6:112)
 LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:2)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:13)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:13)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:10)
 GDB  30 (Surrey 1:7)
 GDB  30v (Surrey 1:12)
 GDB  18v (Sussex 9:35)
 GDB  22 (Sussex 10:90)
 GDB  21v (Sussex 10:44)
 GDB  26 (Sussex 12:3)
 GDB  21v (Sussex 10:63)
 GDB  73 (Wiltshire 59:1)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:16)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:17)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:15)
 GDB  176 (Worcestershire 15:13)
 GDB  176v (Worcestershire 18:2)
 GDB  176v (Worcestershire 19:5)
Status (4)
Domina (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
Lady (1)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075
Puella (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Widow (1)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076
Personal Relationship (102)
~ Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of Eadgyth 3 (5)
 Harold 3: of Eadgyth 3: S1029   
 Tosti 2: of Eadgyth 3: S1029   
 Gyrth 1: of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Harold 3: of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 Harold 3: of Eadgyth 3: S1240   
Eadgyth 3 Daughter (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (8)
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1044; E 1043
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 of Godwine 51: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Eadgyth 3 Daughter (Honorific kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
~ Father (Consanguineal kinship) of Eadgyth 3 (2)
 Godwine 51: of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.Prologue
 Godwine 51: of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Eadgyth 3 Friend (General relationship) of ~ (1)
 of Stigand 1: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.8
~ Husband (Affinal kinship) of Eadgyth 3 (2)
 Edward 15: of Eadgyth 3: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076
 Edward 15: of Eadgyth 3: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
Eadgyth 3 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (58)
 of Alsige 1: GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:28)
 of Alsige 1: GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:29)
 of Ketilbert 1: GDB  218v (Bedfordshire 57:6)
 of Alsige 1: GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 2:1)
 of Wælhræfn 1: GDB  209v (Bedfordshire 1:4)
 of Algar 4: GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:4)
 of Moding 1: GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:32)
 of Hearding 5: GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:17)
 of Lang 1: GDB  58 (Berkshire 1:47)
 of Wulfweard 24: GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:6)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  144 (Buckinghamshire 4:11)
 of Ælfgeat 10: GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 14:40)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 26:3)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  149 (Buckinghamshire 19:2)
 of Sigeric 13: GDB  147v (Buckinghamshire 14:27)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  150v (Buckinghamshire 25:1)
 of Eadgifu 23: GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:13)
 of Eadgifu 23: GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:2)
 of Azur 1: GDB  151v (Buckinghamshire 41:1)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 16:2)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:14)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  150 (Buckinghamshire 23:20)
 of Ælfric 164: GDB  152 (Buckinghamshire 43:11)
 of Eadgifu 23: GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:1)
 of Wulfweard 24: GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:2)
 of Iudichael 1: GDB  101v (Devon 1:71)
 of Wulfweard 24: GDB  43v (Hampshire 10:1)
 of Esbiorn 1: GDB  49v (Hampshire 69:6)
 of Aghmund 1: GDB  50 (Hampshire 69:26)
 of Alfred 71: GDB  45 (Hampshire 23:7)
 of Tosti 6: GDB  184 (Herefordshire 10:29)
 of Gode 6: GDB  137v (Hertfordshire 18:1)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  139v (Hertfordshire 33:4)
 of Gode 6: GDB  139 (Hertfordshire 32:2)
 of Goda 16: GDB  142 (Hertfordshire 42:7)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  136v (Hertfordshire 15:5)
 of Sigar 2: GDB  14v (Kent 13:1)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:73)
 of Alwine 10: GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:72)
 of Uhtbrand 1: GDB  368v (Lincolnshire 59:1)
 of Ulf 33: GDB  369v (Lincolnshire 63:21)
 of Harold 9: GDB  129v (Middlesex 9:1)
 of Brun 4: LDB  337v (Suffolk 7:63)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:26)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  306 (Suffolk 6:27)
 of Bondi 2: LDB  393v (Suffolk 25:56)
 of Wulfsige 65: LDB  332 (Suffolk 7:15)
 of Ulf 33: LDB  332v (Suffolk 7:15)
 of Beorhtweald 1: LDB  433 (Suffolk 52:5)
 of Grimulf 1: LDB  433v (Suffolk 52:9)
 of Spearhafoc 1: LDB  421 (Suffolk 37:2)
 of Spearhafoc 1: LDB  421 (Suffolk 37.2)
 of Beorhtweald 1: LDB  433 (Suffolk 52:1)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  314v (Suffolk 6:112)
 of Eadric 84: GDB  30v (Surrey 1:13)
 of Alweald 1: GDB  176 (Worcestershire 15:13)
 of Godric 56: GDB  176v (Worcestershire 18:2)
 of Beorhtric 43: GDB  176v (Worcestershire 19:5)
~ Lord (General relationship) of Eadgyth 3 (1)
 Ælfwig 28: of Eadgyth 3: GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:9)
Eadgyth 3 Mother (Honorific kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Eadgyth 3 Queen (Affinal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Eadgyth 3 Sister (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (5)
 of Tosti 2: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 of Harold 3: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 of Harold 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Eadgyth 3 Widow (Affinal kinship) of ~ (2)
 of Edward 15: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.8
 of Edward 15: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132.4
Eadgyth 3 Wife (Affinal kinship) of ~ (15)
 of Edward 15: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1044; E1043
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.Prologue
 of Edward 15: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 of Edward 15: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 of Edward 15: S1007   
 of Edward 15: S1009   
 of Edward 15: S1011   
 of Edward 15: S1012   
 of Edward 15: S1013   
 of Edward 15: S1026   
 of Edward 15: S1031   
 of Edward 15: S1033   
 of Edward 15: S1116   
 of Edward 15: Bates139   
Possession (155)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Carswell, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  63v (Berkshire 65:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 20 hides in Long Wittenham, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  60 (Berkshire 20:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 hides in Remenham, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides in Waltham, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  56v (Berkshire 1:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Warfield, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:14)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 33 hides in Wargrave, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  57 (Berkshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7.50 hides in Amersham, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  149v (Buckinghamshire 21:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Chesham, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 56:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 hides in Eton, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  151 (Buckinghamshire 29:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Hughenden, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Marlow and Little Marlow, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  144v (Buckinghamshire 4:18)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8.50 hides in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 57:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides, 3 virgates in Simpson, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  145 (Buckinghamshire 5:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 20 hides in Steeple Claydon, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  153 (Buckinghamshire 55:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Exeter, Devon (in 1066): GDB  100 (Devon C2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides, 0.25 virgates in Kenton, Devon (in 1066): GDB  100v (Devon 1:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 virgates in Lifton, Devon (in 1066): GDB  100v (Devon 1:25)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in North Molton, Devon (in 1066): GDB  100v (Devon 1:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 hides in Wonford in Exeter, Devon (in 1066): GDB  100v (Devon 1:28)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 43 hides in Sherborne, Dorset (in 1066): GDB  77 (Dorset 2:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Chesterford, Essex (in 1066): LDB  87 (Essex 42:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Little Bromley, Essex (in 1066): LDB  87 (Essex 42:8)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 hides in Rivenhall, Essex (in 1066): LDB  27 (Essex 20:8)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Wix, Essex (in 1066): LDB  54 (Essex 27:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Wix, Essex (in 1066): LDB  87 (Essex 42:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 14 hides in Marshfield, Gloucestershire (in 1066): GDB  163 (Gloucestershire 1:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Alton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Anstey, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Greatham, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides, 1 virgate in Kingsclere, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  43 (Hampshire 6:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Penton Grafton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  43v (Hampshire 13:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Selborne, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  38 (Hampshire 1:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Upton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  38v (Hampshire 1:24)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Wootton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  40 (Hampshire 1:W22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Ashton, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Aymestrey, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Brierley, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Brimfield, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Cholestry, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Edwyn Ralph, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Farlow, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Ivington, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Leinthall, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Leinthall, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  183v (Herefordshire 9:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 80 hides in Leominster, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Leominster, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10c)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Luston, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Marston Stannett, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides, 1 virgate in Martley, Worcs., Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180v (Herefordshire 1:39)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Miles Hope, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Stanford, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Stockton, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Stoke Prior, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Upton, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Yarpole, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  180 (Herefordshire 1:10a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Abegrave, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Dishley, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Saddington, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Thorpe Acre, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:8)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Whatborough, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230v (Leicestershire 1:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in -, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Alvingham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:88)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Barkston, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Belton near Grantham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Braceby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Coningsby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:96)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 carucates in Denton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Dunholme, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:36)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Dunsthorpe in Grantham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates, 1 bovate, 1 sulung in Ewerby Thorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  357 (Lincolnshire 26:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 carucates in Fulsby in Tumby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:95)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Fulsby in Tumby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:98)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Gayton le Wold, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:81)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Grainthorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:85)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 111 urban tenements in Grantham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Grantham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 carucates in Great Gonerby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:10)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Great Ponton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:14)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Grimboldby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:84)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates, 6 bovates in Haltham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:97)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Harlaxton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Harrowby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Horncastle, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:91)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Hungerton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  353 (Lincolnshire 18:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Langton near Horncastle and Torp in Woodhall, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:94)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates, 6 bovates in Londonthorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Manby near Grimboldby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:83)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Mareham le Fen, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:102)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Moorby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:101)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Nettleham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:35)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates, 5.50 bovates in Nongtone, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in North Stoke, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:12)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates, 2 bovates in Old Somerby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates, 2 bovates in Old Somerby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 bovates in Reasby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 bovates in Roughton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:99)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Saltfleetby All Saints, St Clement or St Peter, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:82)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Sapperton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates, 7 bovates in Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:100)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Skidbrooke, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:89)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Skillington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:25)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Somercotes North or South, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:86)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 70 urban tenements in Stamford, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  336v (Lincolnshire S:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 bovates in Swinthorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Thimbleby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:92)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 213 urban tenements in Torksey, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Toynton High or Low, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:93)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Toynton High or Low, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:106)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Welby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Welton le Wold, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:90)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in West Ashby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:105)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Wickenby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Wilksby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:104)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Wood Enderby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  339 (Lincolnshire 1:103)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates, 1 bovate in Yarburgh, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:87)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 16 hides, 1 bovate in Barrowden and Seaton and Thorpe by Water and Morcott and Bisbrooke and Glaston and North Ruffenham, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 20 hides in Finedon, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  220 (Northamptonshire 1:32)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9 hides in Ketton and Tixover, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 hides, 1 virgate in Sourth Ruffenham and Sculthorpe, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  219 (Northamptonshire 1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 16 hides in Haseley, Oxfordshire (in 1066): GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 35:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Hempton, Oxfordshire (in 1066): GDB  157v (Oxfordshire 20:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Horley, Oxfordshire (in 1066): GDB  159 (Oxfordshire 34:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Hambleton, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:19)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Oakham, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Ridlington, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 20 hides in Bath, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:31)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Batheaston, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 29 hides in Chewton Mendip, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:29)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Combe Hay?, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  99 (Somerset 47:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 50 hides in Keynesham, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Keynesham, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:28)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Luccombe, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  97 (Somerset 32:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 38 hides in Martock, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in Martock, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 virgates in Milverton, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  87 (Somerset 1:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 hides in Puriton, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  91 (Somerset 11:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Selworthy, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  97 (Somerset 32:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Bildeston, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Ipswich, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Ipswich, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122b)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 urban tenements in Ipswich, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  427 (Suffolk 41:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 40 acres, 2 carucates in Swilland, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  426 (Suffolk 41:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10.50 hides in Dorking, Surrey (in 1066): GDB  30v (Surrey 1:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 hides in Fetcham, Surrey (in 1066): GDB  30v (Surrey 1:10)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 37.50 hides in Reigate, Surrey (in 1066): GDB  30 (Surrey 1:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 16 hides in Shere, Surrey (in 1066): GDB  30v (Surrey 1:12)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Beddingham, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  18v (Sussex 9:35)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Eckington and Chalvington, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  22 (Sussex 10:90)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides in Frog Firle, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  21v (Sussex 10:44)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 77.50 hides in Iford, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  26 (Sussex 12:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 hides in Parrock, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  21v (Sussex 10:63)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 hides in Lavington, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  73 (Wiltshire 59:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 40 hides in Westbury, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides, 1 virgate in Winterbourne Stoke, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 30 hides in Wootton Rivers, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:15)
Event (83)
Accusation (4)
 Eadgyth 3.leasing land and ?horses to Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 entrusted her horses to Wudemann 2. He was subsequently accused of having not paid rent for 6 years.: S1241    (? - 1066 x 1075)
 Eadgyth 3.requesting Giso 1 for judgement on Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 requests from Giso 1 a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 S1241 - writ of Eadgyth 3 in favour of Giso 1: Writ of Queen Eadgyth 3, declaring that she has given to Bishop Giso 1 for his canons at St Andrew's, Wells, the land at Mark, Somerset. She requests a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
Advice/counsel (5)
 Eadgyth 3.opposing Tosti 2 with prayers and counsel: Eadgyth 3, unable to take up arms against Tosti 2, fought him with prayers and counsel.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Edward 15.marriage to Eadgyth 3: Edward 15 fearing harm from the power of such a great man [as Godwine 51], of from his usual guile, consulted the Normans whose loyal support strengthened him. He willingly forgave Godwine 51 the shameful murder of his brother Alfred 54, and in order to maintain a perpetually strong and affectionate bond between them, he married Godwine 51's daughter Edith (Eadgyth 3), if only in name. It is said that actually both always remained virgin.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
 Edward 15.reasons for marrying Eadgyth 3: Edward 15 agreed all the more readily to contract this marriage [to Eadgyth 3] because he knew that with the advice and help of that Godwine 51 he would have a firmer hold on his hereditary rights in England.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Affection (1)
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Agreement (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 S1478 - agreement between Wulfwig 10, Leofric 49 and Godgifu 2: Agreement between Bishop Wulfwig 10, and Earl Leofric 49 and Godgifu 2, his wife, concerning the endowment of a monastery at Stowe St Mary, Lincs..: S1478    (1053 x 1055)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Alms-giving (1)
 Edward 15-Eadgyth 3.kindness to the poor: [Edward 15] stooped with great mercy to the poor and infirm, and fully maintained many of these not only daily in his royal court but also at many places in his kingdom. His royal consort [Eadgyth 3] did not restrain him in those good works in which he prepared to lead the way, but rather urged speedier progress, and often enough seemed even to lead the way herself. For while he would give now and then, she was prodigal, but aimed her bounty to such good purpose as to consider the highest honour of the king as well.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Appointment of eorl (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Tosti 2.assuming earldom: Tosti 2, with the aid of his friends, and especially, and deservedly, his brother, Earl Harold 3, and his sister queen [Eadgyth 3], and with no opposition from the king [Edward 15] because of innumerable services faithfully performed, assumed his earldom.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of bishop (1)
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of queen (2)
 Eadgyth 3.consecration as queen: Eadgyth 3 was consecrated as queen.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048
 Eadgyth 3.marriage and coronation: From the wealth of both families the nuptial feast is provided; the bishops administer the sacrament, and the girl [Eadgyth 3] is blessed as wife and crowned as queen.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Army-raising (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Ascetic practices/fasting/resisting temptation (1)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Assembly (5)
 Eadgyth 3.dedication of the church in Wilton: In having a speedy dedication [of the new church in Wilton] performed the woman blessed by God [i.e. Eadgyth 3] would suffer no delay. Indeed, she warned in advance Herman 2, the famous and well-educated bishop of the diocese [of Wiltshire], for this task, and prepared most earnestly all the things that would be required on the appointment day for the ceremony. However, a short time before the appointed day, devil set fire to the town, and all that had been prepared there, together with almost all the houses, except for this church, was burned in one vast conflagration. But this did not affright this faithful woman's mind, nor did it deter her from completing the divine project she had planned. She made haste with other preparations of even greater splendour, and, with a multitude of bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks and a concourse of all the faithful, she devoutly performed the ceremony of dedication. The consecration of this church in honour of St Benedict [was] performed in the year 1065.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6-7 (1065)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Assistance (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.assuming earldom: Tosti 2, with the aid of his friends, and especially, and deservedly, his brother, Earl Harold 3, and his sister queen [Eadgyth 3], and with no opposition from the king [Edward 15] because of innumerable services faithfully performed, assumed his earldom.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Bequeathing/will-making (6)
 Dispute concerning land in Beds.: Clapham, Kempstone, Cardington, and Cranfield, Beds., were bequeathed to Ramsey abbey by Æthelwine 49 the Black, claimed after his death by his kinsman Ælfric 113, son of Wihtgar 9, and recovered by Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, on payment of money to King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3, in proceedings which took place after his return from the Council of Rheims in 1049 (also attended by Duduc 6, bishop of Wells, and by Wulfric 67, abbot of St Augustine’s, Canterbury).: Ramsey.Liber Benefactorum  pp. 169-71, 198 ( x 1049)
 Eadgyth 3.disputing with Peterborough: Leofgifu 3 bequeathed land at Fiskerton, Lincs. to Peterborough 1. Later this land was claimed by Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 Edward 15.last words: [Edward 15] addressed his last words to the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting at his feet, in this wise: 'May God be gracious to this my wife for the zealous solicitude of her service. For certainly she has served me devotedly, and has always stood close to my side like a beloved daughter. And so from the forgiving God may she obtain the reward of eternal happiness.' And stretching forth his hand to his governor, her brother, Harold 3, he said: 'I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your protection. Serve and honour her with faithful obedience as your lady and sister, which she is, and do not despoil her, as long as she lives, of any due honour got from me. Likewise, I also commend those men who have left their native land for love of me, and have up till now served me faithfully. Take from them an oath of fealty, if they should so with, and protect and retain them, or send them with your safe conduct safely across the Channel to their own homes with all that they have acquired in my service. Let the grave for my burial be prepared in the minster in the place which shall be assigned to you. I ask that you do not conceal my death, but announce it promptly in all parts, so that all the faithful can beseech the mercy of Almighty God on me, a sinner'. Now and then he also comforted the queen, who ceased not from lamenting, to ease her natural grief.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1059 - Edward 15 confirming agreement for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of an agreement concerning land at Scotton, Scotter and Manton, Lincs., acquired by the monk Brand 5 leased Scotton and Scotter to Asketil 2 for an annual money-payment. In return for a life tenure on Manton, Asketil 2 undertook to bequeath an estate at Thorp (Ravensthorpe) to Brand 5.: S1059    (1061 x 1066)
 S1154 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Winchester, Old Minster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has bequeathed Portland, Dorset, and everything belonging thereto to the Old Minster at Winchester.: S1154    (1053 x 1066)
Building construction/restoration (1)
 Eadgyth 3.building of the church in Wilton: The queen [Eadgyth 3] was drawn to emulate the [building project of Edward 15 in Westminster]. She instantly imitated the king's love with her own, and demonstrated her own heart's devotion for the holy church in he place of her up-bringing. For at Wilton at that time, although there was a convent of the maidens of Christ, a choir, too, of the greatest antiquity, and her namesake saint, adequately housed, was worshipped there - Eadgyth 4, from whose stock King Edward 15 himself was descended - the church was still of wood. Benignly she planned this [rebuilding] herself and began here royally to build a monastery in stone. Impetuously she urged the workmen to make haste. The prudent queen's building, because it was more modestly planned [than that in Westminster], was completed more quickly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Burh - building (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Burh - capture (1)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Burial (2)
 Eadgyth 3.burial at Westminster: Eadgyth 3 was buried at Westminster.: Bates139    (1075)
 Edward 15-Eadgyth 3.burial at Westminster, St Peter's: King Edward 15 and Eadgyth 3 were buried at St Peter's, Westminster.: Bates324    (1066 x 1075)
Burning (2)
 Eadgyth 3.dedication of the church in Wilton: In having a speedy dedication [of the new church in Wilton] performed the woman blessed by God [i.e. Eadgyth 3] would suffer no delay. Indeed, she warned in advance Herman 2, the famous and well-educated bishop of the diocese [of Wiltshire], for this task, and prepared most earnestly all the things that would be required on the appointment day for the ceremony. However, a short time before the appointed day, devil set fire to the town, and all that had been prepared there, together with almost all the houses, except for this church, was burned in one vast conflagration. But this did not affright this faithful woman's mind, nor did it deter her from completing the divine project she had planned. She made haste with other preparations of even greater splendour, and, with a multitude of bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks and a concourse of all the faithful, she devoutly performed the ceremony of dedication. The consecration of this church in honour of St Benedict [was] performed in the year 1065.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6-7 (1065)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Campaigning (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Charter confirmation (1)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Charter-witnessing (32)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1007 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 8 hides (mansae) at Hinton Ampner, Hants..: S1007    (1045)
 S1008 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 7 hides (cassati) at Millbrook, Hants..: S1008    (1045)
 S1009 - Edward 15 granting land to Godwine 51: King Edward 15 to Godwine 51, dux; grant of 7 hides (cassati) at Millbrook, Hants.: S1009    (1045)
 S1010 - Edward 15 granting land to Thured 2: King Edward to Thured 2 [Ðorð], his minister; grant of 2.5 hides (mansae) at Ditchampton, Wilts..: S1010    (1045)
 S1011 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Second Charter; confirmation of privileges. : S1011    (1045)
 S1012 - Edward 15 granting land to Winchester, Old Minster: King Edward 15 to Old Minster, Winchester; grant of 8 hides (cassati) at South Stoneham, Hants..: S1012    (1045)
 S1013 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 6 hides (mansae) at Hoddington, Hants..: S1013    (1046)
 S1016 - Edward 15 granting land to Winchester, Old Minster: King Edward 15 to Old Minster, Winchester; grant of land at Bransbury, Hants., and at Forde and Hertone saci.: S1016    (1046)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1040 - Edward 15 confirming and granting privileges to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; confirmation and grant of privileges and confirmation of land.: S1040    (1065)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1043 - Edward 15 confirming privileges and lands of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, First Charter; confirmation of privileges and of lands.: S1043    (1066)
 S1055 - Edward 15 confirming land of St Benedict of Holme: King Edward 15 to the church of St Benedict (of Holme); confirmation of land at Horning, Neatishead, Hoveton, Belaugh, South Walsham, Worstead, Honing, Thurgarton, Thwaite, Calthorpe, Tottington, Erpingham, Antingham, North Walsham, Swanton Abbot, Scotton, Lamas, Easton, Hautbois, Ludham, Beeston St Lawrence, Stalham, Waxham, Winterton, Somerton, Thurn, Ashby, Rollesby, Caister-by-Yarmouth, Reedham, Norton Subcourse, Woodbastwick, Ranworth, Shotesham, Grenvills in Stoke Holy Cross, Tibenham, Norfolk. : S1055    (1044 x 1047)
 S1059 - Edward 15 confirming agreement for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of an agreement concerning land at Scotton, Scotter and Manton, Lincs., acquired by the monk Brand 5 leased Scotton and Scotter to Asketil 2 for an annual money-payment. In return for a life tenure on Manton, Asketil 2 undertook to bequeath an estate at Thorp (Ravensthorpe) to Brand 5.: S1059    (1061 x 1066)
 S1235 - witnessing Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6 granting land to Ramsey: Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6, his wife, to Abbot Leofstan 31 and St Albans Abbey, with the consent of King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3; grant of 1 pound and of land at Studham, Beds., the donors retaining a life interest, in return for admission into confraternity with the abbey. : S1235    (1053 x 1066)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
 S1408 - Ealdred 37 granting land to Worcester, St Mary's: Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, to the brethren of St Mary's, Worcester; grant of 3 hides at Teddington and Alstone, Gloucs., and a messuage (curtis) in Worcester.: S1408    (1051 x 1056)
 S1426 - Ælfwig 23 leasing land to Stigand 1: Ælfwig 23, abbot, and the community at Bath, to Stigand 1, archbishop; lease, for life, of 30 hides at Tidenham, Gloucs., in return for 10 marks of gold and 20 pounds of silver, with reversion to the abbey. The lessee is to pay an annual render of one mark of gold, 6 porpoises and thirty thousand herring. : S1426    (1061 x 1065)
 S1475 - witnessing Æthelwine 48 and Ordric 5 granting land to Worcester: Declaration that Æthelwine 48, dean of Worcester, and Ordric 5, his brother, purchased 3 hides (cassati) at Condicote, Gloucs., and restored it to the monastery at Worcester. : S1475    (1051 x 1053)
 S1478 - agreement between Wulfwig 10, Leofric 49 and Godgifu 2: Agreement between Bishop Wulfwig 10, and Earl Leofric 49 and Godgifu 2, his wife, concerning the endowment of a monastery at Stowe St Mary, Lincs..: S1478    (1053 x 1055)
 S1479 - Ælfgar 46 declaring Ordwig 2's grant to Evesham: Declaration by Ælfgar 46, dux, that Ordwig 2, father of Abbot Æthelwig 15, gave to Evesham Abbey land at Acton Beauchamp, Herefords., and at Dorsington, Warwicks..: S1479    (1058 x 1062)
 S1480 - Ealdred 37 granting land to Worcester, St Mary's: Declaration that Ealdred 37, archbishop, has purchased 10 hides (cassati) at Hampnett, Gloucs., and granted it to St Mary's, Worcester.: S1480    (1062 x 1066)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Church-adornment (1)
 Eadgyth 3.building of the church in Wilton: The queen [Eadgyth 3] was drawn to emulate the [building project of Edward 15 in Westminster]. She instantly imitated the king's love with her own, and demonstrated her own heart's devotion for the holy church in he place of her up-bringing. For at Wilton at that time, although there was a convent of the maidens of Christ, a choir, too, of the greatest antiquity, and her namesake saint, adequately housed, was worshipped there - Eadgyth 4, from whose stock King Edward 15 himself was descended - the church was still of wood. Benignly she planned this [rebuilding] herself and began here royally to build a monastery in stone. Impetuously she urged the workmen to make haste. The prudent queen's building, because it was more modestly planned [than that in Westminster], was completed more quickly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Church-going (1)
 Edward 15.final illness: As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 (1065 - 1066)
Church/monastery/minster foundation/dedication/restoration (4)
 Eadgyth 3.building of the church in Wilton: The queen [Eadgyth 3] was drawn to emulate the [building project of Edward 15 in Westminster]. She instantly imitated the king's love with her own, and demonstrated her own heart's devotion for the holy church in he place of her up-bringing. For at Wilton at that time, although there was a convent of the maidens of Christ, a choir, too, of the greatest antiquity, and her namesake saint, adequately housed, was worshipped there - Eadgyth 4, from whose stock King Edward 15 himself was descended - the church was still of wood. Benignly she planned this [rebuilding] herself and began here royally to build a monastery in stone. Impetuously she urged the workmen to make haste. The prudent queen's building, because it was more modestly planned [than that in Westminster], was completed more quickly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
 Eadgyth 3.dedication of the church in Wilton: In having a speedy dedication [of the new church in Wilton] performed the woman blessed by God [i.e. Eadgyth 3] would suffer no delay. Indeed, she warned in advance Herman 2, the famous and well-educated bishop of the diocese [of Wiltshire], for this task, and prepared most earnestly all the things that would be required on the appointment day for the ceremony. However, a short time before the appointed day, devil set fire to the town, and all that had been prepared there, together with almost all the houses, except for this church, was burned in one vast conflagration. But this did not affright this faithful woman's mind, nor did it deter her from completing the divine project she had planned. She made haste with other preparations of even greater splendour, and, with a multitude of bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks and a concourse of all the faithful, she devoutly performed the ceremony of dedication. The consecration of this church in honour of St Benedict [was] performed in the year 1065.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6-7 (1065)
 Edward 15.final illness: As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 (1065 - 1066)
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Commendation (1)
 Edward 15.last words: [Edward 15] addressed his last words to the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting at his feet, in this wise: 'May God be gracious to this my wife for the zealous solicitude of her service. For certainly she has served me devotedly, and has always stood close to my side like a beloved daughter. And so from the forgiving God may she obtain the reward of eternal happiness.' And stretching forth his hand to his governor, her brother, Harold 3, he said: 'I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your protection. Serve and honour her with faithful obedience as your lady and sister, which she is, and do not despoil her, as long as she lives, of any due honour got from me. Likewise, I also commend those men who have left their native land for love of me, and have up till now served me faithfully. Take from them an oath of fealty, if they should so with, and protect and retain them, or send them with your safe conduct safely across the Channel to their own homes with all that they have acquired in my service. Let the grave for my burial be prepared in the minster in the place which shall be assigned to you. I ask that you do not conceal my death, but announce it promptly in all parts, so that all the faithful can beseech the mercy of Almighty God on me, a sinner'. Now and then he also comforted the queen, who ceased not from lamenting, to ease her natural grief.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
Confirmation of land/privileges (12)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1011 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Second Charter; confirmation of privileges. : S1011    (1045)
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1040 - Edward 15 confirming and granting privileges to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; confirmation and grant of privileges and confirmation of land.: S1040    (1065)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1043 - Edward 15 confirming privileges and lands of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, First Charter; confirmation of privileges and of lands.: S1043    (1066)
 S1055 - Edward 15 confirming land of St Benedict of Holme: King Edward 15 to the church of St Benedict (of Holme); confirmation of land at Horning, Neatishead, Hoveton, Belaugh, South Walsham, Worstead, Honing, Thurgarton, Thwaite, Calthorpe, Tottington, Erpingham, Antingham, North Walsham, Swanton Abbot, Scotton, Lamas, Easton, Hautbois, Ludham, Beeston St Lawrence, Stalham, Waxham, Winterton, Somerton, Thurn, Ashby, Rollesby, Caister-by-Yarmouth, Reedham, Norton Subcourse, Woodbastwick, Ranworth, Shotesham, Grenvills in Stoke Holy Cross, Tibenham, Norfolk. : S1055    (1044 x 1047)
 S1059 - Edward 15 confirming agreement for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of an agreement concerning land at Scotton, Scotter and Manton, Lincs., acquired by the monk Brand 5 leased Scotton and Scotter to Asketil 2 for an annual money-payment. In return for a life tenure on Manton, Asketil 2 undertook to bequeath an estate at Thorp (Ravensthorpe) to Brand 5.: S1059    (1061 x 1066)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Confiscation (2)
 Edward 15.confiscating the wealth of Eadgyth 3: The king [Edward 15] put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Confraternity (2)
 Oswulf 35-Æthelgyth 6.granting land to St Albans: Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6, his wife, to Abbot Leofstan 31 and St Albans Abbey, with the consent of King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3; grant of 1 pound and of land at Studham, Beds., the donors retaining a life interest, in return for admission into confraternity with the abbey.: S1235    (1053 x 1066)
 S1235 - witnessing Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6 granting land to Ramsey: Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6, his wife, to Abbot Leofstan 31 and St Albans Abbey, with the consent of King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3; grant of 1 pound and of land at Studham, Beds., the donors retaining a life interest, in return for admission into confraternity with the abbey. : S1235    (1053 x 1066)
Conquest (1)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Coronation (1)
 Eadgyth 3.marriage and coronation: From the wealth of both families the nuptial feast is provided; the bishops administer the sacrament, and the girl [Eadgyth 3] is blessed as wife and crowned as queen.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
Culting/venerating saint(s) (1)
 Eadgyth 3.building of the church in Wilton: The queen [Eadgyth 3] was drawn to emulate the [building project of Edward 15 in Westminster]. She instantly imitated the king's love with her own, and demonstrated her own heart's devotion for the holy church in he place of her up-bringing. For at Wilton at that time, although there was a convent of the maidens of Christ, a choir, too, of the greatest antiquity, and her namesake saint, adequately housed, was worshipped there - Eadgyth 4, from whose stock King Edward 15 himself was descended - the church was still of wood. Benignly she planned this [rebuilding] herself and began here royally to build a monastery in stone. Impetuously she urged the workmen to make haste. The prudent queen's building, because it was more modestly planned [than that in Westminster], was completed more quickly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Death/dying (4)
 Eadgyth 3.burial at Westminster: And the lady Eadgyth 3, who was King Edward 15’s widow, died at Winchester a week before Christmas, and the king had her brought to Westminster with great honour, and laid her near King Edward 15, her husband. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076 (1075)
 Eadgyth 3.death: MS D: The lady Eadgyth 3, who was King Edward 15's widow, died at Winchester a week before Christmas.

MS E: The lady Eadgyth 3 died at Winchester a week before Christmas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
 Edward 15.last words: [Edward 15] addressed his last words to the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting at his feet, in this wise: 'May God be gracious to this my wife for the zealous solicitude of her service. For certainly she has served me devotedly, and has always stood close to my side like a beloved daughter. And so from the forgiving God may she obtain the reward of eternal happiness.' And stretching forth his hand to his governor, her brother, Harold 3, he said: 'I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your protection. Serve and honour her with faithful obedience as your lady and sister, which she is, and do not despoil her, as long as she lives, of any due honour got from me. Likewise, I also commend those men who have left their native land for love of me, and have up till now served me faithfully. Take from them an oath of fealty, if they should so with, and protect and retain them, or send them with your safe conduct safely across the Channel to their own homes with all that they have acquired in my service. Let the grave for my burial be prepared in the minster in the place which shall be assigned to you. I ask that you do not conceal my death, but announce it promptly in all parts, so that all the faithful can beseech the mercy of Almighty God on me, a sinner'. Now and then he also comforted the queen, who ceased not from lamenting, to ease her natural grief.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Decision-making (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Defence (2)
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Deposition of archbishop (1)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Desertion, of see (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Disbandment of fierd (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Disputing/dispute-settling (2)
 Dispute concerning land in Beds.: Clapham, Kempstone, Cardington, and Cranfield, Beds., were bequeathed to Ramsey abbey by Æthelwine 49 the Black, claimed after his death by his kinsman Ælfric 113, son of Wihtgar 9, and recovered by Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, on payment of money to King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3, in proceedings which took place after his return from the Council of Rheims in 1049 (also attended by Duduc 6, bishop of Wells, and by Wulfric 67, abbot of St Augustine’s, Canterbury).: Ramsey.Liber Benefactorum  pp. 169-71, 198 ( x 1049)
 Eadgyth 3.disputing with Peterborough: Leofgifu 3 bequeathed land at Fiskerton, Lincs. to Peterborough 1. Later this land was claimed by Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
Dreaming/seeing vision/revelation (1)
 Edward 15.deathbed vision: On his deathbed Edward 15 had a vision of two monks, whom he used to know in Normandy as a young man, who foretold that God would deliver the kingdom of England into the hands of the enemy in a year for the sins of the earls, bishops, abbots and monks. When those who were present had heard these words - that is to say, the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting on the floor warming his feet in her lap, her full brother, Earl Harold 3, and Robert 14, the steward of the royal palace and a kinsman of the king, also Archbishop Stigand 1 and a few more whom the blessed king when roused from sleep had ordered to be summoned - they all were sore afraid. And while all were stupefied and silent from the effect of terror, the archbishop himself, who ought to have been the first either to be afraid or to give a word of advice, with folly at heart whispered in the ear of the earl [Harold 3] that the king was broken with age and disease and knew not what he said. But the queen, and those who had been wont to know and fear God in their hearts, all pondered deeply the words they had heard, and understood them quite otherwise, and correctly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
Embassy (3)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Exile (2)
 Eadgyth 3.being taken to Wherwell: Once her father and brothers had been driven from England, Eadgyth 3 was taken to Wherwell and entrusted to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Feasting/banqueting (2)
 Eadgyth 3.marriage and coronation: From the wealth of both families the nuptial feast is provided; the bishops administer the sacrament, and the girl [Eadgyth 3] is blessed as wife and crowned as queen.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 Edward 15.final illness: As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 (1065 - 1066)
Flight (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Forfeiture (1)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Governing (1)
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Grant and Gift (31)
 Eadgyth 3.granting land to Giso 1: Queen Eadgyth 3 to Bishop Giso 1; grant of Milverton, Somerset.: S1240    (1061 x 1066)
 Eadgyth 3.granting land to Westminster, St Peter's: Eadgyth 3 granted St Peter’s, Westminster, 40 acres of arable land with King William 1’s agreement.: Bates324    (1066 x 1075)
 Edward 15-Eadgyth 3.kindness to the poor: [Edward 15] stooped with great mercy to the poor and infirm, and fully maintained many of these not only daily in his royal court but also at many places in his kingdom. His royal consort [Eadgyth 3] did not restrain him in those good works in which he prepared to lead the way, but rather urged speedier progress, and often enough seemed even to lead the way herself. For while he would give now and then, she was prodigal, but aimed her bounty to such good purpose as to consider the highest honour of the king as well.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
 Edward 15.granting land to Westminster: King Edward 15 to Westminster; grant of land at Staines, Middx.; Windsor, Berks.; Wheathampstead, Stevenage, Ashwell, Herts.; Deene, Sudborough, Northants.; Islip, Launton, Oxon.; Perton, Staffs.; Rutland [after the death of Queen Eadgyth 3]; Pershore, Worcs.; and Deerhurst, Gloucs..: S1040    (1065)
 Edward 15.granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1, grant of land at Launton, Islip, Oxon.; Staines, Middx; Windsor, Berks.; Wheathampstead, Herts.; Stevenage, Ashwell, Herts.; Deene, Sudborough, Northants.; Perton, Staffs.; Rutland [after the death of Queen Eadgyth 3]; Pershore, Worcs.; and Deerhurst, Gloucs..: S1043    (1066)
 Oswulf 35-Æthelgyth 6.granting land to St Albans: Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6, his wife, to Abbot Leofstan 31 and St Albans Abbey, with the consent of King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3; grant of 1 pound and of land at Studham, Beds., the donors retaining a life interest, in return for admission into confraternity with the abbey.: S1235    (1053 x 1066)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1007 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 8 hides (mansae) at Hinton Ampner, Hants..: S1007    (1045)
 S1008 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 7 hides (cassati) at Millbrook, Hants..: S1008    (1045)
 S1009 - Edward 15 granting land to Godwine 51: King Edward 15 to Godwine 51, dux; grant of 7 hides (cassati) at Millbrook, Hants.: S1009    (1045)
 S1010 - Edward 15 granting land to Thured 2: King Edward to Thured 2 [Ðorð], his minister; grant of 2.5 hides (mansae) at Ditchampton, Wilts..: S1010    (1045)
 S1012 - Edward 15 granting land to Winchester, Old Minster: King Edward 15 to Old Minster, Winchester; grant of 8 hides (cassati) at South Stoneham, Hants..: S1012    (1045)
 S1013 - Edward 15 granting land to Ælfwine 45: King Edward 15 to Ælfwine 45, bishop of Winchester; grant of 6 hides (mansae) at Hoddington, Hants..: S1013    (1046)
 S1016 - Edward 15 granting land to Winchester, Old Minster: King Edward 15 to Old Minster, Winchester; grant of land at Bransbury, Hants., and at Forde and Hertone saci.: S1016    (1046)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1109 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Ramsey Abbey judicial and financial rights and shipwreck and what is cast up by the sea at Brancaster and Ringstead, the soke within Bichamdic (cf. S 1108), the market at Downham, Norfolk, and judicial and financial rights in every shire in which St Benedict of Ramsey has land.: S1109    (1042 x 1066)
 S1138 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Westminster and Eadgyth 3: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given Rutland to Westminster Abbey and Queen Eadgyth 3 is to have it for her lifetime. : S1138    (1053 x 1066)
 S1235 - witnessing Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6 granting land to Ramsey: Oswulf 35 and Æthelgyth 6, his wife, to Abbot Leofstan 31 and St Albans Abbey, with the consent of King Edward 15 and Queen Eadgyth 3; grant of 1 pound and of land at Studham, Beds., the donors retaining a life interest, in return for admission into confraternity with the abbey. : S1235    (1053 x 1066)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
 S1240 - writ of Eadgyth 3 in favour of Giso 1: Writ of Queen Eadgyth 3 declaring that Bishop Giso 1 is to have the land at Milverton, Somerset, as fully and completely as she herself possessed it.: S1240    (1061 x 1066)
 S1241 - writ of Eadgyth 3 in favour of Giso 1: Writ of Queen Eadgyth 3, declaring that she has given to Bishop Giso 1 for his canons at St Andrew's, Wells, the land at Mark, Somerset. She requests a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
 S1408 - Ealdred 37 granting land to Worcester, St Mary's: Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, to the brethren of St Mary's, Worcester; grant of 3 hides at Teddington and Alstone, Gloucs., and a messuage (curtis) in Worcester.: S1408    (1051 x 1056)
 S1475 - witnessing Æthelwine 48 and Ordric 5 granting land to Worcester: Declaration that Æthelwine 48, dean of Worcester, and Ordric 5, his brother, purchased 3 hides (cassati) at Condicote, Gloucs., and restored it to the monastery at Worcester. : S1475    (1051 x 1053)
 S1479 - Ælfgar 46 declaring Ordwig 2's grant to Evesham: Declaration by Ælfgar 46, dux, that Ordwig 2, father of Abbot Æthelwig 15, gave to Evesham Abbey land at Acton Beauchamp, Herefords., and at Dorsington, Warwicks..: S1479    (1058 x 1062)
 S1480 - Ealdred 37 granting land to Worcester, St Mary's: Declaration that Ealdred 37, archbishop, has purchased 10 hides (cassati) at Hampnett, Gloucs., and granted it to St Mary's, Worcester.: S1480    (1062 x 1066)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Horse-using/giving/acquisition/riding (3)
 Eadgyth 3.leasing land and ?horses to Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 entrusted her horses to Wudemann 2. He was subsequently accused of having not paid rent for 6 years.: S1241    (? - 1066 x 1075)
 Eadgyth 3.requesting Giso 1 for judgement on Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 requests from Giso 1 a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
 S1241 - writ of Eadgyth 3 in favour of Giso 1: Writ of Queen Eadgyth 3, declaring that she has given to Bishop Giso 1 for his canons at St Andrew's, Wells, the land at Mark, Somerset. She requests a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
Hostage-giving/taking (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Hostility (4)
 Eadgyth 3.separation from Edward 15: In order that not a single member of the earl's [Godwine 51] family should remain at king [Edward 15's] side, Robert 5 used every device to secure that even the queen [Eadgyth 3] herself, the earl's daughter, should be separated from the king, against the law of the Christian religion. Although the king did not reject this scheme, he nevertheless curbed the divorce proceedings, alleging the honourable pretext that she was to wait the subsidence of the storms over the kingdom in the monastery of Wilton, where she had been brought up. And so, with royal honours and an imperial retinue, but with grief in heart, she was brought to the walls of Wilton convent, where for almost a year in prayer and tears she awaited the day of salvation. Such grief deeply moved and wounded the crowd of courtiers, for she was in all the royal counsels.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Illness/demonic seizure/madness (2)
 Edward 15.final illness: As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 (1065 - 1066)
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Imprisonment (2)
 Eadgyth 3.being taken to Wherwell: Once her father and brothers had been driven from England, Eadgyth 3 was taken to Wherwell and entrusted to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Injury and wounding (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Intercession/mediation (1)
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Invitation (1)
 Eadgyth 3.wished William 1 to rule over the English: Eadgyth 3 wished William 1 to rule over the English on account of her husband King Edward 15's choice.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
Journey (4)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Killing/murder (6)
 Edward 15.marriage to Eadgyth 3: Edward 15 fearing harm from the power of such a great man [as Godwine 51], of from his usual guile, consulted the Normans whose loyal support strengthened him. He willingly forgave Godwine 51 the shameful murder of his brother Alfred 54, and in order to maintain a perpetually strong and affectionate bond between them, he married Godwine 51's daughter Edith (Eadgyth 3), if only in name. It is said that actually both always remained virgin.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Lease (3)
 Eadgyth 3.leasing land and ?horses to Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 entrusted her horses to Wudemann 2. He was subsequently accused of having not paid rent for 6 years.: S1241    (? - 1066 x 1075)
 S1059 - Edward 15 confirming agreement for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of an agreement concerning land at Scotton, Scotter and Manton, Lincs., acquired by the monk Brand 5 leased Scotton and Scotter to Asketil 2 for an annual money-payment. In return for a life tenure on Manton, Asketil 2 undertook to bequeath an estate at Thorp (Ravensthorpe) to Brand 5.: S1059    (1061 x 1066)
 S1426 - Ælfwig 23 leasing land to Stigand 1: Ælfwig 23, abbot, and the community at Bath, to Stigand 1, archbishop; lease, for life, of 30 hides at Tidenham, Gloucs., in return for 10 marks of gold and 20 pounds of silver, with reversion to the abbey. The lessee is to pay an annual render of one mark of gold, 6 porpoises and thirty thousand herring. : S1426    (1061 x 1065)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (5)
 Eadgyth 3.being taken to Wherwell: Once her father and brothers had been driven from England, Eadgyth 3 was taken to Wherwell and entrusted to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Eadgyth 3.separation from Edward 15: In order that not a single member of the earl's [Godwine 51] family should remain at king [Edward 15's] side, Robert 5 used every device to secure that even the queen [Eadgyth 3] herself, the earl's daughter, should be separated from the king, against the law of the Christian religion. Although the king did not reject this scheme, he nevertheless curbed the divorce proceedings, alleging the honourable pretext that she was to wait the subsidence of the storms over the kingdom in the monastery of Wilton, where she had been brought up. And so, with royal honours and an imperial retinue, but with grief in heart, she was brought to the walls of Wilton convent, where for almost a year in prayer and tears she awaited the day of salvation. Such grief deeply moved and wounded the crowd of courtiers, for she was in all the royal counsels.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Edward 15.confiscating the wealth of Eadgyth 3: The king [Edward 15] put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Marriage (5)
 Eadgyth 3.marriage to Edward 15: Christ prepared Eadgyth 3, making her a suitable bride for Edward 15.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 Edward 15.marriage to Eadgyth 3: Edward 15 fearing harm from the power of such a great man [as Godwine 51], of from his usual guile, consulted the Normans whose loyal support strengthened him. He willingly forgave Godwine 51 the shameful murder of his brother Alfred 54, and in order to maintain a perpetually strong and affectionate bond between them, he married Godwine 51's daughter Edith (Eadgyth 3), if only in name. It is said that actually both always remained virgin.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)
 Edward 15.marrying Eadgyth 3: King Edward 15 married Eadgyth 3, daughter of Earl Godwine 51, ten nights before Candlemas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1044; E 1043 (1044)
 Edward 15.reasons for marrying Eadgyth 3: Edward 15 agreed all the more readily to contract this marriage [to Eadgyth 3] because he knew that with the advice and help of that Godwine 51 he would have a firmer hold on his hereditary rights in England.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Martyrdom (1)
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Medical treatment/sick-care/cautery (1)
 Edward 15.deathbed vision: On his deathbed Edward 15 had a vision of two monks, whom he used to know in Normandy as a young man, who foretold that God would deliver the kingdom of England into the hands of the enemy in a year for the sins of the earls, bishops, abbots and monks. When those who were present had heard these words - that is to say, the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting on the floor warming his feet in her lap, her full brother, Earl Harold 3, and Robert 14, the steward of the royal palace and a kinsman of the king, also Archbishop Stigand 1 and a few more whom the blessed king when roused from sleep had ordered to be summoned - they all were sore afraid. And while all were stupefied and silent from the effect of terror, the archbishop himself, who ought to have been the first either to be afraid or to give a word of advice, with folly at heart whispered in the ear of the earl [Harold 3] that the king was broken with age and disease and knew not what he said. But the queen, and those who had been wont to know and fear God in their hearts, all pondered deeply the words they had heard, and understood them quite otherwise, and correctly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
Meeting (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Message-sending (1)
 Edward 15.final illness: As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 (1065 - 1066)
Military strategy (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Monastic reform (1)
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Oath-swearing/fealty (2)
 Edward 15.last words: [Edward 15] addressed his last words to the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting at his feet, in this wise: 'May God be gracious to this my wife for the zealous solicitude of her service. For certainly she has served me devotedly, and has always stood close to my side like a beloved daughter. And so from the forgiving God may she obtain the reward of eternal happiness.' And stretching forth his hand to his governor, her brother, Harold 3, he said: 'I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your protection. Serve and honour her with faithful obedience as your lady and sister, which she is, and do not despoil her, as long as she lives, of any due honour got from me. Likewise, I also commend those men who have left their native land for love of me, and have up till now served me faithfully. Take from them an oath of fealty, if they should so with, and protect and retain them, or send them with your safe conduct safely across the Channel to their own homes with all that they have acquired in my service. Let the grave for my burial be prepared in the minster in the place which shall be assigned to you. I ask that you do not conceal my death, but announce it promptly in all parts, so that all the faithful can beseech the mercy of Almighty God on me, a sinner'. Now and then he also comforted the queen, who ceased not from lamenting, to ease her natural grief.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 Stigand 1.deposition: William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8
Ordering (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Outlawing (4)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Overwintering (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Patronage (2)
 Eadgyth 3.wished William 1 to rule over the English: Eadgyth 3 wished William 1 to rule over the English on account of her husband King Edward 15's choice.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Peace agreement (2)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Policy decision (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Praying (2)
 Eadgyth 3.opposing Tosti 2 with prayers and counsel: Eadgyth 3, unable to take up arms against Tosti 2, fought him with prayers and counsel.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Property-buying/purchasing (3)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1475 - witnessing Æthelwine 48 and Ordric 5 granting land to Worcester: Declaration that Æthelwine 48, dean of Worcester, and Ordric 5, his brother, purchased 3 hides (cassati) at Condicote, Gloucs., and restored it to the monastery at Worcester. : S1475    (1051 x 1053)
 S1480 - Ealdred 37 granting land to Worcester, St Mary's: Declaration that Ealdred 37, archbishop, has purchased 10 hides (cassati) at Hampnett, Gloucs., and granted it to St Mary's, Worcester.: S1480    (1062 x 1066)
Property-exchanging (2)
 Alfred 59.selling land to Giso 1: Alfred 59 sold Litton, Somerset, to Bishop Giso 1.: S1116    (1061 x 1065)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Property-giving/selling (1)
 Alfred 59.selling land to Giso 1: Alfred 59 sold Litton, Somerset, to Bishop Giso 1.: S1116    (1061 x 1065)
Prophecy (2)
 Edward 15.deathbed vision: On his deathbed Edward 15 had a vision of two monks, whom he used to know in Normandy as a young man, who foretold that God would deliver the kingdom of England into the hands of the enemy in a year for the sins of the earls, bishops, abbots and monks. When those who were present had heard these words - that is to say, the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting on the floor warming his feet in her lap, her full brother, Earl Harold 3, and Robert 14, the steward of the royal palace and a kinsman of the king, also Archbishop Stigand 1 and a few more whom the blessed king when roused from sleep had ordered to be summoned - they all were sore afraid. And while all were stupefied and silent from the effect of terror, the archbishop himself, who ought to have been the first either to be afraid or to give a word of advice, with folly at heart whispered in the ear of the earl [Harold 3] that the king was broken with age and disease and knew not what he said. But the queen, and those who had been wont to know and fear God in their hearts, all pondered deeply the words they had heard, and understood them quite otherwise, and correctly.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11
 William 15.murders: William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132
Provisioning (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Pursuit, military (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Raiding (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Rebellion/sedition (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Reconciliation (2)
 Eadgyth 3.reunion with Edward 15: [Eadgyth 3] was sent for with royal pomp to the monastery of Wilton and the queen, that earl [Godwine 51's] daughter, was brought back to the king [Edward 15's] bed-chamber.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Refusal (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Reporting (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Request (1)
 Eadgyth 3.requesting Giso 1 for judgement on Wudemann 2: Eadgyth 3 requests from Giso 1 a judgement on Wudemann 2, to whom she entrusted her horses and who has withheld rent for six years.: S1241    (1066 x 1075)
Residence (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1’s men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmen’s fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3’s province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the king’s men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the king’s council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 days’ safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4’s protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that king’s protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Restoration of land/property (6)
 Eadgyth 3.reunion with Edward 15: [Eadgyth 3] was sent for with royal pomp to the monastery of Wilton and the queen, that earl [Godwine 51's] daughter, was brought back to the king [Edward 15's] bed-chamber.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 S1238 - Ælfgar 46 restoring land to Æthelwig 15: Ælfgar 46, dux, to Æthelwig 15, abbot of Evesham; restitution of 7 hides at Daylesford, Gloucs., in return for 6 marks of gold. : S1238    (1061 x 1065)
 S1475 - witnessing Æthelwine 48 and Ordric 5 granting land to Worcester: Declaration that Æthelwine 48, dean of Worcester, and Ordric 5, his brother, purchased 3 hides (cassati) at Condicote, Gloucs., and restored it to the monastery at Worcester. : S1475    (1051 x 1053)
Restoration to bishopric (1)
 Herman 2.ecclesiastical career: Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11
Restoration to office (4)
 Eadgyth 3.reunion with Edward 15: [Eadgyth 3] was sent for with royal pomp to the monastery of Wilton and the queen, that earl [Godwine 51's] daughter, was brought back to the king [Edward 15's] bed-chamber.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. An