Tosti 2 (Male) Earl; son of Godwine 51, d. 1066
l xi

Factoid List

Recorded Name (95)
Tosstig (1)
 S1426   
Tosti (75)
 S1003   
 S1019   
 S1020   
 S1022   
 S1025   
 S1031   
 S1037a   
 S1038   
 S1055   
 S1160   
 S1110   
 S1407   
 GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:47)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 47:3)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:33)
 GDB  214 (Bedfordshire 24:14)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:29)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 44:1)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:30)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:32)
 GDB  217 (Bedfordshire 53:2)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:3)
 GDB  218v (Bedfordshire 57:2)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:16)
 GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:2)
 GDB  60 (Berkshire 20:2)
 GDB  152 (Buckinghamshire 43:3)
 GDB  145v (Buckinghamshire 6:2)
 GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 15:2)
 GDB  145v (Buckinghamshire 6:1)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:4)
 GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 13:4)
 GDB  143v (Buckinghamshire 2:1)
 GDB  148v (Buckinghamshire 17:7)
 GDB  144 (Buckinghamshire 4:5)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:9)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 38:2)
 GDB  166v (Gloucestershire 26:2)
 GDB  168v (Gloucestershire 55:1)
 GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:3)
 GDB  50v (Hampshire NF10:3)
 GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:1)
 GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:2)
 GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:5)
 GDB  53v (Hampshire IoW7:22)
 GDB  39 (Hampshire 1:29)
 GDB  39v (Hampshire 1:W10)
 GDB  47 (Hampshire 31:1)
 GDB  39 (Hampshire 1:30)
 GDB  53v (Hampshire IoW9:2)
 GDB  48 (Hampshire 45:1)
 GDB  205v (Huntingdonshire 10:1)
 GDB  206v (Huntingdonshire 20:5)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 49:1)
 GDB  226v (Northamptonshire 41:2)
 GDB  225 (Northamptonshire 25:1)
 GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:12)
 GDB  286 (Nottinghamshire 9:97)
 GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:9)
 GDB  280 (Nottinghamshire B:2)
 GDB  157v (Oxfordshire 20:5)
 GDB  86v (Somerset 1:17)
 GDB  24 (Sussex 11:39)
 GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:11)
 GDB  71v (Wiltshire 31:1)
 GDB  332 (Yorkshire 30W:40)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:1)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:3)
 GDB  332 (Yorkshire 30W:37)
 GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:2)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:5)
 GDB  307v (Yorkshire 5W:8)
 GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:6)
 GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:1)
 GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:3)
Tosticus (1)
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(32)
Tostig (10)
 S787   
 S1017   
 S1023   
 S1027   
 S1028   
 S1033   
 S1034   
 S1042   
 S1238   
 S1236   
Tostinus (5)
 S1060   
 S1026   
 S1029   
 S1036   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Tostius (2)
 Bates115   
 LDB  200v (Norfolk 10:83)
tosti (1)
 S1021   
Personal Information (4)
moral (1)
 WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8 (Tosti 2 was unlike his sister [Eadgyth 3] in morals: he was soiled with lasciviousness, a cruel murderer, resplendent with plundered riches, and enemy of the good and the just. )
reputation (3)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (Tosti 2 was a man of courage and endowed with great wisdom and shrewdness of mind.)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (Earl Tosti 2 was endowed with very great and prudent restraint - although occasionally he was a little over-zealous in attacking evil - and with bold and inflexible constancy of mind. He would first ponder much and by himself the plans in his mind, and when he had ascertained by an appreciation of the matter the final issue, he would set them in order; and these he would not readily share with anyone. Also, sometimes he was so cautiously active that his action seemed to come before his planning; and this often enough was advantageous to him in the theatre of the world. When he gave, he was lavish with liberal bounty, and, urged by his religious wife [Judith 2], it was done more frequently in honour of Christ that for any fickle favour of men. In his word, deed, or promise he was distinguished by adamantine steadfastness. He renounced desire for all women except his wife Judith 2 of royal stock, and chastely, with restraint, and wisely he governed the use of his body and tongue. )
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (Both [Harols 3] and [Tosti 2] had the advantage of distinctly handsome and graceful persons, similar in strength; and both were equally brave. Both persevered with what they had begun; but Tosti 2 vigorously, Harold 3 prudently; the one in action aimed at success, the other also at happiness. Both at times so cleverly disguised their intentions that one who did not know them was in doubt what to think. And to sum up their characters, no age and no province has reared two mortals of such worth at the same time. )
Office (36)
Comes (5)
 S1060   
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(32)
 S1036   
 S1160   
 SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383
Deputy (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Dux (16)
 S1000   
 S1002   
 S1026   
 S1027   
 S1028   
 S1029   
 S1031   
 S1033   
 S1034   
 S1038   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 S1042   
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
 S1055   
 S1238   
 S1236   
Eorl (8)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1055
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1063
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066
 Okasha64  i
 S1067   
 S1426   
 S1110   
Minister (5)
 S1017   
 S1020   
 S1022   
 S1023   
 S1025   
Princeps (1)
 S1029   
Status (2)
Noble (1)
 S1003   
Princeps (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Personal Relationship (43)
Tosti 2 Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (5)
 of Harold 3: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1046
 of Harold 3: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 of Eadgyth 3: S1029   
 of Harold 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 of Harold 3: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383
~ Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of Tosti 2 (2)
 Harold 3: of Tosti 2: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(34)
 Gyrth 1: of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Tosti 2 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (20)
 of Leodmær 1: GDB  213v (Bedfordshire 23:47)
 of Godwine 84: GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 47:3)
 of Azelin 1: GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:33)
 of Stori 1: GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 44:1)
 of Azelin 1: GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:32)
 of Leofsige 45: GDB  217 (Bedfordshire 53:2)
 of Almær 6: GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:3)
 of Oswig 15: GDB  218v (Bedfordshire 57:2)
 of Almær 6: GDB  216v (Bedfordshire 49:2)
 of Soting 1: GDB  152 (Buckinghamshire 43:3)
 of Blæcmann 2: GDB  145v (Buckinghamshire 6:2)
 of Edward 34: GDB  148 (Buckinghamshire 15:2)
 of Blæcmann 2: GDB  145v (Buckinghamshire 6:1)
 of Beorhtwine 21: GDB  148v (Buckinghamshire 17:7)
 of Thorkil 2: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:9)
 of Northmann 1: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 38:2)
 of Elaf 1: GDB  166v (Gloucestershire 26:2)
 of Siward 2: GDB  50v (Hampshire NF10:3)
 of reeve 1: GDB  53v (Hampshire IoW7:22)
 of Wulfflæd 10: GDB  39v (Hampshire 1:W10)
~ Lord (General relationship) of Tosti 2 (1)
 Edward 15: of Tosti 2: GDB  48 (Hampshire 45:1)
Tosti 2 Nutricius (General relationship) of ~ (1)
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
~ Predecessor (General relationship) of Tosti 2 (1)
 Siweard 11: of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
~ Sister (Consanguineal kinship) of Tosti 2 (3)
 Eadgyth 3: of Tosti 2: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Eadgyth 3: of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Eadgyth 3: of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Tosti 2 Son (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (3)
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051; D 1052
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1055
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
~ Son (Consanguineal kinship) of Tosti 2 (1)
 Gyrth 1: of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
~ Wife (Affinal kinship) of Tosti 2 (6)
 Judith 2: of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Judith 2: of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061
 Judith 2: of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; D 1064
 Judith 2: of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 Judith 2: of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Leofrun 7: of Tosti 2: S1137   
Possession (49)
 Land at Hembingbrough along with all the land at Brackenholme, Yorks, the church at Hembingbrough with everything belonging to it.: Bates115   
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides, 1.50 virgates in Cockayne Hatley, Bedfordshire (in 1066): GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:29)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Everton, Bedfordshire (in 1066): GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 virgates in Potton, Bedfordshire (in 1066): GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 14 hides in West Hanney, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  60 (Berkshire 20:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Fawley, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 14:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9 hides in Great and Little Brickhill, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  147 (Buckinghamshire 13:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 40 hides in Haddenham, Buckinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  143v (Buckinghamshire 2:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Eastleach Martin, Gloucestershire (in 1066): GDB  168v (Gloucestershire 55:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Afton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Brook, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Compton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 hides in Freshwater, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  52 (Hampshire IoW1:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 29 hides, 0.50 virgates in Holdenhurst, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  39 (Hampshire 1:29)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.50 hides in Polhampton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  47 (Hampshire 31:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 28 hides in Ringwood and Burley, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  39 (Hampshire 1:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Thorley, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  53v (Hampshire IoW9:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 hides in Winkton, Hampshire (in 1066): GDB  48 (Hampshire 45:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Buckworth, Huntingdonshire (in 1066): GDB  205v (Huntingdonshire 10:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Cotton, Huntingdonshire (in 1066): GDB  206v (Huntingdonshire 20:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4.50 hides in Gayton?, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 49:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides, 3 virgates in In Warden hundred, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  226v (Northamptonshire 41:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.20 hides in Potterspury, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  225 (Northamptonshire 25:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 bovates in Babworth and Odestorp and Ordsall, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:12)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates, 2.50 bovates in Bingham, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  286 (Nottinghamshire 9:97)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 bovates in Bothamstall, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 bovates in Elkesley, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:10)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6.70 bovates in Lound and Barnby Moor, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 11 bovates in Mattersey, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 bovates in Morton in Babworth and ?Little Babworth, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  280 (Nottinghamshire B:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  280 (Nottinghamshire B:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 bovates in Ranby, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:14)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 11 bovates in Ranby and Ordsall, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281 (Nottinghamshire 1:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10.50 hides in Stoke Lyne, Oxfordshire (in 1066): GDB  157v (Oxfordshire 20:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.50 hides in Winsford, Somerset (in 1066): GDB  86v (Somerset 1:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 hides in Fishbourne, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  24 (Sussex 11:39)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 34 hides in Corsham, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  65 (Wiltshire 1:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 hides in Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire (in 1066): GDB  71v (Wiltshire 31:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Beetham Westm., Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  332 (Yorkshire 30W:40)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Burstwick, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 carucates in Falsgrave, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Grindleton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  332 (Yorkshire 30W:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Halton Lancs., Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Hemingbrough, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Hexthorpe, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  307v (Yorkshire 5W:8)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Hougun ?Lancs., Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Preston Lancs., Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Whittington Lancs., Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  301v (Yorkshire 1L:3)
Event (78)
Absolution (1)
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Accusation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Advice/counsel (3)
 Eadgyth 3.opposing Tosti 2 with prayers and counsel: Eadgyth 3, unable to take up arms against Tosti 2, fought him with prayers and counsel.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Agreement (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Appointment of ealdorman (2)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.succession to earldom: Tosti 2 succeeded to the earldom that Siweard 11 had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CE 1055 (1055)
Appointment of eorl (4)
 Edward 15.giving earldom of Northumbria to Tosti 2: Upon the death of Siweard 11 king Edward 15 transferred the earldom of Northumbria to Tosti 2, brother of Harold 3.: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Tosti 2.assuming earldom: Tosti 2, with the aid of his friends, and especially, and deservedly, his brother, Earl Harold 3, and his sister queen [Eadgyth 3], and with no opposition from the king [Edward 15] because of innumerable services faithfully performed, assumed his earldom.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of archbishop (1)
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (3)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: MS D: In this year after Christmas Earl Harold 3 went from Gloucester to Rhuddlan, which belonged to Gruffudd 1, and there he burnt the residence and the ships and all the equipment which belonged to them; and he put him to flight. And then at Rogationtide Harold 3 went with ships from Bristol round Wales, and that people made peace and gave hostages. And Tosti 2 went against them with a large land force and they subdued the country. But in the same year in autumn King Gruffudd 1 was killed on 5 August by his own men because of the fight he fought against Earl Harold 3. He was king over all the Welsh, and his head was brought to Earl Harold 3, and Harold 3 brought it to the king, and the figurehead of his ship and the ornaments with it. And King Edward 15 entrusted the country to the two brothers of Gruffudd 1, Bleddyn 1 and Rhiwallon 1, and they swore oaths and gave hostages to the king and earl, promising that they would be faithful to him in everything, and be everywhere ready on water and on land, and likewise would pay such dues from that country as had been given before to any other king.

MS E: In this year Earl Harold 3 and his brother Earl Tosti 2 went into Wales with both a land force and a naval force and subdued the country. And that people gave hostages and surrendered, and then went out and killed their king, Gruffudd 1, and brought his head to Harold 3, who appointed another king for them.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1063 (1063)
Army-raising (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Assembly (4)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Assistance (3)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.assuming earldom: Tosti 2, with the aid of his friends, and especially, and deservedly, his brother, Earl Harold 3, and his sister queen [Eadgyth 3], and with no opposition from the king [Edward 15] because of innumerable services faithfully performed, assumed his earldom.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Battle (9)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge: Meanwhile, when the Normans invaded the kingdom which Harold 3 had seized, Harold 3 was involved in a war against his brother Tosti 2 in which he slew his own brother as well as King Harald 5 of Norway who had come in support of Tosti 2. Almost all the Norwegian forces were slain by the English during this battle. Thereafter Harold 3 victoriously returned to London, but soon an envoy arrived with the news on the Norman invasion. : WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(34)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Harald 5-Tosti 2.being killed at Stampford Bridge: MS C: Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English.

MS D: There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field.

MS E: And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him [Harald 5] and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Harold 3.battle with Tosti 2 and Harold 5: Who will write that Humber, vast and swollen with raging seas, where namesake kings [Harold 3 and Harold 5] had fought, has dyed the ocean waves for miles around with Viking gore? Report feels shame at such a crime. This murderous page will hardly please the queen their [Harold 3 and Tosti 2's] sister [Eadgyth 3].: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue
 Harold 3.killing Tosti 2: Harold 3 killed Tosti 2 in a battle and destroyed his huge army.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.10
Bequeathing/will-making (2)
 Eadgyth 3.disputing with Peterborough: Leofgifu 3 bequeathed land at Fiskerton, Lincs. to Peterborough 1. Later this land was claimed by Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
Betrayal/oath-breaking (1)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Blessing (1)
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Burh - building (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Burial (1)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Burning (6)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harald 5-Tosti 2.being killed at Stampford Bridge: MS C: Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English.

MS D: There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field.

MS E: And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him [Harald 5] and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: MS D: In this year after Christmas Earl Harold 3 went from Gloucester to Rhuddlan, which belonged to Gruffudd 1, and there he burnt the residence and the ships and all the equipment which belonged to them; and he put him to flight. And then at Rogationtide Harold 3 went with ships from Bristol round Wales, and that people made peace and gave hostages. And Tosti 2 went against them with a large land force and they subdued the country. But in the same year in autumn King Gruffudd 1 was killed on 5 August by his own men because of the fight he fought against Earl Harold 3. He was king over all the Welsh, and his head was brought to Earl Harold 3, and Harold 3 brought it to the king, and the figurehead of his ship and the ornaments with it. And King Edward 15 entrusted the country to the two brothers of Gruffudd 1, Bleddyn 1 and Rhiwallon 1, and they swore oaths and gave hostages to the king and earl, promising that they would be faithful to him in everything, and be everywhere ready on water and on land, and likewise would pay such dues from that country as had been given before to any other king.

MS E: In this year Earl Harold 3 and his brother Earl Tosti 2 went into Wales with both a land force and a naval force and subdued the country. And that people gave hostages and surrendered, and then went out and killed their king, Gruffudd 1, and brought his head to Harold 3, who appointed another king for them.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1063 (1063)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Campaigning (10)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue (1063)
 Harold 3.campaign against Tosti 2 and Harald 5 in Yorkshire: Harold 3 went away to Yorkshire to fight against his brother Tosti 2 and Harald 5, king of the Norwegians.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8 (1066)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
 Tosti 2.journeys: William 1 sent Earl Tosti 2 to England, but Harold 3's fleet forcefully drove him away, so Tosti 2, prevented from entering England safely or returning to Normandy because of a contrary wind, went instead to King Harald 5 Fairhair of Norway and begged him for support as a suppliant. The king granted Tosti 2's request with pleasure.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(32)
Capture (3)
 Gospatric 1.saving Tosti 2 from robbers in Italy: Tosti 2 and his party, joined by Giso 1 and Walter 2, left Rome together and on the same day fell among thieves; and, robbed and plundered, some even to nakedness, they were compelled to turn back again. On that occasion a young man named Gospatric 1, a kinsman of King Edward 15, a knight who accompanied Earl Tosti 2 on his journey, bore himself courageously in his service to his lord. For as he rode clad in garments suited to his rank in the very van of the pilgrims, he was asked by the robbers which of them was Earl Tosti 2. Realizing immediately what was their trade, he said that he was, and signalled as best as he could to the earl to ride away. He was believed because of the luxury of his clothes and his physical appearance, which was indeed distinguished; and so he was taken away, in vain hope indeed, with the rest of the booty. When, however, he thought the earl far enough away to be safe, during his interrogation on various matters he confessed in the end that he was not the man they though they had captured. Although when the robbers first understood the case they put his life in jeopardy, finally, however, some of them treated his behaviour more generously, and not only was he allowed to depart, but, marked with these soldiers' great esteem and praise, and restored to possession of his own things, he was escorted back in peace, followed by the good wishes of all.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Charter confirmation (1)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Charter-witnessing (28)
 : Ealdred, bishop, to Baldwin, his man; lease, for three lives, of 2 hides (mansi) and a yardland at West tun (Weston-on-Avon, Warwicks.), with reversion to St Mary's, Worcester. : S1407    (1053)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1002 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Ghent 1: King Edward 15 to Abbot Richard 3 and Ghent 1; confirmation and grant of privileges and of land at Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham, Coombe, Kent; with Æschore (possibly Ashour, Kent), Æffehaga; Wiggenden, Sharrington and Sandhurst, Kent; also part of the land in London called Wermanecher. : S1002    (1044)
 S1003 - Edward 15 granting land to Leofric 59: King Edward 15 to Leofric 59, his chaplain; grant of 7 hides (mansi) at Dawlish, Devon. : S1003    (1044)
 S1012 - Edward 15 granting land to Tofig 2: King Edward 15 to Tofig 2, his comes; grant of 2 hides (territoria) at Berghe.: S1017    (1048)
 S1019 - Edward 15 granting land to Eadwulf 45: King Edward 15 to Eadwulf 45, his faithful minister; grant of 1.5 perticae at Tregony and at Trerice in St Dennis, Cornwall. : S1019    (1049)
 S1020 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 8 hides (mansae) on the river Kennet (at Leverton in Hungerford, Berks.), previously held by Eadric 59, rusticus.: S1020    (1050)
 S1021 - witnessing Edward 15 joining the sees of Devon and Cornwall: King Edward 15 unites the sees of Devon and Cornwall, and moves the seat of the new bishopric to Exeter. : S1021    (1050)
 S1022 - Edward 15 granting land to Godwine 51: King Edward 15 to Godwine 51, dux; grant of 4 hides (mansae) in the common land at Sandford-on-Thames, Oxon.: S1022    (1050)
 S1023 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 5 hides (cassati) at Chilton, Berks..: S1023    (1052)
 S1025 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 4 hides (mansae) in the common land at Sandford-on-Thames, Oxon..: S1025    (1054)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1027 - Edward 15 granting land to Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Ealdred 37, bishop; grant of land at Traboe, Trevallack and Grugwith, all in St Keverne, and at Trewethey in St Martin-in-Meneage, Cornwall. : S1027    (1059)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1034 - Edward 15 granting land to Wulfwald 1: King Edward 15 to Wulfwald 1, abbot; grant of land at Ashwick, Somerset.: S1034    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1055 - Edward 15 confirming land of St Benedict of Holme: King Edward 15 to the church of St Benedict (of Holme); confirmation of land at Horning, Neatishead, Hoveton, Belaugh, South Walsham, Worstead, Honing, Thurgarton, Thwaite, Calthorpe, Tottington, Erpingham, Antingham, North Walsham, Swanton Abbot, Scotton, Lamas, Easton, Hautbois, Ludham, Beeston St Lawrence, Stalham, Waxham, Winterton, Somerton, Thurn, Ashby, Rollesby, Caister-by-Yarmouth, Reedham, Norton Subcourse, Woodbastwick, Ranworth, Shotesham, Grenvills in Stoke Holy Cross, Tibenham, Norfolk. : S1055    (1044 x 1047)
 S1060 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough: King Edward 15 to Peterborough Abbey; confirmation of land at Walcot on Trent, near Alkborough, Lincs., given to the abbey by Askil 1, the king's optimas. : S1060    (1055 x 1060)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
 S1426 - Ælfwig 23 leasing land to Stigand 1: Ælfwig 23, abbot, and the community at Bath, to Stigand 1, archbishop; lease, for life, of 30 hides at Tidenham, Gloucs., in return for 10 marks of gold and 20 pounds of silver, with reversion to the abbey. The lessee is to pay an annual render of one mark of gold, 6 porpoises and thirty thousand herring. : S1426    (1061 x 1065)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Confirmation of land/privileges (11)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1002 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Ghent 1: King Edward 15 to Abbot Richard 3 and Ghent 1; confirmation and grant of privileges and of land at Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham, Coombe, Kent; with Æschore (possibly Ashour, Kent), Æffehaga; Wiggenden, Sharrington and Sandhurst, Kent; also part of the land in London called Wermanecher. : S1002    (1044)
 S1029 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough 1: King Edward 15 to Peterborough 1 Abbey; confirmation of land at Fiskerton, Lincs., bequeathed to the abbey by Leofgifu 3, a woman of London, but claimed by Queen Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1055 - Edward 15 confirming land of St Benedict of Holme: King Edward 15 to the church of St Benedict (of Holme); confirmation of land at Horning, Neatishead, Hoveton, Belaugh, South Walsham, Worstead, Honing, Thurgarton, Thwaite, Calthorpe, Tottington, Erpingham, Antingham, North Walsham, Swanton Abbot, Scotton, Lamas, Easton, Hautbois, Ludham, Beeston St Lawrence, Stalham, Waxham, Winterton, Somerton, Thurn, Ashby, Rollesby, Caister-by-Yarmouth, Reedham, Norton Subcourse, Woodbastwick, Ranworth, Shotesham, Grenvills in Stoke Holy Cross, Tibenham, Norfolk. : S1055    (1044 x 1047)
 S1060 - Edward 15 confirming land for Peterborough: King Edward 15 to Peterborough Abbey; confirmation of land at Walcot on Trent, near Alkborough, Lincs., given to the abbey by Askil 1, the king's optimas. : S1060    (1055 x 1060)
 S1067 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ealdred 37: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that Archbishop Ealdred 37 has his permission to draw up a privilegium for all the lands pertaining to St John's minster at Beverley; and that the minster and its property shall be as free as any other minster, etc.: S1067    (1060 x 1065)
 S1110 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey and Peterborough: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has confirmed the exchange of land at Luton, Northants., for land at Marholm, Northants., and the agreement made between Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, and Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough; and has also confirmed the boundaries along King Cnut 3's Delph, Northants., as Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, proved his claim to them against Siweard 18, abbot of Thorney.: S1110    (1042 x 1066)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
Confiscation (2)
 Harold 3.confiscation of Tosti 2's lands: Harold 3 confiscated Tosti 2's lands.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8
 Tosti 2.invading England with foreign arms: Tosti 2 brought foreign [Norwegian] arms against Harold 3, incensed by his injuries and eager to regain his confiscated lands.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8 (1066)
Conquest (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Conspiracy/intent to murder (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Council-meeting, ecclesiastical (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Crime (2)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue (1063)
 Harold 3.killing Tosti 2: Harold 3 stained himself with his brother [Tosti 2's] blood.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
Culting/venerating saint(s) (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Death/dying (2)
 Edward 15.giving earldom of Northumbria to Tosti 2: Upon the death of Siweard 11 king Edward 15 transferred the earldom of Northumbria to Tosti 2, brother of Harold 3.: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383
 Godwine 51.death: MS C: In this year the king [Edward 15] was at Winchester at Easter, and Earl Godwine 51 with him, and Earl Harold 3 his son and Tosti 2. Then on Easter Monday as he was sitting with the king at a meal, he suddenly sank towards the foot-stool, bereft of speech and of all his strength. Then he was carried to the king’s private room and they thought it was about to pass off. But it was not so. On the contrary, he continued like this without speech or strength right on to the Thursday and then lost his life.

MS D: Earl Godwine 51 died, and he was taken ill while he was sitting with the king at Winchester.

MS E: Earl Godwine 51 died on 15 April.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1053 (1053)
Defence (2)
 Edward 15.his kingdom well protected: King [Edward 15] appreciated [the outstanding qualities of Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and with them thus stationed in his kingdom, he lived all his life free from care on either flank, for the one drove back the foe from the south and the other scared them off from the north.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Deposition of bishop (1)
 Ealdred 37.journey to Rome: Making use of his money and the innocent nature of King Edward 15, Ealdred 37 took on the archbishopric of York without giving up Worcester. After arranging matters with the King, he proceeded to Rome with Giso 1 of Wells and Walter 2 of Hereford, together with Tosti 2, earl of the Northumbrians. Pope Nicholas 2 gave the earl a gracious welcome, and made him sit at his side at a synod he had convoked against simony. Ealdred 37 was found guilty of simony and stripped of his honours. On their way back the English party was attacked by robbers, lost all their property and fled to Rome. Tosti 2 urged Nicholas 2 either to use his authority and return their property, or to restore pallium to Ealdred 37. The pope did the latter but he laid down that Worcester should have its own bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.13-17
Desertion, military (4)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Desertion, of see (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Disbandment of fierd (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Disobedience (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Disputing/dispute-settling (2)
 Eadgyth 3.disputing with Peterborough: Leofgifu 3 bequeathed land at Fiskerton, Lincs. to Peterborough 1. Later this land was claimed by Eadgyth 3.: S1029    (1060)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Drowning (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Harald 5-Tosti 2.being killed at Stampford Bridge: MS C: Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English.

MS D: There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field.

MS E: And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him [Harald 5] and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
Election of king (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Embassy (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Episcopal see, acquisition/institution/division/merge (1)
 S1021 - witnessing Edward 15 joining the sees of Devon and Cornwall: King Edward 15 unites the sees of Devon and Cornwall, and moves the seat of the new bishopric to Exeter. : S1021    (1050)
Exhumation (1)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Exile (5)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Flight (7)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Ealdred 37.journey to Rome: Making use of his money and the innocent nature of King Edward 15, Ealdred 37 took on the archbishopric of York without giving up Worcester. After arranging matters with the King, he proceeded to Rome with Giso 1 of Wells and Walter 2 of Hereford, together with Tosti 2, earl of the Northumbrians. Pope Nicholas 2 gave the earl a gracious welcome, and made him sit at his side at a synod he had convoked against simony. Ealdred 37 was found guilty of simony and stripped of his honours. On their way back the English party was attacked by robbers, lost all their property and fled to Rome. Tosti 2 urged Nicholas 2 either to use his authority and return their property, or to restore pallium to Ealdred 37. The pope did the latter but he laid down that Worcester should have its own bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.13-17
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harald 5-Tosti 2.being killed at Stampford Bridge: MS C: Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English.

MS D: There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field.

MS E: And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him [Harald 5] and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: MS D: In this year after Christmas Earl Harold 3 went from Gloucester to Rhuddlan, which belonged to Gruffudd 1, and there he burnt the residence and the ships and all the equipment which belonged to them; and he put him to flight. And then at Rogationtide Harold 3 went with ships from Bristol round Wales, and that people made peace and gave hostages. And Tosti 2 went against them with a large land force and they subdued the country. But in the same year in autumn King Gruffudd 1 was killed on 5 August by his own men because of the fight he fought against Earl Harold 3. He was king over all the Welsh, and his head was brought to Earl Harold 3, and Harold 3 brought it to the king, and the figurehead of his ship and the ornaments with it. And King Edward 15 entrusted the country to the two brothers of Gruffudd 1, Bleddyn 1 and Rhiwallon 1, and they swore oaths and gave hostages to the king and earl, promising that they would be faithful to him in everything, and be everywhere ready on water and on land, and likewise would pay such dues from that country as had been given before to any other king.

MS E: In this year Earl Harold 3 and his brother Earl Tosti 2 went into Wales with both a land force and a naval force and subdued the country. And that people gave hostages and surrendered, and then went out and killed their king, Gruffudd 1, and brought his head to Harold 3, who appointed another king for them.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1063 (1063)
Forfeiture (1)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Freeing captives (1)
 Gospatric 1.saving Tosti 2 from robbers in Italy: Tosti 2 and his party, joined by Giso 1 and Walter 2, left Rome together and on the same day fell among thieves; and, robbed and plundered, some even to nakedness, they were compelled to turn back again. On that occasion a young man named Gospatric 1, a kinsman of King Edward 15, a knight who accompanied Earl Tosti 2 on his journey, bore himself courageously in his service to his lord. For as he rode clad in garments suited to his rank in the very van of the pilgrims, he was asked by the robbers which of them was Earl Tosti 2. Realizing immediately what was their trade, he said that he was, and signalled as best as he could to the earl to ride away. He was believed because of the luxury of his clothes and his physical appearance, which was indeed distinguished; and so he was taken away, in vain hope indeed, with the rest of the booty. When, however, he thought the earl far enough away to be safe, during his interrogation on various matters he confessed in the end that he was not the man they though they had captured. Although when the robbers first understood the case they put his life in jeopardy, finally, however, some of them treated his behaviour more generously, and not only was he allowed to depart, but, marked with these soldiers' great esteem and praise, and restored to possession of his own things, he was escorted back in peace, followed by the good wishes of all.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Gafol payment (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Governing (2)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Grant and Gift (23)
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Godwine 51.granting land to Tosti 2: Earl Godwine 51 to his son, Tosti 2; grant of the estate at Plumstead, Kent, which he had seized from the monks of St Augustine's, Canterbury.: Bates82    (1029 x 1053)
 S1000 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Coventry 1: King Edward 15 to Coventry 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land, as granted by Leofric 49, dux, at Southam, Grandborough, Bishops Itchington, Honington, Kings Newnham, Ufton, Chadshunt, Priors Hardwick, Chesterton, Wasperton, Snohham, Birdingbury, Marston in Wolston, Long Marston, Ryton, Walsgrave on Sowe, Warwicks.; Salwarpe, Worcs.; Easton, Ches.; Kilsby and Winwick, Northants.; Burbage, Barwell, Scraptoft and Packington, Leics. [incorporating a privilege of Pope Alexander 1].: S1000    (1043)
 S1003 - Edward 15 granting land to Leofric 59: King Edward 15 to Leofric 59, his chaplain; grant of 7 hides (mansi) at Dawlish, Devon. : S1003    (1044)
 S1012 - Edward 15 granting land to Tofig 2: King Edward 15 to Tofig 2, his comes; grant of 2 hides (territoria) at Berghe.: S1017    (1048)
 S1019 - Edward 15 granting land to Eadwulf 45: King Edward 15 to Eadwulf 45, his faithful minister; grant of 1.5 perticae at Tregony and at Trerice in St Dennis, Cornwall. : S1019    (1049)
 S1020 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 8 hides (mansae) on the river Kennet (at Leverton in Hungerford, Berks.), previously held by Eadric 59, rusticus.: S1020    (1050)
 S1022 - Edward 15 granting land to Godwine 51: King Edward 15 to Godwine 51, dux; grant of 4 hides (mansae) in the common land at Sandford-on-Thames, Oxon.: S1022    (1050)
 S1023 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 5 hides (cassati) at Chilton, Berks..: S1023    (1052)
 S1025 - Edward 15 granting land to Abingdon, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to the church of St Mary, Abingdon; grant of 4 hides (mansae) in the common land at Sandford-on-Thames, Oxon..: S1025    (1054)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1027 - Edward 15 granting land to Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Ealdred 37, bishop; grant of land at Traboe, Trevallack and Grugwith, all in St Keverne, and at Trewethey in St Martin-in-Meneage, Cornwall. : S1027    (1059)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1034 - Edward 15 granting land to Wulfwald 1: King Edward 15 to Wulfwald 1, abbot; grant of land at Ashwick, Somerset.: S1034    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1160 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ealdred 37: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Archbishop Ealdred 37 judicial and financial rights over his men within the king's own soke as fully and as completely as the archbishop has them in his own lands.: S1160    (1060 x 1065)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
 S787 - Edgar 11 granting privileges to Peterborough 1: King Edgar 11 to Peterborough 1 Abbey, with later confirmations, grant of privileges for the abbey and its land at Dogsthorpe, Eye, Paston and Oundle, Northants.; and confirmation of land at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincs.; Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, and Thorp, Northants.; a mint at Stamford, Lincs.; and half of Whittlesey Mere: S787    (972)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
Hospitality (2)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hostage-giving/taking (8)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue (1063)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Hostility (1)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue (1063)
Hunting (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Illness/demonic seizure/madness (3)
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Godwine 51.death: MS C: In this year the king [Edward 15] was at Winchester at Easter, and Earl Godwine 51 with him, and Earl Harold 3 his son and Tosti 2. Then on Easter Monday as he was sitting with the king at a meal, he suddenly sank towards the foot-stool, bereft of speech and of all his strength. Then he was carried to the king’s private room and they thought it was about to pass off. But it was not so. On the contrary, he continued like this without speech or strength right on to the Thursday and then lost his life.

MS D: Earl Godwine 51 died, and he was taken ill while he was sitting with the king at Winchester.

MS E: Earl Godwine 51 died on 15 April.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1053 (1053)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Indicating bounds (1)
 S1110 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey and Peterborough: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has confirmed the exchange of land at Luton, Northants., for land at Marholm, Northants., and the agreement made between Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, and Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough; and has also confirmed the boundaries along King Cnut 3's Delph, Northants., as Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, proved his claim to them against Siweard 18, abbot of Thorney.: S1110    (1042 x 1066)
Intercession/mediation (2)
 Edward 15.illness: Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Interrogation (1)
 Gospatric 1.saving Tosti 2 from robbers in Italy: Tosti 2 and his party, joined by Giso 1 and Walter 2, left Rome together and on the same day fell among thieves; and, robbed and plundered, some even to nakedness, they were compelled to turn back again. On that occasion a young man named Gospatric 1, a kinsman of King Edward 15, a knight who accompanied Earl Tosti 2 on his journey, bore himself courageously in his service to his lord. For as he rode clad in garments suited to his rank in the very van of the pilgrims, he was asked by the robbers which of them was Earl Tosti 2. Realizing immediately what was their trade, he said that he was, and signalled as best as he could to the earl to ride away. He was believed because of the luxury of his clothes and his physical appearance, which was indeed distinguished; and so he was taken away, in vain hope indeed, with the rest of the booty. When, however, he thought the earl far enough away to be safe, during his interrogation on various matters he confessed in the end that he was not the man they though they had captured. Although when the robbers first understood the case they put his life in jeopardy, finally, however, some of them treated his behaviour more generously, and not only was he allowed to depart, but, marked with these soldiers' great esteem and praise, and restored to possession of his own things, he was escorted back in peace, followed by the good wishes of all.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Invasion (6)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge: Meanwhile, when the Normans invaded the kingdom which Harold 3 had seized, Harold 3 was involved in a war against his brother Tosti 2 in which he slew his own brother as well as King Harald 5 of Norway who had come in support of Tosti 2. Almost all the Norwegian forces were slain by the English during this battle. Thereafter Harold 3 victoriously returned to London, but soon an envoy arrived with the news on the Norman invasion. : WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(34)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Tosti 2.invading England with foreign arms: Tosti 2 brought foreign [Norwegian] arms against Harold 3, incensed by his injuries and eager to regain his confiscated lands.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.8 (1066)
Journey (16)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Ealdred 37-Tosti 2-Judith 2.pilgrimage to Rome: In this year Bishop Ealdred 37 went to Rome for his pallium and received it from Pope Nicholas 2. And the Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] also went to Rome. And the bishops and the earl experienced much hardship when they were coming home.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061 (1061)
 Ealdred 37.journey to Rome: Making use of his money and the innocent nature of King Edward 15, Ealdred 37 took on the archbishopric of York without giving up Worcester. After arranging matters with the King, he proceeded to Rome with Giso 1 of Wells and Walter 2 of Hereford, together with Tosti 2, earl of the Northumbrians. Pope Nicholas 2 gave the earl a gracious welcome, and made him sit at his side at a synod he had convoked against simony. Ealdred 37 was found guilty of simony and stripped of his honours. On their way back the English party was attacked by robbers, lost all their property and fled to Rome. Tosti 2 urged Nicholas 2 either to use his authority and return their property, or to restore pallium to Ealdred 37. The pope did the latter but he laid down that Worcester should have its own bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.13-17
 Ealdred 37.restoration in episcopal status: When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue (1063)
 Judith 2.leaving Rome: As Tosti 2's stay in Rome was protracted owing to Bishop Ealdred 37's case, he had sent his wife [Judith 2] and her royal escort on ahead, together with most of his own men; and these had had a successful journey, in total ignorance of the robbery that had happened to the party which followed them behind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Tosti 2.journeys: William 1 sent Earl Tosti 2 to England, but Harold 3's fleet forcefully drove him away, so Tosti 2, prevented from entering England safely or returning to Normandy because of a contrary wind, went instead to King Harald 5 Fairhair of Norway and begged him for support as a suppliant. The king granted Tosti 2's request with pleasure.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(32)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Judicial decision/review (1)
 S1110 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey and Peterborough: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has confirmed the exchange of land at Luton, Northants., for land at Marholm, Northants., and the agreement made between Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, and Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough; and has also confirmed the boundaries along King Cnut 3's Delph, Northants., as Ælfwine 55, abbot of Ramsey, proved his claim to them against Siweard 18, abbot of Thorney.: S1110    (1042 x 1066)
Killing/murder (15)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge: Meanwhile, when the Normans invaded the kingdom which Harold 3 had seized, Harold 3 was involved in a war against his brother Tosti 2 in which he slew his own brother as well as King Harald 5 of Norway who had come in support of Tosti 2. Almost all the Norwegian forces were slain by the English during this battle. Thereafter Harold 3 victoriously returned to London, but soon an envoy arrived with the news on the Norman invasion. : WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(34)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harald 5-Tosti 2.being killed at Stampford Bridge: MS C: Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English.

MS D: There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field.

MS E: And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him [Harald 5] and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Harold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063: MS D: In this year after Christmas Earl Harold 3 went from Gloucester to Rhuddlan, which belonged to Gruffudd 1, and there he burnt the residence and the ships and all the equipment which belonged to them; and he put him to flight. And then at Rogationtide Harold 3 went with ships from Bristol round Wales, and that people made peace and gave hostages. And Tosti 2 went against them with a large land force and they subdued the country. But in the same year in autumn King Gruffudd 1 was killed on 5 August by his own men because of the fight he fought against Earl Harold 3. He was king over all the Welsh, and his head was brought to Earl Harold 3, and Harold 3 brought it to the king, and the figurehead of his ship and the ornaments with it. And King Edward 15 entrusted the country to the two brothers of Gruffudd 1, Bleddyn 1 and Rhiwallon 1, and they swore oaths and gave hostages to the king and earl, promising that they would be faithful to him in everything, and be everywhere ready on water and on land, and likewise would pay such dues from that country as had been given before to any other king.

MS E: In this year Earl Harold 3 and his brother Earl Tosti 2 went into Wales with both a land force and a naval force and subdued the country. And that people gave hostages and surrendered, and then went out and killed their king, Gruffudd 1, and brought his head to Harold 3, who appointed another king for them.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1063 (1063)
 Harold 3.killing Tosti 2: Harold 3 stained himself with his brother [Tosti 2's] blood.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Swein 3.return to England in 1049: MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046 (1049)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Law-making/legislation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Lease (2)
 : Ealdred, bishop, to Baldwin, his man; lease, for three lives, of 2 hides (mansi) and a yardland at West tun (Weston-on-Avon, Warwicks.), with reversion to St Mary's, Worcester. : S1407    (1053)
 S1426 - Ælfwig 23 leasing land to Stigand 1: Ælfwig 23, abbot, and the community at Bath, to Stigand 1, archbishop; lease, for life, of 30 hides at Tidenham, Gloucs., in return for 10 marks of gold and 20 pounds of silver, with reversion to the abbey. The lessee is to pay an annual render of one mark of gold, 6 porpoises and thirty thousand herring. : S1426    (1061 x 1065)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Marriage (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.marrige to Judith 2: Godwine 51 was staying with Baldwin 4 during the very marriage celebrations of Godwine 51's son, Earl Tosti 2, when he took as wife Judith 2, a niece of that famous King Edward 15 and sister of this Count Baldwin 4.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Meeting (2)
 Edward 15.outlawing Godwine 51 and sons: King Edward 15 held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared Godwine 51 an outlaw, and all his sons with him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Message-sending (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Military strategy (4)
 Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066): After the fight [at Fulford] Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. [In a later hand] There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.

MS D: Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights.

MS E: King Harold 3 came with a very great force of Englishmen and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Monastery, violation of (2)
 Tosti 2.being outlawed: MS C: all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE): ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (