Gyrth 1 (Male) Earl of East Anglia, d. 1066; son of Earl Godwine 51
e xi-l xi

Notes: Ann Williams, ?Gyrth, earl of East Anglia (d. 1066)?, ODNB.

Factoid List

Recorded Name (156)
Georð (1)
 S1085   
Gerið (1)
 S1236   
Gert (13)
 LDB  203v (Norfolk 12:18)
 LDB  264v (Norfolk 48:2)
 LDB  255v (Norfolk 33:6)
 LDB  186v (Norfolk 9:170)
 LDB  186v (Norfolk 9:170)
 LDB  223v (Norfolk 19:20)
 LDB  186 (Norfolk 9:169)
 LDB  185v (Norfolk 9:159)
 LDB  185v (Norfolk 9:160)
 LDB  246v (Norfolk 29:10)
 LDB  246 (Norfolk 29:8)
 LDB  242v (Norfolk 25:23)
 LDB  246v (Norfolk 29:9)
Gertus (13)
 LDB  269 (Norfolk 52:3)
 LDB  200 (Norfolk 10:78)
 LDB  113v (Norfolk 1:46)
 LDB  113v (Norfolk 1:46)
 LDB  184 (Norfolk 9:146)
 LDB  113v (Norfolk 1:45)
 LDB  199 (Norfolk 10:67)
 LDB  199 (Norfolk 10:69)
 LDB  269 (Norfolk 53:1)
 LDB  272 (Norfolk 64:2)
 LDB  129 (Norfolk 1:155)
 LDB  200v (Norfolk 10:81)
 LDB  270v (Norfolk 58:3)
Gerð (1)
 S1027   
Geyrd (1)
 S1033   
Girth (1)
 S1083   
Girð (3)
 S1026   
 S1037a   
 S1041   
Goerth (1)
 LDB  257 (Norfolk 34:9)
Gued (1)
 LDB  158v (Norfolk 8:8)
Guend (1)
 LDB  197 (Norfolk 10:44)
Guer (1)
 LDB  128 (Norfolk 1:148)
Guerd (16)
 GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:4)
 GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:6)
 GDB  200v (Cambridgeshire 32:10)
 GDB  198 (Cambridgeshire 26:18)
 GDB  198 (Cambridgeshire 26:13)
 GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:7)
 GDB  138v (Hertfordshire 26:1)
 LDB  147v (Norfolk 4:34)
 LDB  255 (Norfolk 33:2)
 LDB  190v (Norfolk 9:235)
 LDB  116 (Norfolk 1:60)
 LDB  187 (Norfolk 9:182)
 LDB  116 (Norfolk 1:59)
 LDB  225 (Norfolk 19:36)
 GDB  28 (Sussex 13:9)
 GDB  28 (Sussex 13:9)
Guert (44)
 GDB  217 (Bedfordshire 53:5)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 54:1)
 GDB  61 (Berkshire 30:1)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:5)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:6)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:7)
 GDB  194 (Cambridgeshire 14:18)
 GDB  141v (Hertfordshire 37:11)
 GDB  141v (Hertfordshire 37:19)
 GDB  138 (Hertfordshire 24:1)
 LDB  145v (Norfolk 4:15)
 LDB  132 (Norfolk 1:192)
 LDB  145v (Norfolk 4:15)
 LDB  272 (Norfolk 64:1)
 LDB  144v (Norfolk 4:9)
 LDB  133 (Norfolk 1:195)
 LDB  158v (Norfolk 8:8)
 LDB  145v (Norfolk 4:15)
 LDB  271v (Norfolk 61:3)
 LDB  133 (Norfolk 1:195)
 LDB  270 (Norfolk 57:1)
 LDB  194 (Norfolk 10:22)
 LDB  115v (Norfolk 1:59)
 LDB  115v (Norfolk 1:59)
 LDB  271v (Norfolk 61:2)
 LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:17)
 LDB  193v (Norfolk 10:20)
 LDB  193v (Norfolk 10:20)
 LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
 LDB  274v (Norfolk 66:16)
 LDB  145v (Norfolk 4:15)
 LDB  422v (Suffolk 38:11)
 LDB  422v (Suffolk 38:11)
 LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:101)
 LDB  377 (Suffolk 16:35)
 LDB  395 (Suffolk 25:71)
 LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122a)
 LDB  395 (Suffolk 25:67)
 LDB  315v (Suffolk 6:125)
 LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 LDB  420 (Suffolk 36:6)
 LDB  305v (Suffolk 6:13)
Guertd (1)
 LDB  153 (Norfolk 6:6)
Guertus (37)
 LDB  278v (Norfolk 66:89)
 LDB  335 (Suffolk 7:40)
 LDB  335 (Suffolk 7:40)
 LDB  339 (Suffolk 7:75)
 LDB  445 (Suffolk 69:2)
 LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:47)
 LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:47)
 LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:49)
 LDB  302 (Suffolk 4:37)
 LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:32)
 LDB  347 (Suffolk 8:14)
 LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:51)
 LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:51)
 LDB  407v (Suffolk 31:31)
 LDB  300v (Suffolk 4:20)
 LDB  301v (Suffolk 4:35)
 LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:34)
 LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:44)
 LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:46)
 LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:23)
 LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:23)
 LDB  347v (Suffolk 8:15)
 LDB  302 (Suffolk 4:41)
 LDB  302 (Suffolk 4:41)
 LDB  302 (Suffolk 4:40)
 LDB  407v (Suffolk 31:34)
 LDB  293 (Suffolk 3:19)
 LDB  442 (Suffolk 67:14)
 LDB  335v (Suffolk 7:47)
 LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:48)
 LDB  445 (Suffolk 69:4)
 LDB  432 (Suffolk 50:1)
 LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:18)
 LDB  407 (Suffolk 31:25)
 LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:19)
 LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:19)
 LDB  301v (Suffolk 4:34)
Guirð (1)
 S1148   
Guite (1)
 LDB  282 (Suffolk 1:7)
Gurert (1)
 LDB  173 (Norfolk 9:3)
Guret (1)
 LDB  294 (Suffolk 3:55)
Gurt (1)
 LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
Guyrð (1)
 S1147   
Gyrd (1)
 S1042   
Gyrth (2)
 S1031   
 S1040   
Gyrð (8)
 S1028   
 S1034   
 S1036   
 S1038   
 S1043   
 S1084   
 S1109   
 S1124   
Gyrþ (1)
 S1139   
Wert (1)
 LDB  150v (Norfolk 4:54)
Worth (1)
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
Office (25)
Comes (4)
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
 S1026   
 S1036   
 S1041   
Dux (12)
 S1002   
 S1027   
 S1028   
 S1031   
 S1033   
 S1034   
 S1037a   
 S1038   
 S1040   
 S1042   
 S1043   
 S1236   
Eorl (9)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066
 S1083   
 S1084   
 S1085   
 S1109   
 S1124   
 S1139   
 S1147   
 S1148   
Status (1)
Adolescens (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Personal Relationship (64)
Gyrth 1 Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (4)
 of Harold 3: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066
 of Harold 3: Bayeux Tapestry   
 of Harold 3: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
 of Eadgyth 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
~ Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of Gyrth 1 (1)
 Leofwine 69: of Gyrth 1: Bayeux Tapestry   
Gyrth 1 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (52)
 of Godwine 84: GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 54:1)
 of Leofmær 4: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:5)
 of Almær 6: GDB  138 (Hertfordshire 24:1)
 of Wulfric 85: LDB  255 (Norfolk 33:2)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  269 (Norfolk 52:3)
 of Mærwynn 2: LDB  247v (Norfolk 30:5)
 of Ealdwulf 19: LDB  229 (Norfolk 20:26)
 of Ealdwulf 19: LDB  229 (Norfolk 20:26)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  271v (Norfolk 61:3)
 of Edwin 53: LDB  204 (Norfolk 12:30)
 of Æthelwine 63: LDB  181v (Norfolk 9:100)
 of Vestarr 1: LDB  270 (Norfolk 57:1)
 of Wulfric 85: LDB  255v (Norfolk 33:6)
 of Aildeig 1: LDB  271v (Norfolk 61:2)
 of Tovi 5: LDB  269 (Norfolk 53:1)
 of Tove 1: LDB  202v (Norfolk 12:6)
 of Edwin 53: LDB  225 (Norfolk 19:36)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  246 (Norfolk 29:8)
 of Ælfwald 74: LDB  220 (Norfolk 17:55)
 of Thorald 1: LDB  229v (Norfolk 20:32)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  422v (Suffolk 38:11)
 of Sunwine 1: LDB  422v (Suffolk 38:11)
 of Leofstan 34: LDB  335 (Suffolk 7:40)
 of Ælfric 164: LDB  339 (Suffolk 7:75)
 of Goding 9: LDB  377 (Suffolk 16:35)
 of Ælfric 164: LDB  395 (Suffolk 25:71)
 of Bondi 2: LDB  445 (Suffolk 69:2)
 of Hakun 2: LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:47)
 of Hakun 2: LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:47)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:49)
 of Alwine 10: LDB  282 (Suffolk 1:7)
 of Thorger 1: LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:51)
 of Sigeric 13: LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:51)
 of Wulfsige 65: LDB  300v (Suffolk 4:20)
 of Thorir 1: LDB  395 (Suffolk 25:67)
 of Alric 10: LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:44)
 of Wulfsige 65: LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:46)
 of Wulfsige 65: LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:23)
 of Ælfric 164: LDB  302 (Suffolk 4:40)
 of Brunwine 1: LDB  442 (Suffolk 67:14)
 of Wulfgeat 20: LDB  315v (Suffolk 6:125)
 of Godwine 84: LDB  335v (Suffolk 7:47)
 of Ælfgeat 10: LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 of Mann 9: LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 of Ulf 33: LDB  284 (Suffolk 1:48)
 of Alweald 1: LDB  445 (Suffolk 69:4)
 of Wulfsige 65: LDB  432 (Suffolk 50:1)
 of Grim 14: LDB  420 (Suffolk 36:6)
 of Wulfgeat 20: LDB  305v (Suffolk 6:13)
 of Æthelric 96: LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:18)
 of Ulf 33: LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:19)
 of Æthelsige 51: LDB  282v (Suffolk 1:19)
~ Lord (General relationship) of Gyrth 1 (4)
 Edward 15: of Gyrth 1: GDB  61 (Berkshire 30:1)
 Edward 15: of Gyrth 1: LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
 Edward 15: of Gyrth 1: LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
 Ælfwald 74: of Gyrth 1: LDB  115v (Norfolk 1:59)
~ Mother (Consanguineal kinship) of Gyrth 1 (1)
 Gytha 1: of Gyrth 1: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
Gyrth 1 Son (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (2)
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051; D 1052
 of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
Possession (37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 hides, 0.50 virgates in Kempston, Bedfordshire (in 1066): GDB  217 (Bedfordshire 53:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 hides in Eaton Hastings, Berkshire (in 1066): GDB  61 (Berkshire 30:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in Clopton, in Croydon, Cambridgeshire (in 1066): GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Croydon, Cambridgeshire (in 1066): GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 11 hides, 1 virgate in Whittlesford, Cambridgeshire (in 1066): GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide, 1.50 virgates in Wimpole, Cambridgeshire (in 1066): GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 16 carucates in Aylsham, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  132 (Norfolk 1:192)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Bawburgh, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  145 (Norfolk 4:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Brooke, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 60 acres in Burgh St Margaret, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  272 (Norfolk 64:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Costessey, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  144v (Norfolk 4:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Fring, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  193v (Norfolk 10:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Great Ryburgh, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  257 (Norfolk 34:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Honingham Thorpe, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  145 (Norfolk 4:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 acres in Howe (church), Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  210 (Norfolk 14:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Langham, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  194 (Norfolk 10:22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 16 acres in Langham (2 churches), Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  194 (Norfolk 10:22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 30 acres, 3 carucates in Ormesby, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  115v (Norfolk 1:59)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 acres in Sedgeford, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  193v (Norfolk 10:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Sedgeford, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  193v (Norfolk 10:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Shipdham, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  132 (Norfolk 1:192)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 30 acres in Toftrees, Norfolk (in 1066): LDB  257 (Norfolk 34:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 82 acres in Beccles, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:39)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Beccles (market), Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:40)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Belton, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:35)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Bentley, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:101)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 60 acres in Ellough and Willingham, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 30 acres in Gillingham, Norfolk, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:38)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Gorleston, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:32)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Ipswich, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  290 (Suffolk 1:122a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Ipswich, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  294 (Suffolk 3:55)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Lound, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:34)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Lowestoft, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283 (Suffolk 1:33)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 acre, 2.50 carucates in Shotley, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  287 (Suffolk 1:102)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 90 acres in Somerleyton, Suffolk (in 1066): LDB  283v (Suffolk 1:41)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 59 hides in Washington, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  28 (Sussex 13:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 hides in Washington, Sussex (in 1066): GDB  28 (Sussex 13:9)
Event (40)
Advice/counsel (1)
 Harold 3.despising his friends' counsel: Harold 3 was preparing for a fight with the Normans. However, his mother [Gytha 1] and his loyal friends tried to dissuade him from war. His brother Earl Gyrth 1 suggested that he would fight Duke William 1 since he had sworn no oath and owed nothing to him, while Harold 3 should wait for the outcome not to commit perjury. Harold 3 was enraged, he taunted Gyrth 1 and even insolently kicked his mother Gytha 1 who was trying to hold him back.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
Agreement (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Appointment of eorl (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Gyrth 1.receipt of Norfolk: King [Edward 15] did not suffer [Harold 3 and Tosti 2's] younger brother, Gyrth 1, to be left out of the honours, but gave him a shire at the extremity of East Anglia, and promised to increase this when the was older and had thrown off his boyhood years. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of abbot (1)
 S1083 - writ of Edward 15 announcing Baldwin 5 as abbot of Bury: Writ of King Edward 15 announcing the appointment of Baldwin 5 as abbot of Bury. : S1083    (1065 x 1066)
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Army-raising (3)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Assembly (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Assistance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Battle (4)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Burh - building (2)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Burning (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Campaigning (3)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Charter-witnessing (16)
 S1002 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Ghent 1: King Edward 15 to Abbot Richard 3 and Ghent 1; confirmation and grant of privileges and of land at Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham, Coombe, Kent; with Æschore (possibly Ashour, Kent), Æffehaga; Wiggenden, Sharrington and Sandhurst, Kent; also part of the land in London called Wermanecher. : S1002    (1044)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1027 - Edward 15 granting land to Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Ealdred 37, bishop; grant of land at Traboe, Trevallack and Grugwith, all in St Keverne, and at Trewethey in St Martin-in-Meneage, Cornwall. : S1027    (1059)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1034 - Edward 15 granting land to Wulfwald 1: King Edward 15 to Wulfwald 1, abbot; grant of land at Ashwick, Somerset.: S1034    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1040 - Edward 15 confirming and granting privileges to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; confirmation and grant of privileges and confirmation of land.: S1040    (1065)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1043 - Edward 15 confirming privileges and lands of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, First Charter; confirmation of privileges and of lands.: S1043    (1066)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
Confirmation of land/privileges (7)
 S1002 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Ghent 1: King Edward 15 to Abbot Richard 3 and Ghent 1; confirmation and grant of privileges and of land at Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham, Coombe, Kent; with Æschore (possibly Ashour, Kent), Æffehaga; Wiggenden, Sharrington and Sandhurst, Kent; also part of the land in London called Wermanecher. : S1002    (1044)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1038 - Edward 15 confirming land and privileges of Malmesbury 1: King Edward 15 to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and of land.: S1038    (1065)
 S1040 - Edward 15 confirming and granting privileges to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; confirmation and grant of privileges and confirmation of land.: S1040    (1065)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
 S1043 - Edward 15 confirming privileges and lands of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, First Charter; confirmation of privileges and of lands.: S1043    (1066)
Conquest (2)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Council-meeting, ecclesiastical (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Culting/venerating saint(s) (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Death/dying (3)
 .death: The king's [Harold 3's] two brothers ([Gyrth 1] and [Leofwine 69]) were found very near to his body. He himself was recognized by certain marks, not by his face, for he had been despoiled of all signs of status.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Leofwine 69-Gyrth 1.death: Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. : Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Desertion, military (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Desertion, of see (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Disbandment of fierd (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Drowning (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Election of king (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Embassy (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Enquiry (1)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Exile (1)
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
Flight (3)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Forfeiture (1)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Gafol payment (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Grant and Gift (14)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
 S1027 - Edward 15 granting land to Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Ealdred 37, bishop; grant of land at Traboe, Trevallack and Grugwith, all in St Keverne, and at Trewethey in St Martin-in-Meneage, Cornwall. : S1027    (1059)
 S1028 - Edward 15 granting land to Paris, Saint-Denis: King Edward 15 to Paris, Saint-Denis; grant of land at Taynton, Oxon..: S1028    (1059)
 S1031 - Edward 15 granting land to Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides (mansae) in the common land at Wheathampstead, Herts..: S1031    (1060)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1034 - Edward 15 granting land to Wulfwald 1: King Edward 15 to Wulfwald 1, abbot; grant of land at Ashwick, Somerset.: S1034    (1061)
 S1036 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Waltham 1: King Edward 15 to Waltham 1 Abbey; grant of privileges and confirmation of land at Waltham, Northland in Waltham, Paslow in High Ongar, South Weald, Upminster, Walhfare (? Walter Hall) in Boreham, Debden and Alderton in Loughton, Woodford, Essex; Lambeth, Surrey; Nazeing, Essex; Brickendon, Herts.; Millow, Arlesey, Beds.; Wormley, Herts.; Netteswell, Essex; Hitchin, Herts.; Luckington (or Loughton), Essex; and White Waltham, Berks..: S1036    (1062)
 S1037a - Edward 15 granting the see of Worcester Ealdred 37: King Edward 15 to Archbishop Ealdred 37; grant of the see of Worcester. : S1037a    (1065)
 S1109 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Ramsey Abbey judicial and financial rights and shipwreck and what is cast up by the sea at Brancaster and Ringstead, the soke within Bichamdic (cf. S 1108), the market at Downham, Norfolk, and judicial and financial rights in every shire in which St Benedict of Ramsey has land.: S1109    (1042 x 1066)
 S1139 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given land at Launton, Oxon., to Westminster Abbey.: S1139    (1065 x 1066)
 S1147 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given to Westminster Abbey, Islip and land at Marston, Oxon.: S1147    (1065 x 1066)
 S1148 - writ of Edward 15 to Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given to Westminster Abbey the estate at Islip where he was born and a half hide at Marston, Oxon. He directs his kinsman Wigod 4 of Wallingford to transfer the land to the abbey on his behalf.: S1148    (1065 x 1066)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 S1237 - witnessing Ælfgar 46 granting land to Rheims, St Remigius: Ælfgar 46, quondam comes, to the church of St Remigius, Rheims; grant of land at Lapley, Staffs..: S1237    (1061)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Hostage-giving/taking (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Illness/demonic seizure/madness (1)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Invasion (3)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Journey (4)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Killing/murder (8)
 .death: The king's [Harold 3's] two brothers ([Gyrth 1] and [Leofwine 69]) were found very near to his body. He himself was recognized by certain marks, not by his face, for he had been despoiled of all signs of status.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Harold 3-Leofwine 69-Gyrth 1.being killed at Hastings: MS D: King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066; E 1067 (1066)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Marriage (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Meeting (2)
 Edward 15.outlawing Godwine 51 and sons: King Edward 15 held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared Godwine 51 an outlaw, and all his sons with him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Military strategy (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Mustering (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Oath-swearing/fealty (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Outlawing (3)
 Edward 15.outlawing Godwine 51 and sons: King Edward 15 held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared Godwine 51 an outlaw, and all his sons with him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Overwintering (1)
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
Pallium-despatch/receipt/request (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Papal advice/audience/decision/privilege (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Peace agreement (1)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Pilgrimage (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Policy decision (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Promise (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Property-buying/purchasing (1)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Property-exchanging (1)
 S1026 - Edward 15 granting land to Evesham: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Evesham; grant of 3 hides (cassati) at Upper Swell, Gloucs., in return for the abbot's gift of 6 marks of gold. The land had been forfeited by Erusius 1 (? Earnsige), son of Oce 1.: S1026    (1055)
Property-transacting (1)
 S1124 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of himself: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he intends to have legal possession of the land at Ickworth, Suffolk (which he possesses for Westminster Abbey), and that it is to be transferred to him as soon as the present writ is read. : S1124    (1047 x 1065)
Provisioning (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Pursuit, military (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Raiding (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Rebellion/sedition (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Reconciliation (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Refusal (1)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
Reporting (3)
 Battle of Hastings (1066): MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Residence (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
Restoration of land/property (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Restoration to office (2)
 Godwine 51.events of 1052 (MS E): The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Ship-building/shipwreck (1)
 S1109 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Ramsey Abbey judicial and financial rights and shipwreck and what is cast up by the sea at Brancaster and Ringstead, the soke within Bichamdic (cf. S 1108), the market at Downham, Norfolk, and judicial and financial rights in every shire in which St Benedict of Ramsey has land.: S1109    (1042 x 1066)
Siege (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Speech (1)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Submission (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Taxation (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Visit (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15’s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1’s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15’s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11’s earldom and Leofric 49’s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the king’s allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines æt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not – or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4’s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the king’s favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
War (1)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Writ-issuing/sending (8)
 S1083 - writ of Edward 15 announcing Baldwin 5 as abbot of Bury: Writ of King Edward 15 announcing the appointment of Baldwin 5 as abbot of Bury. : S1083    (1065 x 1066)
 S1084 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Bury: Writ of King Edward 15 confirming to the monastery at Bury St Edmunds the sokes of the eight and a half hundreds (after the appointment of Baldwin 5 as abbot of Bury). : S1084    (1065 x 1066)
 S1085 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Baldwin 5 and Bury: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Abbot Baldwin 5 a moneyer within Bury St Edmunds.: S1085    (1065 x 1066)
 S1109 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Ramsey: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has granted to Ramsey Abbey judicial and financial rights and shipwreck and what is cast up by the sea at Brancaster and Ringstead, the soke within Bichamdic (cf. S 1108), the market at Downham, Norfolk, and judicial and financial rights in every shire in which St Benedict of Ramsey has land.: S1109    (1042 x 1066)
 S1124 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of himself: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he intends to have legal possession of the land at Ickworth, Suffolk (which he possesses for Westminster Abbey), and that it is to be transferred to him as soon as the present writ is read. : S1124    (1047 x 1065)
 S1139 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given land at Launton, Oxon., to Westminster Abbey.: S1139    (1065 x 1066)
 S1147 - writ of Edward 15 in favour of Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given to Westminster Abbey, Islip and land at Marston, Oxon.: S1147    (1065 x 1066)
 S1148 - writ of Edward 15 to Westminster: Writ of King Edward 15 declaring that he has given to Westminster Abbey the estate at Islip where he was born and a half hide at Marston, Oxon. He directs his kinsman Wigod 4 of Wallingford to transfer the land to the abbey on his behalf.: S1148    (1065 x 1066)