Morcar 3 (Male) Earl of Northumbria, fl. 1065-1087
m/l xi

Notes: W.M. Aird, ?Morcar, earl of Northumbria (fl. 1065?1087)?, ODNB.

Factoid List

Recorded Name (77)
Marchere (1)
 Bates181   
Markerus (1)
 S1041   
Morcar (71)
 GDB  265v (Cheshire 8:16)
 GDB  267 (Cheshire 20:11)
 GDB  179v (Herefordshire 1:6)
 GDB  230 (Leicestershire 1:2)
 GDB  234v (Leicestershire 18:3)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 GDB  377v (Lincolnshire CK:50)
 GDB  360 (Lincolnshire 30:1)
 GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:26)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:5)
 GDB  377 (Lincolnshire CK:40)
 GDB  364v (Lincolnshire 42:1)
 GDB  376v (Lincolnshire CK:5)
 GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 35:13)
 GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:65)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:27)
 GDB  341 (Lincolnshire 3:31)
 GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 27:3)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:28)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:22)
 GDB  377 (Lincolnshire CK:34)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:1)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:26)
 GDB  358v (Lincolnshire 27:57)
 GDB  340 (Lincolnshire 2:37)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:4)
 GDB  366v (Lincolnshire 56:9)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:25)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:2-3)
 GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:6)
 GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:29)
 GDB  225v (Northamptonshire 32:1)
 GDB  219v (Northamptonshire 1:4)
 GDB  286v (Nottinghamshire 9:110)
 GDB  285v (Nottinghamshire 9:74)
 GDB  281v (Nottinghamshire 1:58)
 GDB  287v (Nottinghamshire 10:18)
 GDB  255v (Shropshire 4:4:6)
 GDB  256v (Shropshire 4:11:4)
 GDB  254v (Shropshire 4:3:16)
 GDB  253v (Shropshire 4:1:17)
 GDB  256v (Shropshire 4:9:1)
 GDB  259 (Shropshire 4:23:16)
 GDB  253v (Shropshire 4:1:24)
 GDB  255v (Shropshire 4:4:20)
 GDB  248v (Staffordshire 10:3)
 GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:9)
 GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:11)
 GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:14)
 GDB  373 (Yorkshire CE:11)
 GDB  298v (Yorkshire C:30)
 GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:6)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:9)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:1)
 GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6N:162)
 GDB  298 (Yorkshire C:28)
 GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:5)
 GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:8)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:7)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:2)
 GDB  304v (Yorkshire 3Y:2)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:5)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:6)
 GDB  298v (Yorkshire C:32)
 GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:2)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:4)
 GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:10)
 GDB  308 (Yorkshire 5W:23)
 GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:7)
 GDB  304v (Yorkshire 3Y:1)
 GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:4)
Morcarus (2)
 GDB  149v (Buckinghamshire 23:2)
 GDB  336 (Lincolnshire C:6)
Morkerinus (1)
 Bates138   
morcar (1)
 GDB  340 (Lincolnshire 2:39)
Personal Information (1)
provenance (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (boys of royal stock)
Office (9)
Comes (5)
 WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II:38
 S1041   
 Bates138   
 Bates181   
 SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383
Dux (1)
 Hemming.Codicellus  262
Eorl (3)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; D 1064
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Status (2)
Noble (1)
 WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.34
Puer (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Personal Relationship (11)
Morcar 3 Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Edwin 33: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.28; II.34
~ Brother (Consanguineal kinship) of Morcar 3 (2)
 Edwin 33: of Morcar 3: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064
 Edwin 33: of Morcar 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Morcar 3 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (4)
 of Ealdræd 1: GDB  149v (Buckinghamshire 23:2)
 of Auti 1: GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 26:52)
 of Ælfgar 59: GDB  357 (Lincolnshire 26:29)
 of Thorkil 2: GDB  377 (Lincolnshire CK:34)
~ Mother (Consanguineal kinship) of Morcar 3 (1)
 Ælfgifu 23: of Morcar 3: Bates33   
Morcar 3 Son (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (3)
 of Ælfgar 46: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064
 of Ælfgar 46: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.28; II.34
 of Ælfgar 46: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7
Possession (106)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides in Acton, Cheshire (in 1066): GDB  265v (Cheshire 8:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Wheelock, Cheshire (in 1066): GDB  267 (Cheshire 20:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 hides in Eardisland, Herefordshire (in 1066): GDB  179v (Herefordshire 1:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 24 carucates in Croxton Kerrial, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230 (Leicestershire 1:1a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Harston, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230 (Leicestershire 1:1c)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates, 6 bovates in Knipton, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230 (Leicestershire 1:1b)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Nether Broughton, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  230 (Leicestershire 1:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides, 3 carucates in Saltby, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  234v (Leicestershire 18:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in -, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in -, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  377v (Lincolnshire CK:50)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 bovates in Aylesby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 27:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9 carucates, 2 bovates in Barrow upon Humber, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360 (Lincolnshire 30:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 24 carucates in Bassingham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Boothby Graffoe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Bourne, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  377 (Lincolnshire CK:40)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates in Bourne, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  364v (Lincolnshire 42:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 bovates in Burton [-le-Coggles], Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  376v (Lincolnshire CK:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 bovates in Burton-le-Coggles, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 35:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Cadney and Howsham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:66)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Caistor and Hundon, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:65)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Carlton le Moorland, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Clixby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:70)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Colsterworth, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  340 (Lincolnshire 2:39)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Counthorpe in Castle Bytham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Counthorpe in Castle Bytham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 bovates in Croxton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:72)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 bovates in Evedon, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Ewerby Thorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Fonaby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:69)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Gonerby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  341 (Lincolnshire 3:31)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Goxhill, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360 (Lincolnshire 30:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 carucates in Grasby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:74)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 bovates in Great Coates in Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 27:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Great Ponton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:23)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates, 2 bovates in Habrough and Newsham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:77)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Healing, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 27:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 bovate in Heckington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates in Holton le Moor, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:80)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 bovates in Howell, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 carucates in In 'Bredestorp' Hundred, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:28)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in In Stoxton Hundred, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 bovates in Keelby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:78)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Kirky la Thorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates, 6 bovates in Kirmington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:71)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4.50 carucates, 0.50 bovates in Limber Great or Little, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:67)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 bovates in Limber Great or Little, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:73)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 urban tenement in Lincoln, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  336 (Lincolnshire C:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Lincoln, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  336v (Lincolnshire C:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Little Ponton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:24)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in North Kelsey, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:68)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 bovates in North Stoke, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:26)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Norton Disney, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  366v (Lincolnshire 56:10)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 bovates in Owmby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:75)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 bovate in Quarrington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Searby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:76)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates, 2 bovates in Sempringham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  358v (Lincolnshire 27:57)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Skillington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  340 (Lincolnshire 2:37)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in South Kelsey, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338v (Lincolnshire 1:79)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates, 2 bovates in South Kyme, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 carucates in Stapleford, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  366v (Lincolnshire 56:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 carucates in Stoke Rochford, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:25)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 bovates in Swallow, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  357v (Lincolnshire 27:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 bovates in Thorpe on the Hill, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  338 (Lincolnshire 1:27)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Torksey, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:2-3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 18 carucates in Wellingore, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337v (Lincolnshire 1:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9 carucates in West Bytham, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  360v (Lincolnshire 30:29)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Collweston, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  225v (Northamptonshire 32:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides, 2 virgates in Great or Little Casterton, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  219v (Northamptonshire 1:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 bovates in Elton, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  286v (Nottinghamshire 9:110)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates, 3 bovates in Gunthorpe, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  285v (Nottinghamshire 9:74)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Newbold, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  281v (Nottinghamshire 1:58)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 bovates in Newbound, Nottinghamshire (in 1066): GDB  287v (Nottinghamshire 10:18)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 hides in -, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  255v (Shropshire 4:4:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides in Caynham, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  256v (Shropshire 4:11:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4.50 hides in Cound, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  254v (Shropshire 4:3:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Ness, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  253v (Shropshire 4:1:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7.50 hides in Shifnal, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  256v (Shropshire 4:9:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 hides in Sutton Maddock, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  259 (Shropshire 4:23:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Tong, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  253v (Shropshire 4:1:24)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 14.50 hides in Worthen, Shropshire (in 1066): GDB  255v (Shropshire 4:4:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 hides in Rolleston, Staffordshire (in 1066): GDB  248v (Staffordshire 10:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates in Beswick, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 13 carucates in Bridlington, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 25 carucates in Burton Agnes, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:14)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Cherry Burton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  373 (Yorkshire CE:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9.50 carucates in Clifton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  298v (Yorkshire C:30)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9.50 carucates in Clifton near York, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 15 carucates in Easington near Kilnsea, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Easingwold, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Foston, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6N:162)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 carucates in Gate Fulford, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  298 (Yorkshire C:28)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10 carucates in Gate Fulford, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 23 carucates in Great Driffield, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:8)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 27 carucates in Hornsea, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 13 carucates in Kilnsea, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 12 carucates in Lund near Beverley, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  304v (Yorkshire 3Y:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 13 carucates in Mappleton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 30 carucates in Market Weighton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Overton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  298v (Yorkshire C:32)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7 carucates, 6 bovates in Overton and Skelton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  313 (Yorkshire 6W:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 37 carucates in Pickering, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 25 carucates in Pocklington, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299v (Yorkshire 1Y:10)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Wales, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  308 (Yorkshire 5W:23)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 29 carucates in Warter, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  299 (Yorkshire 1Y:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 18 carucates in Welton, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  304v (Yorkshire 3Y:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 18 carucates in Withernsea, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  323v (Yorkshire 14E:4)
Event (21)
Accusation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Appointment of ealdorman (2)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Appointment of eorl (1)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (3)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Army-raising (3)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Assembly (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Assistance (1)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Battle (6)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Stigand 1.threatening William 1 with battle: Stigand 1... was threatening [William 1] with battle together with the sons of Ælfgar 46, [Edwin 33] and [Morcar 3], together with other nobles.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.28
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Bequeathing/will-making (1)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
Building construction/restoration (1)
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Burh - building (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Burning (4)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
Campaigning (6)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Capture (4)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Charter-witnessing (3)
 Bates138 - William 1 consents to Leofric 60's grant to Exeter: King William 1 consents to Bishop Leofric 60 of Exeter’s grant to the church of St Peter of Exeter to supplement the canons’ food of 7 hides (mansi) in Bampton, Aston and Chimney, all in Oxforshire, and Holcombe, Devon, with fields, woods, meadows, cultivated and uncultivated land, profits and revenues, free of all payments, with the exception of military service and the construction and restoration of bridges and towns.: Bates138   
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
Church/monastery/minster foundation/dedication/restoration (1)
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
Confirmation of land/privileges (2)
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
 S1041 - Edward 15 granting and confirming privileges of Westminster 1: King Edward 15 to Westminster 1 Abbey, Third Charter; grant and confirmation of privileges.: S1041    (1065)
Conquest (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Conspiracy/intent to murder (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Death/dying (2)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Desertion, military (3)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Disobedience (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Drowning (2)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Election of king (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Exile (2)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Flight (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33.killing: MS D: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors until Edwin 33 was killed by his own men and Morcar 3 went to Ely by ship.

MS E: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors. Then Earl Morcar 3 went to Ely in a ship, and Earl Edwin 33 was killed treacherously by his own men. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071 (1071)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Freeing from dues (1)
 Bates32 - writ of William 1 in favour of Beverley, St John's: King William 1 notifies Earl Morcar 3 and Gamel 1 fitzOsbern and all his barons of Yorkshire that he has granted that Archbishop Ealdred 37 should draw up a privilegium for the lands belonging to the church of St John of Beverley and that they shall be free from the demands of the king, his reeves, and all his men, except for those of the archbishop and priests of the church.: Bates32    (1067 x 1069)
Gafol payment (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Governing (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Grant and Gift (3)
 Bates138 - William 1 consents to Leofric 60's grant to Exeter: King William 1 consents to Bishop Leofric 60 of Exeter’s grant to the church of St Peter of Exeter to supplement the canons’ food of 7 hides (mansi) in Bampton, Aston and Chimney, all in Oxforshire, and Holcombe, Devon, with fields, woods, meadows, cultivated and uncultivated land, profits and revenues, free of all payments, with the exception of military service and the construction and restoration of bridges and towns.: Bates138   
 Bates32 - writ of William 1 in favour of Beverley, St John's: King William 1 notifies Earl Morcar 3 and Gamel 1 fitzOsbern and all his barons of Yorkshire that he has granted that Archbishop Ealdred 37 should draw up a privilegium for the lands belonging to the church of St John of Beverley and that they shall be free from the demands of the king, his reeves, and all his men, except for those of the archbishop and priests of the church.: Bates32    (1067 x 1069)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
Hostage-giving/taking (6)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Hostility (1)
 William 1.receiving English nobles' submission: [In Barking] Edwin 33 and Morcar 3... came to submit to [William 1]; they sought his pardon for any hostility they had shown him, and surrendered themselves and all their property to his mercy. Various other wealthy nobles did the same, amongst them Earl Copsi 1... [William 1] readily accepted their oaths, as they had requested, freely granted them his favour, restored all their possessions, and treated them with great honour.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.34
Hunting (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Illness/demonic seizure/madness (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Intercession/mediation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Invasion (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Journey (8)
 Edwin 33.killing: MS D: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors until Edwin 33 was killed by his own men and Morcar 3 went to Ely by ship.

MS E: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors. Then Earl Morcar 3 went to Ely in a ship, and Earl Edwin 33 was killed treacherously by his own men. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071 (1071)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Killing/murder (8)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33.killing: MS D: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors until Edwin 33 was killed by his own men and Morcar 3 went to Ely by ship.

MS E: In this year Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 fled away and travelled aimlessly in woods and moors. Then Earl Morcar 3 went to Ely in a ship, and Earl Edwin 33 was killed treacherously by his own men. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071 (1071)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Law-making/legislation (2)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Lease (1)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
Meeting (2)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Message-sending (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Military strategy (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Monastery, violation of (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Mustering (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Oath-swearing/fealty (5)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 William 1.receiving English nobles' submission: [In Barking] Edwin 33 and Morcar 3... came to submit to [William 1]; they sought his pardon for any hostility they had shown him, and surrendered themselves and all their property to his mercy. Various other wealthy nobles did the same, amongst them Earl Copsi 1... [William 1] readily accepted their oaths, as they had requested, freely granted them his favour, restored all their possessions, and treated them with great honour.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.34
Outlawing (2)
 Oswulf 37.put in charge of Northumbria: After Tosti 2 was exiled from Northumbria and outlawed on account of his extreme violence, Edward 15 entrusted the earldom to the care of Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, who, in turn, put the son of earl Eadwulf 44, brother of Ealdred 52, called Oswulf 37, in charge of the part of the earldom between Tyne and Tweed. After that Copsi 1 received the earldom from king William 1 and exiled Oswulf 37, but he gathered his men and killed Copsi 1 by a church entrance in Newburn. Just a few months later, however, he himself was run through by the spear of a bandit and died. : SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  383-4
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Overwintering (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Patronage (1)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Peace agreement (1)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
Plundering (2)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Policy decision (1)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Promise (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Provisioning (4)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Pursuit, military (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Raiding (4)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
Rebellion/sedition (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Reporting (4)
 Edwin 33-Morcar 3.driving Tosti 2 from Lindsey: MS C: When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer.

MS D: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him.

MS E: Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
Residence (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Restoration of land/property (1)
 William 1.receiving English nobles' submission: [In Barking] Edwin 33 and Morcar 3... came to submit to [William 1]; they sought his pardon for any hostility they had shown him, and surrendered themselves and all their property to his mercy. Various other wealthy nobles did the same, amongst them Earl Copsi 1... [William 1] readily accepted their oaths, as they had requested, freely granted them his favour, restored all their possessions, and treated them with great honour.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.34
Seizure of land (2)
 Leofric 49.holding lands from Worcester 1: Earl Leofric 49 son of Leofwine 49 held a number of lands from Worcester 1. He returned Wolverley and Blackwell, which he had long held illegally, and at the end of his life promised to return others: Chaddesley Corbett, Bell Hall, Belbroughton and Fairfield. His widow Godgifu 2 made various gifts to the monastery and arranged for annual payment from his lands, but they were seized from her by Earls Edwin 33 and Morcar 3, inspired by the devil. As a result Edwin 33 perished, abandoned by his friends, and Morcar 3 died in captivity.: Hemming.Codicellus  261-2
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Submission (7)
 Battle of Fulford (1066): MS C: Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country.

MS D: And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew.

MS E: Harald 5, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CDE 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Events of 1066 (MS E): In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 (1066)
 William 1.consecration as king of England: MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066 (1066)
 William 1.receiving English nobles' submission: [In Barking] Edwin 33 and Morcar 3... came to submit to [William 1]; they sought his pardon for any hostility they had shown him, and surrendered themselves and all their property to his mercy. Various other wealthy nobles did the same, amongst them Earl Copsi 1... [William 1] readily accepted their oaths, as they had requested, freely granted them his favour, restored all their possessions, and treated them with great honour.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.34
 William 1.siege and capture of Ely in 1071: MS D: Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came there [to Ely], and many hundred men with them. But when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and placed a naval force on the seaward side. And they then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who could escape with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and he took all the men prisoner and did as he pleased with them: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died.

MS E: And Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Siweard 14 Barn came to Ely and many hundred men with them. And when King William 1 found out about this, he called out a naval force and a land force, and invested that part of the country from outside, and made a bridge and went in, and placed the naval force on the seaward side. And the outlaws then all surrendered to the king, that is to say Bishop Æthelwine 40 and Earl Morcar 3 and all who were with them except Hereweard 1 alone and those who wished to go with him, and he led them out valiantly. And the king took their ships and weapons and plenty of money, and did as he pleased with the men: Bishop Æthelwine 40 he sent to Abingdon, and there he died soon after in the course of the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1072; E 1071
Surety-giving (2)
 Morcar 3.appointment as earl of Northumbria: MS C: And they [the people of Northumbria] adopted Morcar 3 [Morkere] as their earl.

MS DE: And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [of Mercia], and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2’s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2’s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4’s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl Ælfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at – which was many thousands – and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Taxation (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Writ-issuing/sending (1)
 Bates32 - writ of William 1 in favour of Beverley, St John's: King William 1 notifies Earl Morcar 3 and Gamel 1 fitzOsbern and all his barons of Yorkshire that he has granted that Archbishop Ealdred 37 should draw up a privilegium for the lands belonging to the church of St John of Beverley and that they shall be free from the demands of the king, his reeves, and all his men, except for those of the archbishop and priests of the church.: Bates32    (1067 x 1069)