Waltheof 2 (Male) Earl of Northumbria, d. 1076
m/l xi

Notes: C. P. Lewis, ?Waltheof, earl of Northumbria (c.1050?1076)?, ODNB,

Factoid List

Recorded Name (84)
W (2)
 GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:66)
 GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:67)
Waldeouus (1)
 Bates177   
Wallef (73)
 GDB  213 (Bedfordshire 23:17)
 GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:31)
 GDB  216 (Bedfordshire 40:3)
 GDB  145-145v (Buckinghamshire 5:10)
 GDB  152v (Buckinghamshire 53:2)
 GDB  193v (Cambridgeshire 13:11)
 GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 37:2)
 GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 37:2)
 GDB  197 (Cambridgeshire 21:8)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 39:1)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:16)
 GDB  189v (Cambridgeshire 1:6)
 GDB  200v (Cambridgeshire 32:14)
 GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 37:1)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 44:1)
 GDB  197 (Cambridgeshire 21:7)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:11)
 GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 32:40)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 39:2)
 GDB  193 (Cambridgeshire 13:3)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 38:5)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:15)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 38:3)
 GDB  193v (Cambridgeshire 13:12)
 GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:8)
 GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 36:1)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:12)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:13)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 43:1)
 GDB  198v (Cambridgeshire 26:34)
 GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:14)
 GDB  198v (Cambridgeshire 26:35)
 GDB  197 (Cambridgeshire 21:9)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 41:8)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 40:1)
 GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 39:3)
 GDB  274v (Derbyshire 6:40)
 LDB  92 (Essex 55:1)
 GDB  137v (Hertfordshire 19:2)
 GDB  207 (Huntingdonshire 20:9)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:3)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:4)
 GDB  233 (Leicestershire 14:16)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:1)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:2)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:5)
 GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:6)
 GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:14)
 GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:13)
 GDB  130v (Middlesex 24:1)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:2)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:1)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20h)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:6)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 53:1)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20d)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:5)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20b)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20e)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20j)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20f)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20i)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:1)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:3)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:22)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:4)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20c)
 GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20g)
 GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:20a)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:12)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:7)
 GDB  293v (Rutland 1:11)
 GDB  320 (Yorkshire 10W:41)
Walleuus (1)
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
Waltef (2)
 GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 GDB  366v (Lincolnshire 56:11)
Walðeof (1)
 Bates181   
Walþeof (2)
 S1042   
 Bates286   
Weldief (1)
 Bates159   
Wælðeof (1)
 S1033   
Personal Information (1)
obit (1)
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4 (a martyr, innocent victim of murder)
Office (16)
Comes (6)
 WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II:38
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
 Bates177   
 Bates181   
 SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  8(220)
 SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
Dux (4)
 S1033   
 S1042   
 Bates159   
 Bates286   
Eorl (6)
 ASC   
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1071; E 1070
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1077; E 1076
Personal Relationship (32)
~ Daughter (Consanguineal kinship) of Waltheof 2 (2)
 Alice 1: of Waltheof 2: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
 Matilda 4: of Waltheof 2: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
~ Grandfather (Consanguineal kinship) of Waltheof 2 (1)
 Ealdred 52: of Waltheof 2: SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  8(220)
Waltheof 2 Grandson, daughter’s son (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Ealdred 52: SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Waltheof 2 Husband (Affinal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Judith 3: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
Waltheof 2 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (21)
 of Leofgifu 4: GDB  213 (Bedfordshire 23:17)
 of Tuffa 1: GDB  217v (Bedfordshire 53:31)
 of Leofwine 102: GDB  216 (Bedfordshire 40:3)
 of Wulfric 85: GDB  152v (Buckinghamshire 53:2)
 of Leofsige 45: GDB  197 (Cambridgeshire 21:8)
 of Sigar 2: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 39:1)
 of Akeli 1: GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 37:1)
 of Almær 6: GDB  193 (Cambridgeshire 13:3)
 of Sægar 1: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 38:5)
 of Almær 6: GDB  193v (Cambridgeshire 13:12)
 of Almær 6: GDB  197v (Cambridgeshire 25:8)
 of Hoc 1: GDB  201v (Cambridgeshire 36:1)
 of Godwine 84: GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:13)
 of Siward 2: GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 43:1)
 of Godwine 84: GDB  202v (Cambridgeshire 41:14)
 of Leofsige 45: GDB  197 (Cambridgeshire 21:9)
 of Guthmund 6: GDB  202 (Cambridgeshire 39:3)
 of Ælfric 164: GDB  137v (Hertfordshire 19:2)
 of Swein 13: GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:66)
 of Swein 13: GDB  233 (Leicestershire 13:67)
 of Ulf 33: GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 53:1)
Waltheof 2 Son (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (5)
 of Siweard 11: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4
 of Ælfflæd 24: SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 of Siweard 11: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
 of Ælfflæd 24: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
 of Siweard 11: S1481   
Waltheof 2 Son-in-law (Affinal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Adelida 2: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.37
Possession (52)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Brailsford, Derbyshire (in 1066): GDB  274v (Derbyshire 6:40)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 10.50 hides in Walthamstow, Essex (in 1066): LDB  92 (Essex 55:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides in Diddington, Huntingdonshire (in 1066): GDB  207 (Huntingdonshire 20:9)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Cosby, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 carucates in Frolesworth, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 9 carucates in Houghton-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  233 (Leicestershire 14:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4.50 carucates, 1 bovate in Oadby, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Peatling Magna, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 carucate in Sharnford, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: -1 virgates, 5 carucates in Willoughby Waterless, Leicestershire (in 1066): GDB  236 (Leicestershire 40:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in -, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  337 (Lincolnshire T:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 carucates in Eagle, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:14)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2.50 carucates in East Torrington, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:18)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Exton Rutland, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Fulnetby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:20)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6 bovates in Girsby, Burgh on Bain, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 bovates in Hardwick in Panton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 carucates in Hatton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362 (Lincolnshire 34:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 bovates in Kingthorpe, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:23)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Langton by Wragby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:19)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.50 carucates in Market Overton Rutland, Stretton Rutland, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  366v (Lincolnshire 56:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Panton, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 carucates in Rand, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:21)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 11 carucates in Swinderby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:16)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 7.50 carucates in Thurlby near Norton Disney, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:15)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates, 2 bovates in West Barkwith, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362v (Lincolnshire 34:17)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Whissendine Rutland, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  367 (Lincolnshire 56:13)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 6.50 bovates in Wragby, Lincolnshire (in 1066): GDB  362 (Lincolnshire 34:12)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 5 hides in Tottenham, Middlesex (in 1066): GDB  130v (Middlesex 24:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.33 hides in Ashley, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:2)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in Belmesthorpe, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 virgates in Brafield-on-the-Green, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20h)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Brampton Ash, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:6)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 8 hides in Daventry, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:21)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Denton, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20d)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Dingley, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:5)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3 hides, 1 virgate in Grendon, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20b)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Hackleton, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20e)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 hides in Hardingtstone, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20j)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide, 1 virgate in Horton, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20f)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.50 hides in Quinton, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20i)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in Ryhall, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:1)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 0.83 hides in Sutton Bassett, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:3)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.50 hides in Twywell, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:22)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1.33 hides in Weston by Welland, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:4)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 virgate in Whiston, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20c)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 1 hide in Wollaston, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228v (Northamptonshire 56:20g)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.50 hides in Yardley Hastings, Northamptonshire (in 1066): GDB  228 (Northamptonshire 56:20a)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 2 carucates in Exton, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:12)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 3.50 carucates in Market Overton and Stretton, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:7)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 4 carucates in Whissendine, Rutland (in 1066): GDB  293v (Rutland 1:11)
 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 29 carucates in Hallam, Yorkshire (in 1066): GDB  320 (Yorkshire 10W:41)
Event (21)
Accusation (2)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
 William 1.imprisoning Waltheof 2: MS D: Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured.

MS E: And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Agreement (1)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
Appointment of ealdorman (1)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Appointment of eorl (3)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 Gospatric 1-Waltheof 2.made earls of Northumbria: After the death of Oswulf 37 king William 1 made the earl Gospatric 1, from the kin of king Æthelred 32's granddaughter [Ealdgyth 4]. After the king deposed Gospatric 1, he gave the earldom to Waltheof 2, son of earl Siweard 11 and Ælfflæd 24, daughter of Ealdred 52. When Waltheof 2 was captured and executed, the king entrusted the earldom to Walcher 1.: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
 Ælfflæd 24.claiming lands: Ælfflæd 24 claimed Barmpton, Skirningham, Elton, Carlton, Aycliffe, and Hesleden, which her husband Siweard 11 had given her, as belonging to her by hereditary right; and she gave her son Waltheof 2 the earldom of Northumberland, as it had been held by Waltheof 2's grandfather, earl Ealdred 52. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  8(220)
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Army-raising (3)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Arrest (1)
 Waltheof 2.execution: Waltheof 2, a well-born earl was arrested by King William 1 on suspicion of conspiring against him, and long kept in prison. Finally he was beheaded and buried at Crowland.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4
Battle (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Betrayal/oath-breaking (1)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Birth (1)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Burh - building (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Burh - capture (1)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Burial (2)
 Waltheof 2.burial at Crowland: Earl Waltheof 2 was buried at Crowland following his beheading at Winchester.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1077; E 1076 (1076)
 Waltheof 2.execution: Waltheof 2, a well-born earl was arrested by King William 1 on suspicion of conspiring against him, and long kept in prison. Finally he was beheaded and buried at Crowland.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4
Burning (3)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
Campaigning (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Capture (3)
 Gospatric 1-Waltheof 2.made earls of Northumbria: After the death of Oswulf 37 king William 1 made the earl Gospatric 1, from the kin of king Æthelred 32's granddaughter [Ealdgyth 4]. After the king deposed Gospatric 1, he gave the earldom to Waltheof 2, son of earl Siweard 11 and Ælfflæd 24, daughter of Ealdred 52. When Waltheof 2 was captured and executed, the king entrusted the earldom to Walcher 1.: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
 William 1.imprisoning Waltheof 2: MS D: Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured.

MS E: And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Charter-witnessing (5)
 Bates159 - William 1 granting land to Jumièges: King William 1 grants Hayling Island, Hants., to the abbey of Jumièges.: Bates159    (1066 x 1067)
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
 Bates286 - William 1 restoring land to Wells: King William 1, moved by the prayers of Bishop Giso 1 of Wells, restores 30 hides at Banwell, Avon, to the cathedral church of Wells, which Giso 1’s predecessor, Duduc 6, had given to the church, and which King Harold 3 had taken away. These are given with everything belonging to them.: Bates286    (1068)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
Church/monastery destruction (1)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Church/monastery/minster foundation/dedication/restoration (1)
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
Confirmation of land/privileges (2)
 Bates181 - William 1 confirming foundation of London, St Martin-le-Grand: King William 1, at Ingelric 1’s request, confirms the foundation of the collegiate church of St Martin-le-Grand, which Ingelric 1 and his brother Eirard 1 had built and endowed within the walls of the city of London out of their own possession.: Bates181    (1068)
 S1042 - Edward 15 confirming lands of Wells: King Edward 15 to the bishopric of Wells; general confirmation of lands.: S1042    (1065)
Conquest (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Conspiracy/intent to murder (1)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Death/dying (1)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
Demolition (1)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Desertion, military (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Disputing/dispute-settling (1)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
Drowning (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Election of king (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Execution (2)
 Waltheof 2.execution: Waltheof 2, a well-born earl was arrested by King William 1 on suspicion of conspiring against him, and long kept in prison. Finally he was beheaded and buried at Crowland.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4
 Waltheof 2.execution at Winchester: MS D: Earl Waltheof 2 was beheaded at Winchester on St Petronella’s day.

MS E: Earl Waltheof 2 was beheaded at Winchester.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1077; E 1076 (1076)
Exile (1)
 Gospatric 1-Waltheof 2.made earls of Northumbria: After the death of Oswulf 37 king William 1 made the earl Gospatric 1, from the kin of king Æthelred 32's granddaughter [Ealdgyth 4]. After the king deposed Gospatric 1, he gave the earldom to Waltheof 2, son of earl Siweard 11 and Ælfflæd 24, daughter of Ealdred 52. When Waltheof 2 was captured and executed, the king entrusted the earldom to Walcher 1.: SymeonofDurham.DeNorthymbrorumComitibus  384
Feasting/banqueting (1)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Flight (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Friendship-making (1)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Gafol payment (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Grant and Gift (4)
 Bates159 - William 1 granting land to Jumièges: King William 1 grants Hayling Island, Hants., to the abbey of Jumièges.: Bates159    (1066 x 1067)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
 S1033 - Edward 15 granting land to Rouen, St Mary's: King Edward 15 to St Mary's, Rouen; grant of Ottery St Mary, Devon. : S1033    (1061)
 Waltheof 2.granting land to Remigius 1: Earl Waltheof 2 to Bishop Remigius 1 through King William 1's hands; grant of Leighton Bromswold, Hunts..: Bates177    (1067 x 1076)
Hostage-giving/taking (3)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Hostility (1)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Imprisonment (3)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
 Waltheof 2.execution: Waltheof 2, a well-born earl was arrested by King William 1 on suspicion of conspiring against him, and long kept in prison. Finally he was beheaded and buried at Crowland.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4
 William 1.imprisoning Waltheof 2: MS D: Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured.

MS E: And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Invasion (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Invention/authorisation of relics (1)
 Waltheof 2.body found incorrupt: Ingulf 2, influenced by miracles, handled the noble and quite incorrupt body of Waltheof 2; the head had been stuck back on the trunk, and only a red line witnessed to his violent end. So the prior did not scruple to call him 'saint' whenever Waltheof 2 was spoken of.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.6
Journey (4)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 William 1.journey to Normandy in 1067 with leading Englishmen: MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067 (1067)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Judicial decision/review (1)
 Various.reviewing lands seized from Ely: A record of the lands which were identified as having been unjustly taken from the abbey of Ely at a plea convened by Bishop Geoffrey 2 of Coutances and Remigius 1 of Lincoln, Earl Waltheof 2, and the sheriffs Picot 1 and Ilbert 1 on King William 1's order. When they had assembled the entire shire as William 1 had ordered, they determined which lands had been held in demesne by the abbey in King Edward 15’s day and then returned them to the demesne no matter who held them.: Bates117    (1071 x 1075)
Killing/murder (3)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Marriage (2)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Message-sending (1)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Military strategy (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Miracle (1)
 Waltheof 2.body found incorrupt: Ingulf 2, influenced by miracles, handled the noble and quite incorrupt body of Waltheof 2; the head had been stuck back on the trunk, and only a red line witnessed to his violent end. So the prior did not scruple to call him 'saint' whenever Waltheof 2 was spoken of.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.6
Monastery, violation of (1)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Mustering (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Oath-swearing/fealty (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Overwintering (1)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Peace agreement (1)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
Plundering (3)
 Ealdred 52-Carl 1.feud: When Eadwulf 47 died, Ealdred 52 - whom Uchtred 2 had begotten by Ecgfritha 1, the daughter of bishop Ealdhun 6 - became possessed of the earldom of Northumberland only, and put to death Thurbrand 2, who had murdered his father. Carl 1, the son of Thurbrand 2, and earl Ealdred 52 were engaged in a mutual enmity, and were constantly laying traps the one for the other; but at last, by the agency of their friends, they were brought to an agreement; by whose instrumentality they also made satisfaction to each other. So firmly knit was their friendship, that, like sworn brethren, they meant to visit Rome together; but a long-continued tempest of the sea hindered them, and they were constrained to abandon their plan, and return homewards. Carl 1 received the earl into his house with great pomp and due respect; but, after having provided an entertainment for him, and when he was entirely thrown off his guard, he conducted him, as if out of compliment, into the wood called Risewude, and there he slew him, when he suspected no harm. A little stone cross marks, even to this day, the spot at which he was murdered. Earl Waltheof 2, the grandson of earl Ealdred 52 - for he was the son of his daughter [Ælfflæd 24], - some time afterwards avenged the death of his grandfather with a mighty slaughter, for which purpose he had collected a large assembly of young men. For when the sons of Carl 1 were feasting together in the house of their elder brother at Settrengton, not far from York, the party which had been despatched there for that purpose fell upon them unawares, and but the whole of them to death, with the sole exception of Cnut 4, whose life was spared from regard to his innate excellence of disposition. Sumerlede 1, who is alive at this present day, happened not to be there. Having massacred the sons [Thurbrand 3 and Gamel 2] and grandsons [Anonymi 10057] of Carl 1, they returned, carrying with them many and diverse spoils. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  7(219)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
 Ralph 3-Roger 1.conspiracy at Norwich in 1075: MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075 (1075)
Policy decision (1)
 William 1.leaving for Normandy: Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38
Promise (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Property-exchanging (1)
 Dispute concerning land in Rutland: Godgifu 6, a widow, gave Ryhall and Belmesthorpe, Rutland, to Peterborough. She later married Earl Siweard 11 of Northumbria. After her death, Siweard 11 asked Abbot Leofric 23 and the brethren if he could hold Ryhall and Belmesthorpe (which she had granted to the community) for his lifetime. After Siweard 11’s death, there was an agreement between Abbot Leofric 23 and Waltheof 2, Siweard 11’s son, in the presence of King Edward 15. The abbot gave Waltheof 2 5 gold marks, and in return the latter ceded Belmesthorpe (on the king’s orders) but was allowed to retain Ryhall for his lifetime. He failed to fulfil this agreement, but later repented and promised that the land would be returned on his death.: S1481    (1030 x 1076)
Provisioning (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Pursuit, military (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Raiding (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Rebellion/sedition (1)
 Northern rebellion of 1069: MS D: Three sons of King Swein 5 came from Denmark with 240 ships into the Humber, together with Earl Osbeorn 3 and Earl Thorkil 1. And there came to meet them Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Waltheof 2 and Mærleswein 1 and Earl Gospatric 1 with the Northumbrians and all the people, riding and marching with an immense army rejoicing exceedingly; and so they all went resolutely to York, and stormed and raised the castle and captured an incalculable treasure in it, and killed many hundreds of Frenchmen and took many with them to the ships. And before the shipmen got there the Frenchmen had burned the city, and had also thoroughly ravaged and burnt the holy minster of St Peter. When the king found out about this, he went northwards with all his army that he could collect, and utterly ravaged and laid waste that shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber where the king could not get them. And the king was in York on Christmas day, and so was in the country all the winter. And he came to Winchester that same Easter.

MS E: Then between the two feasts of St Mary they – that is the sons of King Swein 5 and his brother Earl Osbeorn 3 – came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships. And then Earl Waltheof 2 went out, and he and the atheling Edgar 14 and many hundreds of men with them came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York and landed and won the castles, and killed many hundreds of men and took a large amount of treasure on board ship, and kept the chief men in bonds, and lay between the Ouse and the Trent all that winter. And King William 1 went into the shire and ruined it completely.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1068; E 1069 (1069)
Relics-incorrupt preservation/placing in reliquary/requesting/translating (1)
 Waltheof 2.body found incorrupt: Ingulf 2, influenced by miracles, handled the noble and quite incorrupt body of Waltheof 2; the head had been stuck back on the trunk, and only a red line witnessed to his violent end. So the prior did not scruple to call him 'saint' whenever Waltheof 2 was spoken of.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.6
Reporting (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Restoration of land/property (3)
 Bates286 - William 1 restoring land to Wells: King William 1, moved by the prayers of Bishop Giso 1 of Wells, restores 30 hides at Banwell, Avon, to the cathedral church of Wells, which Giso 1’s predecessor, Duduc 6, had given to the church, and which King Harold 3 had taken away. These are given with everything belonging to them.: Bates286    (1068)
 Various.reviewing lands seized from Ely: A record of the lands which were identified as having been unjustly taken from the abbey of Ely at a plea convened by Bishop Geoffrey 2 of Coutances and Remigius 1 of Lincoln, Earl Waltheof 2, and the sheriffs Picot 1 and Ilbert 1 on King William 1's order. When they had assembled the entire shire as William 1 had ordered, they determined which lands had been held in demesne by the abbey in King Edward 15’s day and then returned them to the demesne no matter who held them.: Bates117    (1071 x 1075)
 Ælfflæd 24.claiming lands: Ælfflæd 24 claimed Barmpton, Skirningham, Elton, Carlton, Aycliffe, and Hesleden, which her husband Siweard 11 had given her, as belonging to her by hereditary right; and she gave her son Waltheof 2 the earldom of Northumberland, as it had been held by Waltheof 2's grandfather, earl Ealdred 52. : SymeonofDurham.DeObsessioneDunelmi  8(220)
Seizure of land (1)
 Various.reviewing lands seized from Ely: A record of the lands which were identified as having been unjustly taken from the abbey of Ely at a plea convened by Bishop Geoffrey 2 of Coutances and Remigius 1 of Lincoln, Earl Waltheof 2, and the sheriffs Picot 1 and Ilbert 1 on King William 1's order. When they had assembled the entire shire as William 1 had ordered, they determined which lands had been held in demesne by the abbey in King Edward 15’s day and then returned them to the demesne no matter who held them.: Bates117    (1071 x 1075)
Submission (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)
Taxation (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS D): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066 (1066)