Gytha 1 (Female) Wife of Earl Godwine 51, d. 1068
e xi-l xi

Notes: See under Ann Williams, ?Godwine , earl of Wessex (d. 1053)?, ODNB.

Factoid List

Recorded Name (1)
Gya (1)
 S1236   
Status (1)
Comitissa (1)
 S1236   
Personal Relationship (10)
~ Husband (Affinal kinship) of Gytha 1 (1)
 Godwine 51: of Gytha 1: S1236   
Gytha 1 Mother (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (4)
 of Harold 3: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1067
 of Harold 3: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 of Harold 3: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
 of Gyrth 1: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
Gytha 1 Sister (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Cnut 3: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1
Gytha 1 Wife (Affinal kinship) of ~ (4)
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051; D 1052
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 of Godwine 51: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1
 of Godwine 51: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052
Event (14)
Advice/counsel (1)
 Harold 3.despising his friends' counsel: Harold 3 was preparing for a fight with the Normans. However, his mother [Gytha 1] and his loyal friends tried to dissuade him from war. His brother Earl Gyrth 1 suggested that he would fight Duke William 1 since he had sworn no oath and owed nothing to him, while Harold 3 should wait for the outcome not to commit perjury. Harold 3 was enraged, he taunted Gyrth 1 and even insolently kicked his mother Gytha 1 who was trying to hold him back.: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(35)
Agreement (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Army-raising (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Assembly (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Assistance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Burial (1)
 Harold 3.burial: [Harold 3] was carried into the camp of the duke [William 1], who entrusted his burial to William 6 surnamed Malet, not to his mother [Gytha 1], though she offered his weight in gold for the body of her beloved son. For he [William 1] knew it was not seemly to accept gold for such transaction. He considered that it would be unworthy for him to be buried as his mother wished, when innumerable men lay unburied because of his overweening greed. It was said in jest that he should be placed as guardian of the shore and sea, which in his madness he had once occupied with his armies. : WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
Campaigning (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Charter-witnessing (1)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
Decision-making (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Defence (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Embassy (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Exile (3)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Flight (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Grant and Gift (3)
 Gytha 1.granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the sould of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon. : S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 S1236 - witnessing Gytha 1 granting land to Exeter, St Olave's: Gytha 1, comitissa, to St Olave (Exeter), for the soul of her lord, Godwine 51, comes; grant of land at Sherford, Devon.: S1236    (1057 x 1065)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Horse-using/giving/acquisition/riding (1)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
Hospitality (2)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hostage-giving/taking (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Journey (4)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Gytha 1.travelling to Flatholme and Saint-Omer: Gytha 1, Harold 3s mother, and many distinguished mens wives with her, went out to Flatholme and stayed there for some time and so went from there overseas to Saint-Omer. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1067 (1068)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Killing/murder (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Marriage (2)
 Cnut 3.giving Godwine 51 his sister as wife: Cnut 3 gave Godwine 51 his sister [Gytha 1] as wife.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 (1019)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Meeting (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Message-sending (1)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
Military strategy (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Oath-swearing/fealty (1)
 Swein 3.doubting his parentage: Swein 3 gave himself out to be the kin of Cnut 3 and bore testimony that he was his father. His mother [Gytha 1], appalled by his arrogance and vanity, gathered together many noble West Saxon ladies [Anonymi 10052], and proved by their testimony and great oaths that se was his mother and Godwine 51 his father. Swein 3, however, continued to maintain that he did not spring from that kindred.: Hemming.Codicellus  275
Outlawing (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Overwintering (1)
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
Peace agreement (2)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Pursuit, military (3)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Ransoming (2)
 Gytha 1.attempt to ransom Harold 3's body: William 1 refused Harold 3's body to his mother [Gytha 1], even though she offered his weight in gold.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 Harold 3.burial: [Harold 3] was carried into the camp of the duke [William 1], who entrusted his burial to William 6 surnamed Malet, not to his mother [Gytha 1], though she offered his weight in gold for the body of her beloved son. For he [William 1] knew it was not seemly to accept gold for such transaction. He considered that it would be unworthy for him to be buried as his mother wished, when innumerable men lay unburied because of his overweening greed. It was said in jest that he should be placed as guardian of the shore and sea, which in his madness he had once occupied with his armies. : WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
Rebellion/sedition (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Refusal (2)
 Gytha 1.attempt to ransom Harold 3's body: William 1 refused Harold 3's body to his mother [Gytha 1], even though she offered his weight in gold.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
 Harold 3.burial: [Harold 3] was carried into the camp of the duke [William 1], who entrusted his burial to William 6 surnamed Malet, not to his mother [Gytha 1], though she offered his weight in gold for the body of her beloved son. For he [William 1] knew it was not seemly to accept gold for such transaction. He considered that it would be unworthy for him to be buried as his mother wished, when innumerable men lay unburied because of his overweening greed. It was said in jest that he should be placed as guardian of the shore and sea, which in his madness he had once occupied with his armies. : WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.25
Residence (5)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Godwine 51.exile in Flanders: When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3
 Godwine 51.expulsion from England: MS C: Earl Godwine 51 and all his sons were driven out of England. He went to Bruges with his wife [Gytha 1] and with his three sons, Swein 3, Tosti 2, and Gyrth 1. And Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Ireland and stayed there that winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1051 (1051)
 Gytha 1.travelling to Flatholme and Saint-Omer: Gytha 1, Harold 3s mother, and many distinguished mens wives with her, went out to Flatholme and stayed there for some time and so went from there overseas to Saint-Omer. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1067 (1068)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Restoration of land/property (2)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Restoration to office (2)
 Godwine 51.restoration in 1052: MSS CD: Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people.

MS E: Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Siege (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Support-gaining (1)
 Godwine 51.return to England in 1052 (MSS CD): Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Lands End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the kings ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052 (1052)
Visit (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)