Judith 2 (Female) Wife of Earl Tosti 2; daughter of Baldwin 4 IV of Flanders
m xi

Factoid List

Recorded Name (1)
Iuthitta (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Personal Information (2)
piety (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (religious)
provenance (1)
 Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (of royal stock)
Personal Relationship (8)
Judith 2 Half-sister (Semi-kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Baldwin 4: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Judith 2 Kinswoman (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Baldwin 4: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
Judith 2 Niece (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Edward 15: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Judith 2 Wife (Affinal kinship) of ~ (5)
 of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061
 of Tosti 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; D 1064
 of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
 of Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
Event (9)
Agreement (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Appointment of ealdorman (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Army-raising (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Assembly (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Assistance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Burning (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Capture (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Council-meeting, ecclesiastical (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Culting/venerating saint(s) (1)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Exile (3)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Governing (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Grant and Gift (1)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Hospitality (2)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Hostage-giving/taking (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Intercession/mediation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Journey (5)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Ealdred 37-Tosti 2-Judith 2.pilgrimage to Rome: In this year Bishop Ealdred 37 went to Rome for his pallium and received it from Pope Nicholas 2. And the Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] also went to Rome. And the bishops and the earl experienced much hardship when they were coming home.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061 (1061)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Judith 2.leaving Rome: As Tosti 2's stay in Rome was protracted owing to Bishop Ealdred 37's case, he had sent his wife [Judith 2] and her royal escort on ahead, together with most of his own men; and these had had a successful journey, in total ignorance of the robbery that had happened to the party which followed them behind. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
Killing/murder (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Law-making/legislation (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Marriage (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.marrige to Judith 2: Godwine 51 was staying with Baldwin 4 during the very marriage celebrations of Godwine 51's son, Earl Tosti 2, when he took as wife Judith 2, a niece of that famous King Edward 15 and sister of this Count Baldwin 4.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4
Meeting (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Message-sending (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Monastery, violation of (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Outlawing (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Overwintering (2)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Pallium-despatch/receipt/request (2)
 Ealdred 37-Tosti 2-Judith 2.pilgrimage to Rome: In this year Bishop Ealdred 37 went to Rome for his pallium and received it from Pope Nicholas 2. And the Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] also went to Rome. And the bishops and the earl experienced much hardship when they were coming home.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061 (1061)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Papal advice/audience/decision/privilege (2)
 Ealdred 37-Tosti 2-Judith 2.pilgrimage to Rome: In this year Bishop Ealdred 37 went to Rome for his pallium and received it from Pope Nicholas 2. And the Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] also went to Rome. And the bishops and the earl experienced much hardship when they were coming home.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061 (1061)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Pilgrimage (2)
 Ealdred 37-Tosti 2-Judith 2.pilgrimage to Rome: In this year Bishop Ealdred 37 went to Rome for his pallium and received it from Pope Nicholas 2. And the Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] also went to Rome. And the bishops and the earl experienced much hardship when they were coming home.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1061 (1061)
 Tosti 2-Judith 2-Gyrth 1.pilgrimage to Rome: [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (1061)
Plundering (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Pursuit, military (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Rebellion/sedition (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Residence (4)
 : MS C: Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: Earl Tosti 2 and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1065; E 1064 (1065)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Tosti 2.exile from England: When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065]. : Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 (1065)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Seizure of land (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Siege (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Surety-giving (1)
 Tosti 2.rebellion against: MS C: And then after Michaelmas all the thegns of Yorkshire (Anonymi 10016) went to York and killed there all Tosti 2s housecarls (Anonymi 10017) that they could find and took his treasure. And Tosti 2 was then at Britford with the king. And very soon after this there was a big council meeting at Northampton, and likewise one at Oxford on the feast of St Simon and St Jude [28 October]. And Earl Harold 3 was there and wanted to bring about an agreement between them if he could. But he could not. But all Tosti 2s earldom unanimously deserted him, and outlawed him, and all those with him who had committed lawless deeds; because first he robbed God, and all those who were less powerful than himself he deprived of life and land. And they adopted Morcar 3 as their earl, and Tosti 2 went overseas and his wife [Judith 2] with him to Baldwin 4s country, and took up winter quarters at St Omer.

MS DE: (MS D) And soon after this all the thegns in Yorkshire and in Northumberland ... / (MS E) In this year the men of Northumbria ... (MSS DE) ... came together and outlawed their Earl Tosti 2 and killed his hiredmen, and all they could get at, both English and Danish, and took all his weapons in York, and gold and silver and all his treasure they could hear about anywhere. And they sent for Morcar 3, son of Earl lfgar 46, and chose him as their earl, and he went south with all the people of the shire, and of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire until he came to Northampton. And his brother Edwin 33 came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom, and also many Welsh came with him. Thereupon Earl Harold 3 came to meet them, and they entrusted him with a message to King Edward 15, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might be allowed to have Morcar 3 as their earl. And the king granted this and sent Harold 3 back to them at Northampton on the eve of St Simon and St Jude [28 December]. And he proclaimed this to them and gave them surety for it, and he renewed there the law of King Cnut 3. And the northern men did much damage round Northampton while he was gone on their errand, in that they killed people and burned houses and corn and took all the cattle that they could get at which was many thousands and captured many hundreds of people and took them north with them, so that that shire and other neighbouring shires were the worse for it for many years. And Earl Tosti 2 and his wife [Judith 2] and all those who wanted what he wanted went south overseas to Count Baldwin 4, and he received them all and there they remained all the winter.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1065; E 1064 (1065)
Visit (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15s sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1s men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15s sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11s earldom and Leofric 49s and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kings allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines t Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4s country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kings favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Factoids linked indirectly to Judith 2 (1)
Personal Information (1)
reputation (1)
 Tosti 2: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 (Earl Tosti 2 was endowed with very great and prudent restraint - although occasionally he was a little over-zealous in attacking evil - and with bold and inflexible constancy of mind. He would first ponder much and by himself the plans in his mind, and when he had ascertained by an appreciation of the matter the final issue, he would set them in order; and these he would not readily share with anyone. Also, sometimes he was so cautiously active that his action seemed to come before his planning; and this often enough was advantageous to him in the theatre of the world. When he gave, he was lavish with liberal bounty, and, urged by his religious wife [Judith 2], it was done more frequently in honour of Christ that for any fickle favour of men. In his word, deed, or promise he was distinguished by adamantine steadfastness. He renounced desire for all women except his wife Judith 2 of royal stock, and chastely, with restraint, and wisely he governed the use of his body and tongue. )