Malcolm 5 (Male) III, king of Scots, d. 1093
m/l xi

Factoid List

Office (3)
King (3)
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066
 ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067
 WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.10
Personal Relationship (2)
~ Daughter (Consanguineal kinship) of Malcolm 5 (1)
 Matilda 3: of Malcolm 5: WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VIII.10
~ Wife (Affinal kinship) of Malcolm 5 (1)
 Margaret 1: of Malcolm 5: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
Event (4)
Army-raising (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Battle (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Campaigning (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Capture (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Commendation (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Gafol payment (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Governing (1)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Grant and Gift (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Horse-using/giving/acquisition/riding (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Hospitality (2)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
Hostage-giving/taking (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Invasion (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Journey (3)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Killing/murder (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Lust (1)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
Marriage (1)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
Message-sending (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Military strategy (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Mustering (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Oath-swearing/fealty (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Ordering (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Peace agreement (1)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Provisioning (2)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Pursuit, military (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Raiding (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Refusal (1)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)
Reporting (1)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
Request (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Ship-building/shipwreck (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Skirmishing (1)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Submission (2)
 Events of 1066 (MS C): Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066 (1066)
 Tosti 2.campaining against the Scots: When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.: Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6
Treaty (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Visit (1)
 Edgar 14.dealings with Malcolm 5 and William 1 in 1074: MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074 (1074)
Vowing celibacy/chastity/virginity/poverty (1)
 Edgar 14.travelling to Scotland: MS D: In the course of the summer, Edgar 14 Cild went abroad with his mother Agatha 2 and his two sisters, Margaret 1 and Christina 1, and Mærleswein 1 and many good men with them, and came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm 5, and he received them all. Then the aforesaid King Malcolm 5 began to desire his sister Margaret 1 for his wife, but he and his men all opposed it for a long time; and she also refused, saying that she would have neither him nor any other if the heavenly mercy would graciously grant it to her to please in virginity with human heart the mighty Lord in pure continence through this short life. The king pressed her brother until he said ‘yes’, and indeed he dared not do anything else, because they had come into his control.

MS E: And that summer Edgar 14 Cild went abroad, and Mærleswein 1, and many people with them, and went into Scotland. And King Malcolm 5 received them all and married the atheling’s sister, Margaret 1. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1067 (1068)