Eustace 1 (Male) II, count of Boulogne, d. c.1087
m/l xi

Notes: H.J. Tanner, ?Eustace (II) , count of Boulogne (d. c.1087)?, ODNB.

Factoid List

Recorded Name (1)
EUSTASIUS (1)
 Bayeux Tapestry   
Personal Relationship (1)
Eustace 1 Husband (Affinal kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Gode 2: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
Event (9)
Accusation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Advice/counsel (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Agreement (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Allegiance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Army-raising (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Assembly (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Assistance (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Battle (2)
 Battle of Hastings: The entry lists all personalities listed by William of Poitiers as participants of the Battle of Hastings.: WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.15 - 24 (1066)
 Eustace 1's men.fighting with men of Dover: MS D: Eustace 1's men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down.

MS E: Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052; E 1048 (1051)
Burh - building (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Charter-witnessing (1)
 Bates150 - William 1 granting to Ghent, St Peter's: King William 1 grants to the abbey of Saint-Pierre au Mont-Blandin of Ghent and to Abbot Everelm 1 the manor of Lewisham, with everything belonging to it, namely East Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham and Coombe, Kent, as they were granted by King Edward 15 and, long before, by ∆lfthryth 5, a member of the royal kingdred, whom Count Baldwin 2 the Bald of Flanders took from England as his wife. William 1 also grants nearby lands within his forest which is called Andred (i.e. the Weald), namely Ashour in cowden, Ivelands, Wickenden, Shernden in Edenbridge and Sandherste (which comprised Wickens and The Moat in Cowden) to repair the houses belonging to the abbey. Within London, he grants the land given by King Edward 15, namely part of Warmansacre with the wharf which belongs to it, and with its fairs, markets, stalls and shops, and its revenues with customs, rights, toll and wharf-dues. : Bates150    (1081)
Confirmation of land/privileges (1)
 Bates223 - writ of William 1 in favour of Regenbald 1: King William 1 notifies Bishop Herman 2 of Sherborne, Bishop Wulfstan 55 of Worcester, Count Eustace 1, Eadric 66, Beorhtric 39 and all his thegns in Wilts. and Gloucs. that he has granted land at Eysey and Latton to Regenbald 1 his priest with everything belonging to them, with sake and soke, as fully as they were held by King Harold 3. He has the right to dispose of them as he wishes.: Bates223    (1066 x 1067)
Confiscation (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Enquiry (1)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Flight (2)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Grant and Gift (3)
 Bates150 - William 1 granting to Ghent, St Peter's: King William 1 grants to the abbey of Saint-Pierre au Mont-Blandin of Ghent and to Abbot Everelm 1 the manor of Lewisham, with everything belonging to it, namely East Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham and Coombe, Kent, as they were granted by King Edward 15 and, long before, by ∆lfthryth 5, a member of the royal kingdred, whom Count Baldwin 2 the Bald of Flanders took from England as his wife. William 1 also grants nearby lands within his forest which is called Andred (i.e. the Weald), namely Ashour in cowden, Ivelands, Wickenden, Shernden in Edenbridge and Sandherste (which comprised Wickens and The Moat in Cowden) to repair the houses belonging to the abbey. Within London, he grants the land given by King Edward 15, namely part of Warmansacre with the wharf which belongs to it, and with its fairs, markets, stalls and shops, and its revenues with customs, rights, toll and wharf-dues. : Bates150    (1081)
 Bates291 - writ of William 1 in favour of Westminster, St Peter's: King William 1 notifies Archbishop Stigand 1, Count Eustace 1 and all his thegns in Surrey that he has granted land in Battersea and Pyrford, Surrey, to the abbey of Westminster as fully and freely as Harold 3 held it on the day he died.: Bates291    (1066 x 1070)
 Bates32 - writ of William 1 in favour of Bury St Edmunds: King William 1 informs Richard 5 son of Count Gilbert and R 1 the sheriff that he has granted Beorhtwulf 14ís land to Abbot Baldwin 5 and the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds in perpetuity. He orders them to do justice to Abbot Baldwin 5 regarding Peter 11 de Valognes and regarding all those who had done him an injustice since the king crossed the sea. They should reseise Frodo 1ís men in Buxhall (Suffolk) who have been disseised by the men of Count Eustace 1, and afterwards, if they make any claims, do justice between them.: Bates43    (1066 x 1077)
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Horse-using/giving/acquisition/riding (1)
 Eustace 1's men.fighting with men of Dover: MS D: Eustace 1's men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down.

MS E: Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052; E 1048 (1051)
Hostage-giving/taking (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Hostility (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Injury and wounding (2)
 Eustace 1's men.fighting with men of Dover: MS D: Eustace 1's men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down.

MS E: Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052; E 1048 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Journey (3)
 Bates150 - William 1 granting to Ghent, St Peter's: King William 1 grants to the abbey of Saint-Pierre au Mont-Blandin of Ghent and to Abbot Everelm 1 the manor of Lewisham, with everything belonging to it, namely East Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham and Coombe, Kent, as they were granted by King Edward 15 and, long before, by ∆lfthryth 5, a member of the royal kingdred, whom Count Baldwin 2 the Bald of Flanders took from England as his wife. William 1 also grants nearby lands within his forest which is called Andred (i.e. the Weald), namely Ashour in cowden, Ivelands, Wickenden, Shernden in Edenbridge and Sandherste (which comprised Wickens and The Moat in Cowden) to repair the houses belonging to the abbey. Within London, he grants the land given by King Edward 15, namely part of Warmansacre with the wharf which belongs to it, and with its fairs, markets, stalls and shops, and its revenues with customs, rights, toll and wharf-dues. : Bates150    (1081)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Killing/murder (4)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Eustace 1's men.fighting with men of Dover: MS D: Eustace 1's men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down.

MS E: Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052; E 1048 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Marriage (2)
 Bates150 - William 1 granting to Ghent, St Peter's: King William 1 grants to the abbey of Saint-Pierre au Mont-Blandin of Ghent and to Abbot Everelm 1 the manor of Lewisham, with everything belonging to it, namely East Greenwich, Woolwich, Mottingham and Coombe, Kent, as they were granted by King Edward 15 and, long before, by ∆lfthryth 5, a member of the royal kingdred, whom Count Baldwin 2 the Bald of Flanders took from England as his wife. William 1 also grants nearby lands within his forest which is called Andred (i.e. the Weald), namely Ashour in cowden, Ivelands, Wickenden, Shernden in Edenbridge and Sandherste (which comprised Wickens and The Moat in Cowden) to repair the houses belonging to the abbey. Within London, he grants the land given by King Edward 15, namely part of Warmansacre with the wharf which belongs to it, and with its fairs, markets, stalls and shops, and its revenues with customs, rights, toll and wharf-dues. : Bates150    (1081)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Meeting (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Ordering (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Outlawing (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Overwintering (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Policy decision (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Pursuit, military (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Rebellion/sedition (3)
 Eustace 1's men.fighting with men of Dover: MS D: Eustace 1's men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down.

MS E: Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many.: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052; E 1048 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Refusal (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Reporting (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Residence (2)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Siege (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
Speech (1)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
Visit (1)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS D): Eustace 1, who had married King Edward 15ís sister [Gode 2], landed at Dover. Then his men [Anonymi 10005] went foolishly looking for billets and killed a certain man of the town [Anonymous 10016], and another of the townsmen [Anonymous 10017] [killed] their comrades, so that 7 of his comrades [gefera] [Anonymi 10006] were struck down. And great damage was done on either side with horses and with weapons until the people assembled, and then Eustace 1ís men fled to the king at Gloucester, who granted them protection.

Then Earl Godwine 51 was indignant that such things should happen in his earldom, and he began to gather his people from all over his earldom, and Earl Swein 3 his son did the same over all his, and Harold 3 his other son over all his. And they all assembled in Gloucestershire at Langtree, a great and innumerable force all ready to do battle against the king unless Eustace 1 were surrendered and his men handed over to them, as well as the Frenchmen [Anonymi 10007] who were in the castle. This was done a week before the feast of St Mary [8 September].

King Edward 15 was then residing at Gloucester. He sent for Earl Leofric 49, and to the north for Earl Siweard 11, and asked for their troops. And they came to him at first with a small force, but after they had understood how things were in the south, they sent north throughout all their earldoms and had a great army [fyrd] called out for the help of their lord [hlaford], and Ralph 1 [John of Worcester says: son of Gode 2, King Edward 15ís sister] did the same throughout his earldom; and they all came to Gloucester to the help of the king, though it was late. They were all so much in agreement with the king that they were willing to attack the army of Godwine 51 if the king had wished them to do so.

Then some of them thought it would be a great piece of folly if they joined battle, for in the two hosts there was most of what was noblest in England, and they considered that they would be opening a way for our enemies to enter the country and to cause great ruin among ourselves. They advised the exchange of hostages, and they issued summonses for a meeting at London; the folk throughout all this northern province, in Siweard 11ís earldom and Leofric 49ís and elsewhere, were ordered to go there. And Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were to come there to defend themselves. Then they came to Southwark, and a great number of them from Wessex, but his force dwindled more and more as time passed. And all the thegns [Anonymi 10008] of Earl Harold 3 his son were transferred to the kingís allegiance, and Earl Swein 3 his other son was outlawed. Then it did not suit him to come to defend himself against the king and against the force that was with the king.

Then Godwine 51 went away by night, and next morning the king held a meeting of his council and he and all the army declared him an outlaw, and all his sons with him. And he went south to Thorney and so did his wife [Gytha 1] and his sons Swein 3 and Tosti 2, with his wife [Judith 2] who was a kinswoman [mage] of Baldwin 4 of Bruges [Baldwines śt Brycge], and his son Gyrth 1. And Earl Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 went to Bristol to the ship which Earl Swein 3 had equipped and provisioned for himself. And the king sent Bishop Ealdred 37 from London with a force, and they were to intercept him before he got on board, but they could not Ė or would not. And he went out from the estuary of the Avon, and had such stiff weather that he escaped with difficulty, and he suffered great losses there. He continued his course to Ireland when sailing weather came. And Godwine 51 and those who were with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwin 4ís country, in one ship with as much treasure for each person as they could stow away. It would have seemed remarkable to everyone in England if anybody had told them that it could happen, because he had been exalted so high, even to the point of ruling the king and all England, and his sons were earls and the kingís favourites [dyrlingas], and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] was married to the king. She was brought to Wherwell and they entrusted her to the abbess [Anonymous 10018].

Then forthwith Earl William 1 came from overseas with a great force [werod] of Frenchmen, and the king received him and as many of his companions [gefera] as suited him, and let him go again. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052 (1051)
War (2)
 Battle of Hastings: Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.: Bayeux Tapestry    (1066)
 Eustace 1-Godwine 51.events of 1051 (MS E): Then Eustace 1 came from overseas, and went to the king and told him what he wished, and then went homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men took refreshment there, and went to Dover. When he was some miles or more on this side of Dover he put on his corselet [byrne] and all his companions [gefera] did likewise. So they went to Dover. When they got there, they wished to lodge where it suited their own convenience. Then one of Eustace 1ís men [Anonymous 10019] came and wished to stay at the home of a householder [husbonda] [Anonymous 10016] against his will, and he wounded the householder, and the householder killed him. Then Eustace 1 got upon his horse and his companions upon theirs, and went to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and afterwards they went up towards the town and killed, within and without, more than 20 men [Anonymi 10009]. And the townsmen killed 19 men [Anonymi 10010] on the other side and wounded they did not know how many. And Eustace 1 escaped with a few men and went back to the king and gave him a prejudiced account of how they had fared, and the king grew very angry with the townsmen.

And the king sent for Earl Godwine 51 and ordered him to carry war into Kent to Dover because Eustace 1 had informed the king that it was more the townsmenís fault than his. But it was not so. And the earl would not consent to this expedition because he was reluctant to injure his own province. Then the king sent for all his council and ordered them to come to Gloucester near the later feast of St Mary. The foreigners [wielisc] [Anonymi 10007] then had built a castle in Herefordshire in Earl Swein 3ís province, and had inflicted every possible injury and insult upon the kingís men in those parts. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 and Earl Harold 3 came together at Beaverstone, and many men with them, and intending to go to their royal lord and to all the councillors who were assembled with him, so that they should have the advice and support of the king and of all the councillors as to how they should avenge the insult to the king and to all the people. Then the foreigners went beforehand to the king and accused the earls, so that they were not allowed to come into his sight, because, they said, they meant to come and betray the king.

Earl Siweard 11 and Earl Leofric 49 had come there to the king and a large company with them from the north, and Earl Godwine 51 and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with them meant to take measures against them. And they strengthened themselves firmly in reply, though they were reluctant to have to stand against their royal lord. Then the councillors gave advice that evil doing should cease on both side, and the king gave the peace of God, and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his councillors decided that there should be a meeting of all the councillors a second time at London at the autumnal equinox, and the king ordered the force to be called out on both south of the Thames and in the north, all the best of them. Then Earl Swein 3 was declared an outlaw and Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Harold 3 were ordered to come to the meeting as quickly as ever they could make the journey. Then they got there they were summoned to the meeting. Then Godwine 51 asked for safe conduct and hostages, so that he could come to the meeting, and leave it, without being betrayed. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls had had, and they were all handed over to him. Then the king sent to them again and ordered them to come with 12 men into the kingís council. Then the earl again asked for a safe conduct and hostages so that he might be allowed to exculpate himself of all charges that were brought against him. But he was refused hostages and granted 5 daysí safe conduct to leave the country.

Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Swein 3 went to Bosham and there launched their ships and went overseas and sought Baldwin 4ís protection, and stayed there all winter. Earl Harold 3 went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter under that kingís protection [prob. Diarmait 1, king of Leinster].

And as soon as this had happened the king put away the lady who was consecrated his queen [Eadgyth 3], and deprived her of all that she owned, land and gold and silver and everything; and entrusted her to his sister at Wherwell [Anonymous 10018]. : ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048 (1051)
Writ-issuing/sending (3)
 Bates223 - writ of William 1 in favour of Regenbald 1: King William 1 notifies Bishop Herman 2 of Sherborne, Bishop Wulfstan 55 of Worcester, Count Eustace 1, Eadric 66, Beorhtric 39 and all his thegns in Wilts. and Gloucs. that he has granted land at Eysey and Latton to Regenbald 1 his priest with everything belonging to them, with sake and soke, as fully as they were held by King Harold 3. He has the right to dispose of them as he wishes.: Bates223    (1066 x 1067)
 Bates291 - writ of William 1 in favour of Westminster, St Peter's: King William 1 notifies Archbishop Stigand 1, Count Eustace 1 and all his thegns in Surrey that he has granted land in Battersea and Pyrford, Surrey, to the abbey of Westminster as fully and freely as Harold 3 held it on the day he died.: Bates291    (1066 x 1070)
 Bates32 - writ of William 1 in favour of Bury St Edmunds: King William 1 informs Richard 5 son of Count Gilbert and R 1 the sheriff that he has granted Beorhtwulf 14ís land to Abbot Baldwin 5 and the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds in perpetuity. He orders them to do justice to Abbot Baldwin 5 regarding Peter 11 de Valognes and regarding all those who had done him an injustice since the king crossed the sea. They should reseise Frodo 1ís men in Buxhall (Suffolk) who have been disseised by the men of Count Eustace 1, and afterwards, if they make any claims, do justice between them.: Bates43    (1066 x 1077)
Factoids linked indirectly to Eustace 1 (4)
Office (4)
Gefera of Eustace 1 (1)
 Anonymi 10006: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
Man of Eustace 1 (3)
 Anonymi 10005: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Anonymous 10019: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1052
 Anonymi 10010: ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1048