Leo 1 (Male) III, pope, 795-816
l viii-e ix

Factoid List

Recorded Name (23)
... Leonis (1)
 Anon.VitWillehadi  5
Leo (20)
 Annals.RegFranc   
 S167   
 S1430a   
 S1431a   
 S1431b   
 ASC  813 ADEG, <813> BC, 815 F(OE and Lat.)
 Cenwulf.Ep  p. 124
 Bishops.Ep  p. 559
 Leo III.Ep.B284  p. 392
 Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424
 Leo III.Ep.B305   
 Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 89
 Leo III.Ep.H3   
 Leo III.Ep.B337   
 Alcuin.Ep  125
 S658   
 Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 32)
 ASC (F)  796 F(OE)
 Alcuin.Carm.43  2
 Leo III.Ep.B288   
Leone (2)
 S152   
 S183   
Personal Information (10)
moral (1)
 Leo III.Ep.B284  p. 392 (Servant of the servants of God)
piety (6)
 Leo III.Ep.B305    (servant of the servants of God)
 Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 89 (servant of the servants of God)
 Leo III.Ep.H3  p. 91 (servant of the servants of God)
 Leo III.Ep.B337    (servant of the servants of God)
 Alcuin.Carm.43  1-7 (Supreme pontiff and first priest in the world, apostolic shepherd ..., holy father of the fatherland and the summit of renowned honour, revered in the holy city, learned widely through the world. Cultivator of justice, and lover of holy piety. Resolute in your duties, honest in your speech, an ornament of the church, an object of the world's praise, a glory to the clergy.)
 Anon.VitWillehadi  5 (most reverend)
reputation (1)
 Bishops.Ep  p. 559 (venerable)
saintly status (2)
 Alcuin.Ep  125 (most holy)
 S658    ()
Authorship (8)
 Author of a letter of privilege for Cynehelm 1 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B284  pp. 392-4
 Author of a letter to King Cenwulf 3 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B306  pp. 424-6
 Author of a letter to Æthelheard 13 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B305   
 Author of a letter to Charlemagne 1 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91
 Author of a letter to Charlemagne 1 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.H3   
 Author of a letter to Cenwulf 3 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B337   
 Letter to Cenwulf 3, king of the Merciams (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B288   
  (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B288   
Office (32)
Bishop (4)
 Leo III.Ep.B305   
 Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 89
 Leo III.Ep.H3   
 Leo III.Ep.B337   
Pope (28)
 Annals.RegFranc  808
 Annals.RegFranc   
 S167   
 S152   
 S183   
 S1430a   
 S1431a   
 S1431b   
 ASC  813 ADEG, <813> BC, 815 F(OE and Lat.)
 Cenwulf.Ep  p. 124
 Cenwulf.Ep  p. 128
 Bishops.Ep  p. 559
 Leo III.Ep.B284  p. 392
 Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424
 Alcuin.Ep  101
 Alcuin.Ep  125 (Most holy father, pope)
 Alcuin.Ep  255 (p. 412 line 20)
 Charlemagne.Ep.100    (Apostolic Lord)
 Charlemagne.Ep.100    (Apostolic authority)
 S658   
 S673   
 Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 32)
 ASC (F)  796 F(OE)
 S876   
 Alcuin.Carm.43  2
 Alcuin.Carm.44  34
 Anon.VitWillehadi  5
 Leo III.Ep.B288   
Status (2)
Dominus (2)
 Charlemagne.Ep.100   
 Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 32)
Personal Relationship (9)
~ Brother (Honorific kinship) of Leo 1 (1)
 Æthelheard 13: of Leo 1: Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424
Leo 1 Father (Honorific kinship) of ~ (3)
 of Cenwulf 3: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 126
 of Alcuin 1: Alcuin.Ep  125
 of Missing Person: Alcuin.Carm.43  29
Leo 1 Lord (General relationship) of ~ (1)
 of Cenwulf 3: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 124
~ Son (Honorific kinship) of Leo 1 (4)
 Cenwulf 3: of Leo 1: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 126
 Charlemagne 1: of Leo 1: Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 89
 Charlemagne 1: of Leo 1: Leo III.Ep.H3   
 Alcuin 1: of Leo 1: Alcuin.Ep  125
Event (39)
Adoption, spiritual (2)
 Alcuin 1.letter to Leo 1 seeking renewal of his spiritual kinship and York’s metropolitan status: Alcuin 1 requested that Leo 1 renew the memory of his spiritual adoption of Alcuin 1 and asked him to grant the request of delegates from York (Anonymi 1913) for the pallium.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Alcuin 1.request to Leo 1 for spiritual adoption: Through Angilberct 1 Alcuin 1 had asked Leo 1 to adopt him as a son.: Alcuin.Ep  125
Alms-giving (1)
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of gifts to Offa 7 and alms to his bishoprics: Charlemagne 1 was sending gifts to Offa 7 and alms to his bishoprics.: Alcuin.Ep  101
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of emperor (1)
 Leo 1.imperial consecration of Charlemagne 1: Charlemagne 1 was consecrated emperor by Leo 1.: Anon.VitWillehadi  5
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (1)
 Leo 1.consecration of Alfred 8 as king: [Leo 1] consecrated [Alfred 8] as king.: Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 32) (853)
Archiepiscopal see - restoration (2)
 Cenwulf 3.reinstalling the primacy of Canterbury: Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians was advised by Æthelheard 13 and the archbishop of York, Eanbald 2, how wickedly his predecessor [Offa 7] had behaved, and brought back the old system in full; the king sent letters from himself and all the bishops of England to Leo 1, Hadrian 3's successor, and the archbishop in person actively forwarded the mission. This is proved by ancient sources such as letters by Alcuin 1.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.2
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
Bequeathing/will-making (1)
 Leo 1.letter to King Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 granted Cenwulf 3 comprehensive confirmation of his monasteries and their possessions. In particular, the privilege concerned the monastery in which Cenwulf 3 was going to be buried [Winchcombe]: Leo III.Ep.B337    (811)
Blessing (1)
 Wulfred 6.return to his see: Here with the blessing of Leo 1 Wulfred 6 returned to his own see.: ASC  813 ADEG, <813> BC, 815 F(OE and Lat.) (815)
Charter-witnessing (1)
 S1431b - decree of a council of Clofesho concerning the lordship of minsters: Decree of a council of Clofesho concerning the lordship of minsters: S1431b    (803)
Confirmation of land/privileges (5)
 Edgar 11.S673 confirming privileges of Abingdon 1: King Edgar 11 to Abingdon 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and restoration of 10 hides (mansae) at Ginge, 15 at Goosey, 30 at Longworth and 5 at Bessels Leigh, Berks.: S673    (959)
 Leo 1.letter to Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 thanked Cenwulf 3 for the gift of 120 mancusi he had sent and informed him of the privilege he had confirmed to Æthelheard 13. Leo 1 had been asked to see justice done in respect of those jurisdictions (over bishops and monasteries) of which the archbishop (Æthelheard 13) had been unlawfully despoiled.: Leo III.Ep.B306  pp. 424-6 (802)
 Leo 1.letter to Cynehelm 1: Following Cynehelm 1's request Leo 1 wrote to him confirming the ownership of the monastery at Glastonbury for him and his successors. The same monastery had been previously confirmed to Cynehelm 1 by Ecgfrith 7. It was subsequently confirmed by Cenwulf 3 as well.: Leo III.Ep.B284  pp. 392-4 (798)
 Leo 1.letter to King Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 granted Cenwulf 3 comprehensive confirmation of his monasteries and their possessions. In particular, the privilege concerned the monastery in which Cenwulf 3 was going to be buried [Winchcombe]: Leo III.Ep.B337    (811)
 Leo 1.letter to Æthelheard 13: Leo 1 confirms to Æthelheard 13 the primacy of Canterbury.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.37
Correspondence (12)
 Alcuin 1.letter to Leo 1 seeking renewal of his spiritual kinship and York’s metropolitan status: Alcuin 1 requested that Leo 1 renew the memory of his spiritual adoption of Alcuin 1 and asked him to grant the request of delegates from York (Anonymi 1913) for the pallium.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Anonymi 1811.letter to Leo 1: All the bishops of England (Anonymi 1811) wrote to Leo 1 the obligation of the archbishops to go to Rome. They said that they had read in Bede how initially their predecessors did not have to go to Rome to collect the pallium. This practice developed only later on.: Bishops.Ep  pp. 559-61
 Cenwulf 3.letter to Leo 1: Cenwulf 3 wrote to Leo 1 about the division of the authority of the metropolitan of Canterbury in two provinces. He said that all the bishops found that situation to be against the Apostolic rules established by Gregory 1. He wrote that the pallium had been sent by Hadrian 3 to the bishop of the Mercians, at the request of Offa 7. Cenwulf 3 asked Leo 1 to make enquiries into this matter and write back to Cenwulf 3 about how the order should be maintained in the future. Cenwulf 3 also mentioned another letter that Æthelheard 13 was sending to Leo 1. He asked the Pope to reply to him as well on the matters addressed by the archbishop.: Cenwulf.Ep  pp. 124-8
 Cenwulf 3.reinstalling the primacy of Canterbury: Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians was advised by Æthelheard 13 and the archbishop of York, Eanbald 2, how wickedly his predecessor [Offa 7] had behaved, and brought back the old system in full; the king sent letters from himself and all the bishops of England to Leo 1, Hadrian 3's successor, and the archbishop in person actively forwarded the mission. This is proved by ancient sources such as letters by Alcuin 1.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.2
 Leo 1.letter to Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 thanked Cenwulf 3 for the gift of 120 mancusi he had sent and informed him of the privilege he had confirmed to Æthelheard 13. Leo 1 had been asked to see justice done in respect of those jurisdictions (over bishops and monasteries) of which the archbishop (Æthelheard 13) had been unlawfully despoiled.: Leo III.Ep.B306  pp. 424-6 (802)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
 Leo 1.letter to Cynehelm 1: Following Cynehelm 1's request Leo 1 wrote to him confirming the ownership of the monastery at Glastonbury for him and his successors. The same monastery had been previously confirmed to Cynehelm 1 by Ecgfrith 7. It was subsequently confirmed by Cenwulf 3 as well.: Leo III.Ep.B284  pp. 392-4 (798)
 Leo 1.letter to King Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 granted Cenwulf 3 comprehensive confirmation of his monasteries and their possessions. In particular, the privilege concerned the monastery in which Cenwulf 3 was going to be buried [Winchcombe]: Leo III.Ep.B337    (811)
 Leo 1.letter to Æthelheard 13: Leo 1 confirms to Æthelheard 13 the primacy of Canterbury.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.37
 Leo 1.second letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 to excuse his messenger Hadulf 1 who had not waited for Charlemagne 1's messenger and had proceeded with his journey. The pope also excused Eanbald 2's messenger (Anonymous 732), who had gone straight to Rome without visiting Charlemagne 1 as he was supposed to do. The pope also mentioned the fraudulent legation which had hastily been sent to Rome in order to precede Eardwulf 4's journey to Rome. He was sending Charlemagne 1 all the letters he had received from England for his own satisfaction, asking him to send them back afterwards.: Leo III.Ep.H3    (808)
 Leo 1.writing to Cenwulf 3 concerning the diocese of London: Pope Leo 1 III to Cenwulf, king of the Mercians; letter explaining that he will not consent to moving the metropolitan dignity from Canterbury to London.: Leo III.Ep.B288   
 Æthelheard 13.letter to Leo 1: Æthelheard 13 and all the bishops of the southern province (Anonymi 1810) wrote to the pope (Leo 1) concerning the problems and needs of all Britain.: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 128
Council-meeting, ecclesiastical (1)
 Æthelheard 13.confirmation of minster rights: Æthelheard 13 established and confirmed all things concerning God's mynsters which existed in the time of Wihtred 1 and other kings (Anonymi 2593).: ASC (F)  796 F(OE) (796)
Disputing/dispute-settling (1)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
Embassy (4)
 Alcuin 1.letter to Leo 1 seeking renewal of his spiritual kinship and York’s metropolitan status: Alcuin 1 requested that Leo 1 renew the memory of his spiritual adoption of Alcuin 1 and asked him to grant the request of delegates from York (Anonymi 1913) for the pallium.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Anonymi 1913.request to Leo 1 for metropolitan status for York: Delegates (Anonymi 1913) asked Leo 1 to grant the pallium to their city.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of legates to Rome: Charlemagne 1 sent legates (Anonymi 1892) to Rome.: Alcuin.Ep  101
 Eardwulf 4.return to Northumbria: On his return to Northumbria, Eardwulf 4 was accompanied by envoys of the pope Leo 1 and of the emperor Charlemagne 1: Annals.RegFranc  808
Episcopal see, acquisition/institution/division/merge (3)
 Cenwulf 3.letter to Leo 1: Cenwulf 3 wrote to Leo 1 about the division of the authority of the metropolitan of Canterbury in two provinces. He said that all the bishops found that situation to be against the Apostolic rules established by Gregory 1. He wrote that the pallium had been sent by Hadrian 3 to the bishop of the Mercians, at the request of Offa 7. Cenwulf 3 asked Leo 1 to make enquiries into this matter and write back to Cenwulf 3 about how the order should be maintained in the future. Cenwulf 3 also mentioned another letter that Æthelheard 13 was sending to Leo 1. He asked the Pope to reply to him as well on the matters addressed by the archbishop.: Cenwulf.Ep  pp. 124-8
 Leo 1.writing to Cenwulf 3 concerning the diocese of London: Pope Leo 1 III to Cenwulf, king of the Mercians; letter explaining that he will not consent to moving the metropolitan dignity from Canterbury to London.: Leo III.Ep.B288   
 Æthelheard 13.meeting with pope: Æthelheard 13 had received grace in the eyes of the apostolic father [sc. Leo 1] and the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury was restored to primacy through his efforts.: Alcuin.Ep  255
Excommunication (1)
 Leo 1.excommunicating [Eadberht 18]: Pope Leo 1 excommunicated an apostate [Eadberht 18] who had deigned to mount the throne. This was done following the notification of Æthelheard 13 .: Leo III.Ep.B288   
Expulsion (2)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
 Leo 1.sending messenger to England: Leo 1 sent a messenger (Anonymous 731) to England following Eardwulf 4's expulsion from his kingdom.: Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 90
Flight (1)
 Leo 1.return to Rome: When Leo 1 returned to Rome, after the revolt of 799 and his subsequent flight, he was welcomed by the whole population, including the scholae of foreigners - Franks, Frisians, Saxons (Anonymi 1219) and Lombards.: LiberPontificalis  vol. II, p. 6, lines 17-24: Leo III, 19 ([799])
Governing (2)
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
 S1431b - decree of a council of Clofesho concerning the lordship of minsters: Decree of a council of Clofesho concerning the lordship of minsters: S1431b    (803)
Grant and Gift (4)
 Cenwulf 3.sending money to Leo 1: He sent 120 mancusi to the Pope : Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 425 ([801])
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of gifts to Offa 7 and alms to his bishoprics: Charlemagne 1 was sending gifts to Offa 7 and alms to his bishoprics.: Alcuin.Ep  101
 Leo 1.letter to Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 thanked Cenwulf 3 for the gift of 120 mancusi he had sent and informed him of the privilege he had confirmed to Æthelheard 13. Leo 1 had been asked to see justice done in respect of those jurisdictions (over bishops and monasteries) of which the archbishop (Æthelheard 13) had been unlawfully despoiled.: Leo III.Ep.B306  pp. 424-6 (802)
 Offa 7.granting an annual payment to Rome: Offa 7, king of the Mercians, for his especial love of St Peter, declared in the presence of the papal missi George 1 and Theophylactus 2, that he would send every year as many mancuses as the year had days, that is, 365, to that same apostle of the Church of God, for the support of the poor and the provision of lights; which he did, both for himself and for his successors who continue in the kingdom. Leo 1 III later invoked this precedent in ordering King Cenwulf 3 to recommence payments.: Leo III.Ep.B288   
Hostility (1)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
Journey (7)
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of Eadberht 17 and Anonymi 2039 to Rome for judgment: Charlemagne 1 had sent Eadberht 17 and other exiles (Anonymi 2039) to Rome for judgment.: Charlemagne.Ep.100   
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of legates to Rome: Charlemagne 1 sent legates (Anonymi 1892) to Rome.: Alcuin.Ep  101
 Eardwulf 4.return to Northumbria: On his return to Northumbria, Eardwulf 4 was accompanied by envoys of the pope Leo 1 and of the emperor Charlemagne 1: Annals.RegFranc  808
 Leo 1.return to Rome: When Leo 1 returned to Rome, after the revolt of 799 and his subsequent flight, he was welcomed by the whole population, including the scholae of foreigners - Franks, Frisians, Saxons (Anonymi 1219) and Lombards.: LiberPontificalis  vol. II, p. 6, lines 17-24: Leo III, 19 ([799])
 Wulfred 6.return to his see: Here with the blessing of Leo 1 Wulfred 6 returned to his own see.: ASC  813 ADEG, <813> BC, 815 F(OE and Lat.) (815)
 Æthelheard 13.journey to Rome: Æthelheard 13 went to Rome to take to the apostolic see the matter of his office. He also delivered two letters from Cenwulf 3.: Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424 (801)
 Æthelwulf 1.sending of Alfred 8 to Rome: Æthelwulf 1 sent Alfred 8 to Rome in the days of Leo 1.: Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 32) (853)
Judicial decision/review (1)
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of Eadberht 17 and Anonymi 2039 to Rome for judgment: Charlemagne 1 had sent Eadberht 17 and other exiles (Anonymi 2039) to Rome for judgment.: Charlemagne.Ep.100   
Marriage (1)
 Charles 4.permitting Judith 1 and Baldwin 1 to marry: Charles 4, in accordance with the pope's [Leo 1] request, permitted Judith 1 and Baldwin 1 to marry. This he did in Senlis.: Annals.StBertin  863
Meeting (1)
 Æthelheard 13.meeting with pope: Æthelheard 13 had received grace in the eyes of the apostolic father [sc. Leo 1] and the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury was restored to primacy through his efforts.: Alcuin.Ep  255
Message-sending (5)
 Cenwulf 3.reinstalling the primacy of Canterbury: Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians was advised by Æthelheard 13 and the archbishop of York, Eanbald 2, how wickedly his predecessor [Offa 7] had behaved, and brought back the old system in full; the king sent letters from himself and all the bishops of England to Leo 1, Hadrian 3's successor, and the archbishop in person actively forwarded the mission. This is proved by ancient sources such as letters by Alcuin 1.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.2
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
 Leo 1.sending messenger to England: Leo 1 sent a messenger (Anonymous 731) to England following Eardwulf 4's expulsion from his kingdom.: Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 90
 Æthelheard 13.journey to Rome: Æthelheard 13 went to Rome to take to the apostolic see the matter of his office. He also delivered two letters from Cenwulf 3.: Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424 (801)
Mission/mission-sending (2)
 Cenwulf 3.reinstalling the primacy of Canterbury: Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians was advised by Æthelheard 13 and the archbishop of York, Eanbald 2, how wickedly his predecessor [Offa 7] had behaved, and brought back the old system in full; the king sent letters from himself and all the bishops of England to Leo 1, Hadrian 3's successor, and the archbishop in person actively forwarded the mission. This is proved by ancient sources such as letters by Alcuin 1.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.2
 Wada 3.mission to Rome: Wada 3 was sent to the Pope (Leo 1) by Cenwulf 3, but he conducted it slothfully and even without understanding: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 128
Pallium-despatch/receipt/request (4)
 Alcuin 1.letter to Leo 1 seeking renewal of his spiritual kinship and York’s metropolitan status: Alcuin 1 requested that Leo 1 renew the memory of his spiritual adoption of Alcuin 1 and asked him to grant the request of delegates from York (Anonymi 1913) for the pallium.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Anonymi 1811.letter to Leo 1: All the bishops of England (Anonymi 1811) wrote to Leo 1 the obligation of the archbishops to go to Rome. They said that they had read in Bede how initially their predecessors did not have to go to Rome to collect the pallium. This practice developed only later on.: Bishops.Ep  pp. 559-61
 Anonymi 1913.request to Leo 1 for metropolitan status for York: Delegates (Anonymi 1913) asked Leo 1 to grant the pallium to their city.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Cenwulf 3.letter to Leo 1: Cenwulf 3 wrote to Leo 1 about the division of the authority of the metropolitan of Canterbury in two provinces. He said that all the bishops found that situation to be against the Apostolic rules established by Gregory 1. He wrote that the pallium had been sent by Hadrian 3 to the bishop of the Mercians, at the request of Offa 7. Cenwulf 3 asked Leo 1 to make enquiries into this matter and write back to Cenwulf 3 about how the order should be maintained in the future. Cenwulf 3 also mentioned another letter that Æthelheard 13 was sending to Leo 1. He asked the Pope to reply to him as well on the matters addressed by the archbishop.: Cenwulf.Ep  pp. 124-8
Papal advice/audience/decision/privilege (5)
 Cenwulf 3-Leo 1.granting immunity to Abingdon 1: King Cenwulf 3 and Leo 1, pope, granted immunity to Abingdon 1.: S876    (796 x 821)
 Charlemagne 1.despatch of Eadberht 17 and Anonymi 2039 to Rome for judgment: Charlemagne 1 had sent Eadberht 17 and other exiles (Anonymi 2039) to Rome for judgment.: Charlemagne.Ep.100   
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
 Æthelheard 13.journey to Rome: Æthelheard 13 went to Rome to take to the apostolic see the matter of his office. He also delivered two letters from Cenwulf 3.: Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424 (801)
 Æthelheard 13.meeting with pope: Æthelheard 13 had received grace in the eyes of the apostolic father [sc. Leo 1] and the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury was restored to primacy through his efforts.: Alcuin.Ep  255
Praying (1)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
Rebellion/sedition (1)
 Leo 1.return to Rome: When Leo 1 returned to Rome, after the revolt of 799 and his subsequent flight, he was welcomed by the whole population, including the scholae of foreigners - Franks, Frisians, Saxons (Anonymi 1219) and Lombards.: LiberPontificalis  vol. II, p. 6, lines 17-24: Leo III, 19 ([799])
Reporting (1)
 Leo 1.excommunicating [Eadberht 18]: Pope Leo 1 excommunicated an apostate [Eadberht 18] who had deigned to mount the throne. This was done following the notification of Æthelheard 13 .: Leo III.Ep.B288   
Request (4)
 Alcuin 1.letter to Leo 1 seeking renewal of his spiritual kinship and York’s metropolitan status: Alcuin 1 requested that Leo 1 renew the memory of his spiritual adoption of Alcuin 1 and asked him to grant the request of delegates from York (Anonymi 1913) for the pallium.: Alcuin.Ep  125
 Cenwulf 3.letter to Leo 1: Cenwulf 3 wrote to Leo 1 about the division of the authority of the metropolitan of Canterbury in two provinces. He said that all the bishops found that situation to be against the Apostolic rules established by Gregory 1. He wrote that the pallium had been sent by Hadrian 3 to the bishop of the Mercians, at the request of Offa 7. Cenwulf 3 asked Leo 1 to make enquiries into this matter and write back to Cenwulf 3 about how the order should be maintained in the future. Cenwulf 3 also mentioned another letter that Æthelheard 13 was sending to Leo 1. He asked the Pope to reply to him as well on the matters addressed by the archbishop.: Cenwulf.Ep  pp. 124-8
 Charles 4.permitting Judith 1 and Baldwin 1 to marry: Charles 4, in accordance with the pope's [Leo 1] request, permitted Judith 1 and Baldwin 1 to marry. This he did in Senlis.: Annals.StBertin  863
 Leo 1.letter to Cynehelm 1: Following Cynehelm 1's request Leo 1 wrote to him confirming the ownership of the monastery at Glastonbury for him and his successors. The same monastery had been previously confirmed to Cynehelm 1 by Ecgfrith 7. It was subsequently confirmed by Cenwulf 3 as well.: Leo III.Ep.B284  pp. 392-4 (798)
Residence (1)
 Leo 1.letter to Charlemagne 1: Leo 1 wrote to Charlemagne 1 on various issues concerning English politics. He had received Charlemagne 1's letter regarding Eardwulf 4's expulsion from Northumbria. He had sent his messenger (Anonymous 731) there and had been happy to learn that Eardwulf 4 was staying with Charlemagne 1. He had also read the letters that Eanbald 2, Cenwulf 3 and Wada 4 had sent to Charlemagne 1 and recognised that they had deceived Eardwulf 4. The Pope was also very sorry about the dissension between Cenwulf 3 and the two archbishops and said that he was praying every day for the solution of that matter. He also agreed to send a letter to Eanbald 2 to ask him to go to Rome, as Charlemagne 1 had suggested.: Leo III.Ep.H2  pp. 89-91 (808)
Restoration of land/property (3)
 Edgar 11.S673 confirming privileges of Abingdon 1: King Edgar 11 to Abingdon 1 Abbey; confirmation of privileges and restoration of 10 hides (mansae) at Ginge, 15 at Goosey, 30 at Longworth and 5 at Bessels Leigh, Berks.: S673    (959)
 Leo 1.letter to Cenwulf 3: Leo 1 thanked Cenwulf 3 for the gift of 120 mancusi he had sent and informed him of the privilege he had confirmed to Æthelheard 13. Leo 1 had been asked to see justice done in respect of those jurisdictions (over bishops and monasteries) of which the archbishop (Æthelheard 13) had been unlawfully despoiled.: Leo III.Ep.B306  pp. 424-6 (802)
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
Retirement (1)
 Alcuin 1.announcement of his retirement: Alcuin 1 announced his retirement to Leo 1: Alcuin.Ep  234
Submission (1)
 Leo 1.letter to Æthelheard 13: Leo 1 acknowledged Canterbury's primacy over all English dioceses.: Leo III.Ep.B305    (802)
Throne-sitting (1)
 Leo 1.excommunicating [Eadberht 18]: Pope Leo 1 excommunicated an apostate [Eadberht 18] who had deigned to mount the throne. This was done following the notification of Æthelheard 13 .: Leo III.Ep.B288   
Visit (1)
 Leo 1.ordering the restoration of the see of Canterbury: Archbishop Æthelheard 13, by the gift of the grace of God, happened to visit the thresholds of the Apostles and Leo 1, the most blessed pope of the apostolic see, about many rights of the churches of God. Among other necessary matters of business he related also the division that had wrongfully been made of the archiepiscopal see; and the apostolic pope, as he heard and understood that it had been done wrongfully, immediately made a decree by the privilege of his authority, and sent to Britain and ordered that the honour of the see of St Augustine 1 should be completely restored with all its dioceses, according as St Gregory 1, the apostle and teacher of our race, had arranged, and should be given back in all things to the honourable Archbishop Æthelheard 13 when he returned to his country; and Cenwulf 3 the pious king of the Mercians, carried this out along with his councillors, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 803, the eleventh indiction, on 12 October. : S1431a    (803)
Factoids linked indirectly to Leo 1 (14)
Personal Information (1)
saintly status (1)
 Æthelheard 13: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.12.2 (If anyone doubts Æthelheard 13's sanctity and the respect in which he was held, let him read Pope Leo 1's letter to King Cenwulf 3, which can be found in the first book of the History of the Kings [129:3], where Leo 1 calls him most holy, most worthy, most dear, most experienced, epithets which that supreme and holy pope would not have piled up if they had not been acknowledged to be well founded.)
Authorship (9)
Cenwulf 3:  Author of a letter to Leo 1 (Letter): Cenwulf.Ep  pp. 124-8
Æthelheard 13:  Author of a letter to Leo 1 (Letter): Cenwulf.Ep  p. 128
Anonymi 1811:  Author of a letter to Leo 1 (Letter): Bishops.Ep  pp. 559-61
Cenwulf 3:  Author of two letters to Leo 1 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.B306  p. 424
Charlemagne 1:  Author of a letter to Leo 1 (Letter): Leo III.Ep.H2   
Alcuin 1:  Author of a letter to Leo 1 congratulating him on being appointed as pope (Letter): Alcuin.Ep  94
Alcuin 1:  Author of a letter to Pope Leo 1 asking him to grant a pallium [to Eanbald 2, archbishop of York] (Letter): Alcuin.Ep  *125
Alcuin 1:  Author(?) of a letter to Leo 1 explaining why he was unable to come to Rome (Letter): Alcuin.Ep  180
Alcuin 1:  Author of a letter to Pope Leo 1 (Letter): Alcuin.Ep  234
Office (1)
Bishop of Leo 1 (1)
 Hadrian 3: Cenwulf.Ep  p. 128
Occupation (3)
Messenger of Leo 1 (2)
 Anonymous 731: Leo III.Ep.H2  p. 90
 Hadulf 1: Leo III.Ep.H3   
Servant of Leo 1 (1)
 Anonymous 409: Alcuin.Carm.43  42