Wilfrid 2 (Male) Bishop of York and Saint, d.709
m vii-m x

Notes: Bishop of York (664-678), Bishop of Selsey (?681-?685), Bishop of Hexham (706-9).

Factoid List

Recorded Name (111)
... Uilfridi (1)
 Bede.HE  v.18
... Uilfrido (4)
 Bede.HE  iii.13
 Bede.HE  iv.3
 Bede.HE  iv.15
 Bede.HE  iv.16
... Uilfridum (3)
 Bede.HE  iii.25
 Bede.HE  iii.28
 Bede.HE  iv.12
... Wilfrido (1)
 Byrhtferth.VitOswaldi  v.9
... Wilfriðo (1)
 Anon.VitCeolfrithi  3
... Willferðes ... (1)
 OEMart  62
Uilfrid (10)
 Bede.HE  iv.2
 Bede.HE  iv.5
 Bede.HE  iv.13
 Bede.HE  iv.19
 Bede.HE  iv.23
 Bede.HE  iv.29
 Bede.HE  v.3
 Bede.HE  v.11
 Bede.HE  v.19
 Bede.HE  v.24
Uilfridus (1)
 CalMetrEbor  22
Uuilfredus (1)
 ASC  661 F(Lat.)
Uuilfrid (4)
 S51   
 S53   
 S230   
 S1171   
Uuilfridus (2)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  577
 S1246   
Wilferð (6)
 ASC (DEF)  709 DE
 ASC (DEF)  710 DEF(OE)
 ASC  <661> B, 661 E
 ASC  <664> B, 664 CE
 ASC  <678> B, 678 CE
 ASC (DEF)  948 D
Wilferþ (2)
 ASC  661 AC
 ASC  664 A
Wilfrid (6)
 S232   
 S235   
 S47   
 ASC (E)  656 E (p. 30)
 ASC (E)  675 E (p. 35)
 ASC (DEF)  709 F(OE)
Wilfridus (10)
 Anon.HagiogListPhil1869  268 (24 April)
 S1248   
 ASC (DEF)  709 F(Lat.)
 ASC (DEF)  710 F(Lat.)
 ASC  677 F(Lat.)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.4
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.7 cap.
 NewMinster.LiberVitae  Fol 16r.9.i
 Milred.Sylloge  L8
Wilfrithus (51)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Praef.
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap1
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  1
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap4
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  4
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap10
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  12
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  13
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  16
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  19
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  21
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  25
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  27
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  29
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap30
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  30
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  31
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  32
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  35
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 86)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  46
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  47 (p. 96)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  50
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  51
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  52
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 110)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  54 (p. 116)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  58
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  60 (p. 128)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  67
Wilfrið (2)
 ASC  661 F(OE)
 ASC  677 F(OE), 678 G
Wilfriþ (2)
 ASC (E)  685 E
 ASC  678 A
Wiluerð (1)
 ASC  664 G
Wiluerþ (1)
 ASC  661 G
Winfrid (1)
 S252   
Personal Information (142)
ethnicity (2)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6 (from across the sea in Britain of the people of the English)
 Bede.HE  v.19 (of English race)
intellectual (3)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  2 (very intelligent)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10 (with sweet-spoken eloquence in his own tongue )
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11 (wise in all matters)
moral (14)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  2 (Obedient to his parents ... gentle, modest, ... not at all desirous of the foolish behaviour of boys, ... 'swift to listen, slow to speak' (James i:19), he ministered knowledgeably to all those coming into the home of his father ... with humility.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  2 (of a good nature, ... well-balanced)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  3 (well-disposed towards all, wise in mind...ready for every good deed, sadness never troubled his face)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9 (humble and peaceable, given to fastings and prayers, kind, sober, discreet, compassionate, filled with the authority of the grace of God, modest, prudent, not a wine-bibber, teachable and good at teaching, pure and open in speech.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11 (such a man as the Apostle Paul writing to Titus described [followed by the citation of Titus 1:7-9])
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11 ([A lengthy description, allegedly of Wilfrid 2, is borrowed verbatim from Anon.VitCuthb.30.])
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14 (living honorably, dear to all)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  16 (dear to all the people and held in honour)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33 (humbly)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  34 (humbly)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  36 (humbly)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 114) (a most honourable person)
 Bede.HE  v.19 (boy of good disposition and virtuous)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  643 (outstanding)
physical (5)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  2 (handsome in appearance)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  2 (good-looking in appearance)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  3 (strong in body, swift of foot)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6 (handsome young man)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 110) (bent with honorable old age)
piety (9)
 Bede.HE  iv.2 (most worthy)
 Bede.HE  iv.12 (most reverend)
 Bede.HE  iv.13 (nost reverend)
 Bede.HE  v.3 (most reverend)
 Bede.HE  v.11 (most reverend)
 Bede.HE  v.19 (beloved fo God)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6 (reverend)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6 (indefatigable soldier of the Lord)
 Byrhtferth.VitOswaldi  v.9 (most reverend man)
psychological (2)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6 (with a fearless mind)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  37 (patiently)
religion (1)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  4 (serene in countenance, because he ,was possessed of a blessed mind ... truly [he] was a servant of God and imbued with the Holy Spirit)
reputation (4)
 Bede.HE  iv.29 (venerable)
 Bede.HE  v.19 (famous)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  577-8 (Through the merits of his virtues Wilfrid 2 became famous far and wide through the world.)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  613 (He is praised with notable fame throughout the world.)
saintly status (95)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Praef. (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Praef. (of blessed memory)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  1 (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  1 (his holy merits)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  6 (Wilfrid 2 became a confessor.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  7 (holy confessor)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  8 (holy confessor)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  8 (prophet of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10 (as was his humble way)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  12 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17 (most blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17 (of his blessed memory)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  23 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  24 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  25 (of blessed memory)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  25 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  26 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28 (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  29 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  31 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  32 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  34 (man of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  34 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  35 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  37 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  39 (very holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40 (man of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap40 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  41 (the holy man of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  41 (holy and new evangelist and baptist)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  42 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 86) (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 86) (most holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 86) (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  44 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  45 (holy man of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  46 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  47 (holy man of the highest virtue and constancy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  48 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  49 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  50 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  50 (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  52 (man of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 110) (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 112) (beloved of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 112) (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 114) ('Blessed ... beloved of God')
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  54 (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  55 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  56 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  57 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  58 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  59 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  60 (p. 128) (blessed)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  62 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  63 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  64 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  65 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  66 (holy ... a great man and a faithful servant)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  67 (holy, wondrously praiseworthy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  67 (holy one of God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  68 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Praef. (worthy before God)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  4 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap1 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap4 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap10 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14 (of blessed memory)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  15 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  18 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  21 (of holy memory)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  21 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  22 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  36 (holy)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  38 (his holiness)
 Bede.HE  iv.19 (of blessed memory)
 Bede.HE  iv.23 (of blessed memory)
 Bede.HE  v.18 (of blessed memory)
 ASC (DEF)  710 F(Lat.) (blessed)
 OEMart  62 (Saint Wilfrid 2, the holy bishop)
 ASC (DEF)  948 D (Saint)
 S456    ()
 Symeonof Durham.HistoriadeSanctoCuthberto  7 (saint)
 RestingPlaces  II.6 (saint)
stated health (7)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  56 (gripped by the greatest weakness of infirmity; he did not eat and drink for four days and was unconscious but continued to breathe and his limbs remained warm.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  62 (He was suddenly seized by the same illness as at Meaux but he was sicker than then.... After his abbots and anchorites visited him, he woke up as from a dream and received back his powers of intellect, memory and speech, and was restored to complete health.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  65 (He was constrained by the weakness of infirmity.)
 Bede.HE  v.19 (he fell sick and grrew so much worse that he could nto rise his horse)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  614-23 (To the distress of his pupils and companions (Anonymi 1087), Wilfrid 2 fell ill for four days.)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  614-23 (He was suddenly struck by a harsh illness and through many days with the pain growing in strength, he came to the extremity of his afflicted body. For four days he lay almost insensible without any feeling in his body and almost without breath, voiceless, with numbed limbs, he breathed cold breaths with a slight exhalation.)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  641 (Life and health soon followed the angel's prophecies)
Education (8)
 [Wilfrid 2] learned the Psalter by heart and some other books.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
 [Wilfrid 2] learned the Psalms by memory according to the practice of the Romans from the fifth edition, which he had earlier read according to the revision of Jerome.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 [Wilfrid 2] learned the four gospels perfectly, the Easter rule and many other rules of ecclesiastical discipline.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Preaching the true Easter [Wilfrid 2] also had learned the varied rules of the Church of St Peter the Apostle.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 In all knowledge and the decisions of the Romans the most learned of his people.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  43
 A most learned man who had been to Rome to study church doctrine: Bede.HE  iii.25
 he speedily learned the psalms and a number of other books: Bede.HE  v.19
 he studied the four gospels and learned the correct method of calculating Easter as well as gaining a knowledge of many other matters of ecclesiastical discipline.: Bede.HE  v.19
Authorship (4)
 Author of writings to Agatho 2 (Letter): Stephen.VitWilfridi  29
 Author of a petition to Agatho 2 against his expulsion from the see of York (Petition): Stephen.VitWilfridi  29-30
 Author of documents supporting his petition to Agatho 2 (Document): Stephen.VitWilfridi  30
 Author of a petition to John 17 (Petition): Stephen.VitWilfridi  50-52
Office (192)
Abbot (7)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Bede.HE  iii.25
Archbishop (8)
 S232   
 ASC (E)  675 E (p. 37) (Archbishop of York)
 ASC  677 F(Lat.)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.4 (Archbishop of York)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.7
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.12 (archbishop of York)
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
Bishop (162)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Praef. (Bishop worthy before God.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap1
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  1
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  12 (Bishop of the city of York)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  13
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  13 (holy pontiff)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  16 (Metropolitan bishop of the city of York.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  22
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  22 (bishop)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  25
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  26
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  27
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  29 (bishop of the holy church of York)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  30 (Humble and unworthy bishop of England.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  31
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  34
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  35
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  37
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  38
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  38
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 86)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 88) (venerable bishop)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 90)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  45
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  46
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  47 (p. 94)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  47 (p. 98)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  48
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  49
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  51 (Simple and humble servant of the servants of God [and] bishop.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  52
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 112) (Beloved of God, bishop of the city of York.)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 112)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (p. 114)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  54 (p. 116)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  55
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  56
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  57
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  58
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  60 (p. 129)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  61
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  62
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  63
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  64
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  66
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  67
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  68
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  68
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap13
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  15 (Bishop of the city of York)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  19
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap21
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  21
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  21
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap24
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  26
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap29
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  32
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap33
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  36
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap40
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap43
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap44
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  46
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  50
 Anon.HagiogListPhil1869  268 (24 April)
 Anon.VitCeolfrithi  3
 Anon.VitCeolfrithi  5
 Bede.HE  iii.13
 Bede.HE  iv.2
 Bede.HE  iv.3
 Bede.HE  iv.5 (Bishop of the Northumbrian race)
 Bede.HE  iv.12
 Bede.HE  iv.13
 Bede.HE  iv.15 (First bishop of the South Saxons)
 Bede.HE  iv.16
 Bede.HE  iv.19
 Bede.HE  iv.23
 Bede.HE  iv.29
 Bede.HE  v.3
 Bede.HE  v.11
 Bede.HE  v.18
 Bede.HE  v.19
 Bede.HE  v.19
 Bede.HE  v.19 (bishop of York)
 Bede.HE  v.19
 Bede.HE  v.24 (bishop of the Northumbrians)
 Alcuin.VersEubor  577
 Alcuin.VersEubor  643
 S51   
 S53   
 S230   
 S232   
 S235   
 S1171   
 S1246   
 S1248   
 S252   
 S47   
 ASC (E)  656 E (p. 30)
 ASC (E)  675 E (p. 35)
 ASC (E)  685 E (Bishop in Hexham)
 ASC (DEF)  709 DEF(OE and Lat.)
 ASC (DEF)  710 DEF(OE and Lat.)
 OEMart  62
 ASC  678 ACEG, <678> B, 677 F(OE)
 ASC  678 ACEG, <678> B, 677 F(OE)
 Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6 (Bishop of the Northumbrians)
 Byrhtferth.VitOswaldi  v.9
 Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12)
 Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12)
 NewMinster.LiberVitae  Fol 16r.9.i (Bishop of the South Saxons)
 Anon.EpisList1    (bishop of Hexham)
 Anon.EpisList2    (bishop of Hexham)
 Anon.EpisList3    (bishop of the South Saxons)
 Anon.EpisList3    (bishop of the church of Hexham)
 Anon.EpisList3    (bishop of the church of York)
 Anon.EpisList4    (bishop of Hexham)
 Anon.EpisList4    (bishop of Ripon)
 Anon.EpisList5    (bishop of the South Saxons)
 CalMetrEbor  22
 Milred.Sylloge  L8
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.9
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.10
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.27
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.3
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.99.7
 WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.172.2
 NorthernAnnals.FirstSet  36
 RestingPlaces  II.6
Cleric (1)
 Bede.HE  v.19
Counsellor (1)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
Priest (12)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  10
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap9
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  Cap10
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Bede.HE  iii.25
 Bede.HE  iii.28
 Bede.HE  v.19
 ASC (E)  656 E (p. 30)
Occupation (2)
Monk (1)
 Bede.HE  v.19
Teacher (1)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
Status (6)
Dominus (1)
 Anon.HagiogListPhil1869  268 (24 April)
Exile (5)
 Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Bede.HE  v.3
 Bede.HE  v.11
 Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12)
 Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
Personal Relationship (43)
Wilfrid 2 Brother (Honorific kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Theodore 1: Bede.HE  iv.5
~ Brother (Honorific kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (1)
 Anonymi 377: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  54
~ Companion (General relationship) of Wilfrid 2 (6)
 Anonymi 305: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Anonymi 300: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Anonymi 300: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Anonymi 381: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  55
 Anonymous 123: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  13
 Tatberht 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  63
~ Father (Consanguineal kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (1)
 Anonymous 125: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
Wilfrid 2 Father (Honorific kinship) of ~ (4)
 of Cædwalla 1: Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 of Missing Person: Bede.HE  v.19
 of Anonymi 1087: Alcuin.VersEubor  623
 of Anonymi 1087: Alcuin.VersEubor  624
~ Father (Honorific kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (3)
 Dalfinus 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  4
 Dalfinus 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Dalfinus 1: of Wilfrid 2: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.9
~ Foster-son/child (Quasi-kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (2)
 Anonymous 138: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  47
 Anonymi 2005: of Wilfrid 2: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12)
Wilfrid 2 Friend (General relationship) of ~ (3)
 of Boniface 4: Bede.HE  v.19
 of Ealhfrith 1: Bede.HE  v.19
 of Aldfrith 1: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.11
~ Friend (General relationship) of Wilfrid 2 (9)
 Æthelred 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  43 (p. 90)
 Æthelred 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  45
 Æthelred 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  57
 Æthelred 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  58
 Dagobert 3: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Wulfhere 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Agilbert 1: of Wilfrid 2: Bede.HE  iii.25
 Ecgfrith 4: of Wilfrid 2: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Æthelthryth 2: of Wilfrid 2: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.9
~ Mother (Consanguineal kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (2)
 Anonymous 121: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  1
 Anonymous 121: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
~ Nephew, sister’s son (Consanguineal kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (1)
 Beornwine 1: of Wilfrid 2: Bede.HE  iv.16
~ Propinquus (Consanguineal kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (2)
 Tatberht 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  63
 Tatberht 2: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
Wilfrid 2 Son (Honorific kinship) of ~ (1)
 of Dalfinus 1: Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
~ Son (Honorific kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (3)
 Cædwalla 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Osred 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Willibrord 1: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  26
~ Stepmother (Semi-kinship) of Wilfrid 2 (1)
 Anonymous 122: of Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
Wilfrid 2 Successor (General relationship) of ~ (2)
 of Seaxwulf 1: Stephen.VitWilfridi  45
 of John 18: ASC (E)  685 E
~ Successor (General relationship) of Wilfrid 2 (1)
 Acca 3: of Wilfrid 2: ASC (DEF)  710 DEF(OE and Lat.)
Possession (9)
 [Wilfrid 2] obtained arms, horses and clothing for himself and his men (Anonymi 297).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
 [Wulfhere 1] granted our bishop, [sc. Wilfrid 2], many areas of land in various places.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
 A place which had been granted to him [sc. Wilfrid 2] at Lichfield ... suitable as an episcopal see.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 [Wilfrid 2] richly endowed [the church at York] with many estates which he [sc. Wilfrid 2] had acquired for God.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  16
 Sacred places in various districts which the British clergy had deserted.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 All his [sc. Wilfrid 2's] secular glory and riches.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 The multitude of his monasteries and the size of his buildings.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 The innumerable army of companions adorned with royal garments and arms.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 monastery at Selsey: Bede.HE  v.18
Event (281)
Abdication (1)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
Absolution (1)
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
Accusation (3)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.second exile: Wilfrid 2 was again accused and driven from the bishopric by the king (Aldfrith 1) and several bishops: Bede.HE  v.19
Adoption, secular (1)
 Dalfinus 1.offer to adopt Wilfrid 2: Dalfinus 1 offered to adopt Wilfrid 2, who declined the offer.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  4
Adoption, spiritual (1)
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
Advice/counsel (5)
 Aldhelm 3.counsel to Wilfrid 2’s abbots (Anonymi 2005): Aldhelm 3 urged Wilfrid 2's abbots (Anonymi 2005) to cross the sea and join him in exile.: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12) (677)
 Ealhfrith 1.meeting with Wilfrid 2: Following the recommendation of Cenwealh 2, the West-Saxon king (Ealhfrith 1) ordered Wilfrid 2 to come to him. Ealhfrith 1 conversed with him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Affection (5)
 Dalfinus 1.mutual love between him and Wilfrid 2: On Wilfrid 2's return to Lyons the mutual love between Dalfinus 1 and Wilfrid 2 grew.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
 Ealhfrith 1.mutual love between him and Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 perceived the love of the king [sc. Ealhfrith 1] for him and their mutual affection increased day by day.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7, 8
 Eorcenberht 1.affection for Wilfrid 2: The king (Eorcenberht 1) greatly loved Wilfrid 2: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
 Wilfrid 2.affection of Lindisfarne monastic community for him: Cudda 2 and all the older monks and the contemporaries of Wilfrid 2 (Anonymi 298) held Wilfrid 2 in affection.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
Agreement (3)
 Wilfrid 2.journey back to Britain: When Wilfrid 2 arrived, Beorhtwald 6 and Æthelred 2 readily took his part. Cenred 2 agreed to make peace with Wilfrid 2, whereas Aldfrith 1 scorned to receive him.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with Æthelred 2 and Cenred 2, his successor: Æthelred 2 agreed to uphold the decisions of the Apostolic See; he immediately met with Cenred 2 and secured his agreement to do likewise.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  57
 Æthelred 2.confirmation of agreement with Wilfrid 2: After the council of Austerfield Wilfrid 2 returned to Æthelred 2, who confirmed his previous conditions with Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  48
Alms-giving (4)
 Anonymous 144.commemoration of Wilfrid 2’s death: The abbot of Oundle (Anonymous 144) engaged in various liturgical and eleemosynary acts in commemoration of the death of Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Wilfrid 2.division of his property: Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9
 Wilfrid 2.giving alms: Acquisition of the lands and monastery at Ripon permitted Wilfrid 2 to give alms to Anonymi 306.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
 Wilfrid 2.giving of alms: The gift of Ripon permitted Wilfrid 2 to give alms to the poor, orphans and widows and those bound by all the weakness of infirmity (Anonymi 306).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
Appointment - ecclesiastical (2)
 Wilfrid 2.appointment of Hiddila 1: Wilfrid 2 assigned the priest Hiddila 1 to Beornwine 1 after entrusting the latter with the 300 hides he was given by Cædwalla 1 on the Isle of Wight: Bede.HE  iv.16
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of abbot (2)
 Wilfrid 2.consecration to abbacy: King [Aldfrith 1] gave [Wilfrid 2] a site at Ripon on which to build a monastery, and the magnates contributed many presents. He was ordained priest and abbot there by Agilbert 1, a Gallic bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.12
 Wilfrid 2.making Æthelthryth 2 abbess of Ely: Wilfrid 2 consecrated Æthelthryth 2 as abbess of Ely.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.15; I.16
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of bishop (19)
 Acca 3.elevation to episcopacy: Here Acca 3 acceded to the bishopric [DEF(OE): that Wilfrid 2 had held earlier; F(Lat.): after Wilfrid 2].: ASC (DEF)  710 DEF(OE and Lat.) (710)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Bosa 1-Eata 2.episcopal consecration: Two bishops were consecrated in place of [Wilfrid 2]: Bosa 1 to the Deirans and Eata 2 to the Bernicians.: ASC (E)  678 E (678)
 Chad 1-Wilfrid 2.ordination: Chad 1 and Wilfrid 2 were consecrated.: ASC  664 ACEG, <664> G
 Chad 1.episcopal installation at Lichfield: After being deposed from York, Chad 1 was ordained through all the ecclesiastical degrees as bishop of Lichfield.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 John 18.consecration of Wilfrid 2: John 18 consecrated Wilfrid 2 to the see of York.: Bede.HE  v.6
 Theodore 1.consecration of three bishops to see of Wilfrid 2 at York: In the absence of Wilfrid 2, Theodore 1 consecrated without precedent and irregularly on his own three bishops (Anonymi 331) to sections of Wilfrid 2's see.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Theodore 1.episcopal installation of Wilfrid 2 at York: Theodore 1 came from Kent and demanded that Chad 1 be deposed. He installed Wilfrid 2 as bishop in York. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Theodore 1.exercise of power: [Theodore 1], as Bede 1 tells us, was sent by the pope, and was the first of all the bishops at Canterbury who exercised episcopal power over all Britain. For example, he removed and installed bishops on both sides of the Humber as he pleased. At York itself, according to Bede 1, he consecrated the bishops of other cities, and as we read in the Life of St Wilfrid 2, he drove out, for good reason or by brute force, Chad 1 and Wilfrid 2 himself, bishops of the place.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.3
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
 Wilfrid 2.consecration as bishop: Twelve Gallic catholic bishops (Anonymi 311) including Agilbert 1 ordained Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  12
 Wilfrid 2.consecration in Gaul: Wilfrid 2 was sent to Gaul to be consecrated.: Bede.HE  iv.2
 Wilfrid 2.consecration of Swithberht 1: The brothers (Anonymi 683) engaged in the ministry of the Word in Frisia chose Swithberht 1 to be consecrated as their bishop. They sent him to Britain, where he was consecrated by Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  v.11
 Wilfrid 2.election as bishop: Wise men chose Wilfrid 2 to teach the law of God and the whole gathering (Anonymi 308) bade Wilfrid 2 to accept episcopal rank.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  11
 Wilfrid 2.elevation to the see of York: Wilfrid 2 was chosen to fill the see of York, and sent by King Aldfrith 1 [more likely by Ealhfrith 1], son of King Oswiu 1, to Gaul for consecration. While he dallied overseas, King Oswiu 1 foisted Chad 1 on the throne of York. Chad 1 was very holy, but his election was illegal. The wrong was set right when Theodore 1 was sent from the papal see to be archbishop of Canterbury: Chad 1 was removed, and Wilfrid 2 put on the throne.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.2
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.ordination of Oftfor 1: Oftfor 1 was appointed bishop in Bosel 1's place at Æthelred 2's command by Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  iv.23 (691)
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king (3)
 Anonymi 1560.taking of Eric 1 as king: They [sc. the Northumbrians] (Anonymi 1560) had taken Eric 1 as their king.: ASC (DEF)  948 D
 Cædwalla 1.acquisition of the kingdom of the West Saxons: After being in exile Cædwalla 1 gained the throne of the West Saxons.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Wilfrid 2.council in Northumbria: When Osred 1 son of Aldfrith 1 was given his proper place on the throne, the most loyal and influential of his magnates, Beorhtfrith 3, agreed on the prompting of Archbishop Beorhtwald 6 to hold a council in Northumbria, so that Wilfrid 2's just cause might be brought to a peaceable conclusion at last. At this meeting, in accordance with the pope's [John 17] command, the bishops [from Anonymi 388] were given the choice either to yield Wilfrid 2 his part of the see, or to go to Rome to uphold their case. Anyone who thought fit not to comply would be excommunicate. The bishops made objections as was their wont, but the blessed Ælfflæd 2, sister of Aldfrith 1 and Hild 1's successor as abbess of Whitby, settled the matter by referring to her brother's deathbed request to have Wilfrid 2 restored. Beorhtfrith 3 also suggested that they should obey the pope's commands. The grave bishops hurried to embrace each other, and they preserved lifelong concord. Wilfrid 2 was given back control of two monasteries, Ripon and Hexham.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.2-6
Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of priest (6)
 Agilbert 1.ordination of Wilfrid 2 as priest: The bishop (Agilbert 1), following the order of the king (Ealhfrith 1), ordained Wilfrid 2 at Ripon as a priest.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  9
 Wilfrid 2.consecration to abbacy: King [Aldfrith 1] gave [Wilfrid 2] a site at Ripon on which to build a monastery, and the magnates contributed many presents. He was ordained priest and abbot there by Agilbert 1, a Gallic bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.12
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Wilfrid 2.ordination: Wilfrid 2 was ordained priest at Ripon, on the command of the king (Ealhfrith 1), by Agilbert 1.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.ordination of Ceolfrith 1: Ceolfrith 1 was chosen by Wilfrid 2 and ordered priest.: Anon.VitCeolfrithi  3
 Wilfrid 2.priestly consecration: Wilfrid 2 was ordained by Agilbert 1, at the request of Ealhfrith 1.: Bede.HE  iii.25
Arrest (1)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
Assembly (1)
 Deusdedit 1.consecration of mynster: Deusdedit 1 consecrated the mynster [at Medeshamstede] in the presence of various people.: ASC (E)  656 E
Assistance (2)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Baptism (6)
 Wilfrid 2.breaking of drought through baptism of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 baptized South Saxony [sc. Anonymi 1084] at which point a three-year drought was broken.: Alcuin.VersEubor  585-605
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 taught the faith to the South Saxons and administered the baptism.: Bede.HE  iv.13
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.healing of young British boy (Eadwald 4): Wilfrid 2 healed and baptized Eadwald 4.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Wilfrid 2.preaching to South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 preached to Æthelwalh 1 and his queen (Eafe 1). With the king's permission Wilfrid 2 preached for many months to the pagan South Saxons (Anonymi 364). Many thousands were baptized in one day.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  41-42
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
Battle (4)
 Ecgfrith 4.death at the hands of Picts: Ecgfrith 4 was slain and all the best of his army (Anonymi 290) overcome by the Picts (Anonymi 291).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Ecgfrith 4.defeat of Wulfhere 1: King Ecgfrith 4 fought against the king of the Mercians, Wulfhere 1 son of Penda 1, and having cut down [his] army he [Ecgfrith 4] vanquished him and put him to flight with only one small boy [Anonymous 10131] accompanying [him]. Ecgfrith 4 obtained this though the aid of St Wilfrid 2, who was with him, but especially through the prayers of St Cuthbert 1, who was absent.: Symeonof Durham.HistoriadeSanctoCuthberto  7 (670 x 675)
 Ecgfrith 4.defeat of Wulfhere 1's southern coalition: Ecgfrith 4 defeated Wulfhere 1 and his forces (Anonymi 323).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  20 (670 x 675)
 Ecgfrith 4.successful battles: King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 (670 x 675)
Bequeathing/will-making (6)
 Wilfrid 2.council in Northumbria: When Osred 1 son of Aldfrith 1 was given his proper place on the throne, the most loyal and influential of his magnates, Beorhtfrith 3, agreed on the prompting of Archbishop Beorhtwald 6 to hold a council in Northumbria, so that Wilfrid 2's just cause might be brought to a peaceable conclusion at last. At this meeting, in accordance with the pope's [John 17] command, the bishops [from Anonymi 388] were given the choice either to yield Wilfrid 2 his part of the see, or to go to Rome to uphold their case. Anyone who thought fit not to comply would be excommunicate. The bishops made objections as was their wont, but the blessed Ælfflæd 2, sister of Aldfrith 1 and Hild 1's successor as abbess of Whitby, settled the matter by referring to her brother's deathbed request to have Wilfrid 2 restored. Beorhtfrith 3 also suggested that they should obey the pope's commands. The grave bishops hurried to embrace each other, and they preserved lifelong concord. Wilfrid 2 was given back control of two monasteries, Ripon and Hexham.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.2-6
 Wilfrid 2.disposition at Hexham of monasteries and property when ill: When Wilfrid 2 fell ill en route to Hexham, he organized where people should be located and under whom, and shared out his property. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  62
 Wilfrid 2.disposition at Ripon of property: Wilfrid 2 dictated the terms of the disposal of his treasury at Ripon before witnesses.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  63
 Wilfrid 2.division of his property: Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9
 Wilfrid 2.property granted him before his death: People (Anonymi 415) who had held their possessions for many years gave it to Wilfrid 2 before his death.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  61
 Wilfrid 2.reporting of his wills in southern kingdoms: Wilfrid 2 repeated to certain of the abbots (Anonymi 397) his will.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
Birth (1)
 Wilfrid 2.birth: Wilfrid 2 was born of respectable parents [Anonymous 121 and Anonymous 125] in Northumbria. While his mother [Anonymous 121] was in labour, retainers [Anonymi 1284] standing outside saw the house as if in flames on either side, seen only by men but not by maidservants.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.3-4
Blessing (2)
 Wilfrid 2.healing of Bothelm 1 at Hexham: After Wilfrid 2 prayed and blessed Bothelm 1, the latter regained the breath of life and recovered after medical attention.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with pope (Anonymous 127) during first visit to Rome: Boniface 4 introduced Wilfrid 2 to the pope (Anonymous 127) and explained the purpose of his journey. The pope (Anonymous 121) blessed Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
Book circulating/making/reading/translating/writing (3)
 Ecgfrith 4-Æthelthryth 2.obedience to Wilfrid 2: King Ecgfrith 4, devoted to holy works along with his Queen, Æthelthryth 2, became, together with her, obedient in all matters to Bishop Wilfrid 2. There followed peace and joy among their peoples, and successful years and victories against their enemies, God being their helper. So one reads in the Life of this same confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Wilfrid 2.death: In 745 lord Wilfrid 2, bishop of the city of York, departed to the Lord on 29 April. His story had been compiled by Bede 1. : NorthernAnnals.FirstSet  40 (745)
 Wilfrid 2.gift of purple Gospels to Ripon: Wilfrid 2 ordered the gospels to be copied out and given to the church at Ripon with a book case.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
Building construction/restoration (3)
 Wilfrid 2.building St Andrew's, Hexham: Having received Hexham from Æthelthryth 2, Wilfrid 2 built a house for the Lord in honour of the blessed Apostle Andrew, raised upon variegated columns and many pillared aisles.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Wilfrid 2.building of stone church at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 built from its foundations to its roof a church of polished stone at Ripon.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Wilfrid 2.restoration and endowment of church of York: Wilfrid 2 restored the exterior and interior fabric of the half-ruined stone buildings of the basilica of the church at York and endowed it with estates.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  16
Burh - building (1)
 Wilfrid 2.building Hexham: Hexham was a contributor to the royal fisc when Wilfrid 2 took it from Queen Æthelthryth 2 in exchange for other estates. Here he constructed buildings of remarkable polish, with menacing high walls and ringed around by various winding ways, [joined] by spiral staircases. Much was the product of his own judgement, but he also learned from stonemasons who had been lured from Rome by hope of generous reward.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.117.1
Burial (6)
 Ecgberht 6-Wilfrid 2-Wihtburg 1.burial: St Ecgberht 6, St Wilfrid 2, bishop, and St Wihtburg 1 are buried the monastery at Ripon near the river called Earp.: RestingPlaces  II.6
 Wilfrid 2.burial: Wilfrid 2 was buried in the church at Ripon.: Alcuin.VersEubor  644-5
 Wilfrid 2.burial at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 was prepared for burial and brought to Ripon, where he was buried in the church of St Peter.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17, 66
 Wilfrid 2.death at Oundle: Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of nun with withered hand (Anonymous 146): A nun (Anonymous 146) had her withered hand healed when she washed it in the water with the muslin garment of Bacula 1 used to prepare Wilfrid 2 for burial.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  66
 Wilfrid 2.miracles after his death: At the hour of Wilfrid 2's passing, sweet birdsong and the beating of wings flying up to heaven was heard, though nothing was seen; the same happened during his burial, which was understood as the sound of a troop of angels. Water from the washing of the sheet on which the body had lain served to restore the strength of Anonymous 146's limbs. Fire would not burn the house in which Wilfrid 2 had died.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.10-11
Burning (3)
 Anonymi 1284.attempt to extinguish apparent fire at birth of Wilfrid 2: Anonymi 1284 attempted to douse an apparent fire in the house where Wilfrid 2 was born.: OEMart  62-3
 Eadred 16.harrying of land of Northumbrians: Here Eadred 16 harried all the land of the Northumbrians. In that harrying the famous minster built by Wilfrid 2 at Ripon was burned.: ASC (DEF)  948 D (948)
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of hedge spared from fire at Oundle: A hedge round the monastery at Oundle burned, except where a wooden cross had been erected and where the corner of the house where Wilfrid 2 died projected.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  67
Campaigning (1)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
Capture (2)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.imprisonment: Wilfrid 2 was imprisoned.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  36
Challenge (1)
 Wilfrid 2.appeal against judicial decision of Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1: Wilfrid 2 challenged the judgment of Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1, who refused to change their decision; he then declared he would appeal to the Apostolic See.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
Charter-witnessing (11)
 S1171 - Æthelred 4 granting land to Æthelburg 3: Hodilredus (Æthelred 4) to Hedilburg (Æthelburg 3), abbess, for her minster called Beddanhaam (Barking); grant of 40 hides (manentes) at Ricingahaam, Budinhaam, Dagenham, Angenlabeshaam and Widmundes felt (Wyfields in Great Ilford), all probably in Essex: S1171    (685 x 693)
 S1246 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: Eorcenwald 1, bishop of the East Saxons, to the nunnery of Barking 1; grant of privileges and grant and confirmation of many lands: S1246    (687 x 688)
 S1248 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: (? Eorcenwald 1), bishop, to (? St Mary's, Barking); grant of 28 hides (manentes) at Battersea, 20 at Watsingaham (i.e. Washingham, lost, in Battersea) and 20 (cassatae) by Hidaburna (the river Wandle), all in Surrey. The land had been granted to him by Cædwalla 1, king of the West Saxons, and confirmed by Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians: S1248    (693)
 S230 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of 70 hides (tributarii) at Pagham, Shripney, Charlton, Bognor, Bersted, North Bersted, Crimsham, North and South Mundham (and, in the shortened version, Slindon), all in Sussex, and to the community at St Andrew's church situated on the east of the harbour called Uedringmutha (Pagham Harbour), grant of 10 hides (tributarii) at Tangmere, Sussex: S230    (685)
 S232 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop, in order to found a monastery at Selsey; grant of 55 hides (tributarii) at Selsey, Medmerry, Wittering, Itchenor, Birdham, Egesawde, Bessenheie, Brinfast and Sidlesham, with 6 hides (cassati) at Aldingbourne and Lidsey, 6 at Geinstidegate (? Westergate), 8 at (North) Mundham, 8 at [Amberley and] Houghton and 4 at Coldwaltham, all in Sussex: S232    (683)
 S235 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Cedde 1 Cissa 1 and Criswa 1: Cædwalla 1, king of the (West) Saxons, to Cedde 1, Cissa 1 and Criswa 1 (? Crispa); grant, for the foundation of a minster, of 60 hides (cassati) at Farnham, Surrey, including 10 at Binton and 2 at Churt, Surrey, and land at Cusanweoh: S235    (688)
 S252 - Ine 1 granting land to Hæha 1 and Ceolswith 1: Ine 1, king of Wessex, to Hæha 1, patricius, and to Ceolswith 1; grant of 45 hides (cassati) at Bradfield, Bestlesford (near Basildon) and Streatley, all in Berks., for the construction of a monastery: S252    (688 x 690)
 S47 - Æthelberht 6 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Æthelberht 6, king of South Saxons, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of a half-hide (tributarius) at Chichester, Sussex: S47   
 S51 - Osric 2 granting land to Bertana 1: Osric 2, king, to Bertana 1, abbess; grant of 100 hides (manentes) at Bath, Somerset, for the foundation of a nunnery: S51    (676)
 S53 - Oshere 1 granting land to Cuthswith 1: Oshere 1, king of the Hwicce, to Cuthswith 1, abbess; grant of 15 hides (tributarii) at Penintanham (probably Inkberrow, Worcs.) and Dyllawidu (?), for the foundation of a minster: S53    (693)
 S72 - Æthelred 2 granting land to St Peter's, Medeshamstede 1: Æthelred 2, king, to St Peter's Minster, Medeshamstede 1; grant, appended to a bull of Pope Agatho 2, of land at Breedon on the Hill, Leics.; Hrepingas (? Repton, Derbys.); Cedenac; Swineshead, Lincs.; Heanbyrig; Lodeshale; Shifnal, Salop.; Costesford; Stretford (? Stretford, Salop.); Wattlesborough and Lizard, Salop.; Æthelhuniglond (? in Kent); and Bardney, Lincs: S72    (680)
Church-adornment (2)
 Wilfrid 2.restoration and endowment of church of York: Wilfrid 2 restored the exterior and interior fabric of the half-ruined stone buildings of the basilica of the church at York and endowed it with estates.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  16
 Wilfrid 2.return from Rome to Gaul with companions (Anonymi 381): After visiting shrines, collecting relics and buying adornments for his churches, Wilfrid 2 made his way back and reached Gaul.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  55
Church/monastery destruction (2)
 Eadred 16.harrying of land of Northumbrians: Here Eadred 16 harried all the land of the Northumbrians. In that harrying the famous minster built by Wilfrid 2 at Ripon was burned.: ASC (DEF)  948 D (948)
 Wilfrid 2.death at Oundle: Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11
Church/monastery/minster foundation/dedication/restoration (28)
 Beorhtwald 3.granting land to Wilfrid 2: Part of an estate ... [O]n that territory given for God's sake [Wilfrid 2] founded a small monastery.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Biscop 2.foundation of monastery: Biscop 2 decided to found a monastery and obtained that Wilfrid 2 gave him Ceolfrith 1 as a helper. They began to build the monastery close to the mouth of the River Wear.: Anon.VitCeolfrithi  5-7 (674 - ?)
 Cædwalla 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2 S232: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop, in order to found a monastery at Selsey; grant of 55 hides (tributarii) at Selsey, Medmerry, Wittering, Itchenor, Birdham, Egesawde, Bessenheie, Brinfast and Sidlesham, with 6 hides (cassati) at Aldingbourne and Lidsey, 6 at Geinstidegate (? Westergate), 8 at (North) Mundham, 8 at [Amberley and] Houghton and 4 at Coldwaltham, all in Sussex: S232    (683)
 Deusdedit 1.consecration of mynster: Deusdedit 1 consecrated the mynster [at Medeshamstede] in the presence of various people.: ASC (E)  656 E
 Hild 1.foundation of monastery at Whitby: Hild 1 undertook either to found or to set in order another monastery at a place called Streanæshalch [Whitby].: Bede.HE  iv.23
 S232 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop, in order to found a monastery at Selsey; grant of 55 hides (tributarii) at Selsey, Medmerry, Wittering, Itchenor, Birdham, Egesawde, Bessenheie, Brinfast and Sidlesham, with 6 hides (cassati) at Aldingbourne and Lidsey, 6 at Geinstidegate (? Westergate), 8 at (North) Mundham, 8 at [Amberley and] Houghton and 4 at Coldwaltham, all in Sussex: S232    (683)
 S235 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Cedde 1 Cissa 1 and Criswa 1: Cædwalla 1, king of the (West) Saxons, to Cedde 1, Cissa 1 and Criswa 1 (? Crispa); grant, for the foundation of a minster, of 60 hides (cassati) at Farnham, Surrey, including 10 at Binton and 2 at Churt, Surrey, and land at Cusanweoh: S235    (688)
 S252 - Ine 1 granting land to Hæha 1 and Ceolswith 1: Ine 1, king of Wessex, to Hæha 1, patricius, and to Ceolswith 1; grant of 45 hides (cassati) at Bradfield, Bestlesford (near Basildon) and Streatley, all in Berks., for the construction of a monastery: S252    (688 x 690)
 S51 - Osric 2 granting land to Bertana 1: Osric 2, king, to Bertana 1, abbess; grant of 100 hides (manentes) at Bath, Somerset, for the foundation of a nunnery: S51    (676)
 S53 - Oshere 1 granting land to Cuthswith 1: Oshere 1, king of the Hwicce, to Cuthswith 1, abbess; grant of 15 hides (tributarii) at Penintanham (probably Inkberrow, Worcs.) and Dyllawidu (?), for the foundation of a minster: S53    (693)
 Wilfrid 2.building St Andrew's, Hexham: Having received Hexham from Æthelthryth 2, Wilfrid 2 built a house for the Lord in honour of the blessed Apostle Andrew, raised upon variegated columns and many pillared aisles.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Wilfrid 2.building of church of St Andrew the Apostle at Hexham: Wilfrid 2 built a church at Hexham dedicated to St Andrew.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  22
 Wilfrid 2.building of minster at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 had built the famous minster at Ripon.: ASC (DEF)  948 D
 Wilfrid 2.building of stone church at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 built from its foundations to its roof a church of polished stone at Ripon.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Wilfrid 2.church-construction: Wilfrid 2 built the church of St Peter at Ripon.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.consecration of Evesham monastery: Wilfrid 2 consecrated to the Lord and the Virgin Mary the monastery that Ecgwine 1 had built.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6-8
 Wilfrid 2.consecration to abbacy: King [Aldfrith 1] gave [Wilfrid 2] a site at Ripon on which to build a monastery, and the magnates contributed many presents. He was ordained priest and abbot there by Agilbert 1, a Gallic bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.12
 Wilfrid 2.construction of a church at Ripon in honour of Peter: Wilfrid 2 built a church in Ripon in honour of Peter.: Alcuin.VersEubor  644-5
 Wilfrid 2.construction of the church of St Mary: Wilfrid 2 constructed a church dedicated to St Mary.: Milred.Sylloge  L8
 Wilfrid 2.dedication of church at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 and various dignatories dedicated the church at Ripon to St Peter and its altar to the Lord with the people taking part.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Wilfrid 2.division of his property: Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.foundation of Ripon: Wilfrid 2 founded the monastery at Ripon.: Byrhtferth.VitOswaldi  v.9
 Wilfrid 2.foundation of monastery at Selsey: Wilfrid 2 founded a monastery at Selsey, consisting chiefly of the brothers he had brought with him and established a rule of life.: Bede.HE  iv.13
 Wilfrid 2.restoration and endowment of church of York: Wilfrid 2 restored the exterior and interior fabric of the half-ruined stone buildings of the basilica of the church at York and endowed it with estates.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  16
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
 Æthelwalh 1.granting of estate at Selsey to Wilfrid 2 as a see: Æthelwalh 1 granted Wilfrid 2 a royal estate and land at Selsey, where Wilfrid 2 founded a monastery.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
Commemoration of saint/calendar-entering (3)
 Anonymous 144.commemoration of Wilfrid 2’s death: The abbot of Oundle (Anonymous 144) engaged in various liturgical and eleemosynary acts in commemoration of the death of Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Wilfrid 2.commemoration on 24 April: Also on that propitious day Bishop Wilfrid 2 betook himself, carried across the peaks, rejoicing with the angelic band. : CalMetrEbor  22-3
 Wilfrid 4.commemoration on 29 April: Wilfrid 4 also betook himself to the heavenly court on the third [kalends of May = 29 April], later in time, not inferior [to Wilfrid 4 I] in his virtues.: CalMetrEbor  24-5
Commendation (2)
 Eanflæd 1.commendation of Wilfrid 2 to Cudda 2: Eanflæd 1 commended Wilfrid 2 to Cudda 2 to minister to him and serve God.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
 Eanflæd 1.sending of Wilfrid 2 to Eorcenberht 1: Eanflæd 1 sent Wilfrid 2 to Eorcenberht 1.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
Confession (1)
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
Confirmation (1)
 Wilfrid 2.miracles: Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28
Confirmation of land/privileges (3)
 S1246 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: Eorcenwald 1, bishop of the East Saxons, to the nunnery of Barking 1; grant of privileges and grant and confirmation of many lands: S1246    (687 x 688)
 S1248 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: (? Eorcenwald 1), bishop, to (? St Mary's, Barking); grant of 28 hides (manentes) at Battersea, 20 at Watsingaham (i.e. Washingham, lost, in Battersea) and 20 (cassatae) by Hidaburna (the river Wandle), all in Surrey. The land had been granted to him by Cædwalla 1, king of the West Saxons, and confirmed by Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians: S1248    (693)
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Confiscation (2)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
Conquest (1)
 Ecgfrith 4.successful battles: King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 (670 x 675)
Conspiracy/intent to murder (7)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Anonymi 338.conspiracy to have Perctarit 1 seize Wilfrid 2: Enemies (Anonymi 338) sent messengers (Anonymi 345) to ask Perctarit 1 to seize Wilfrid 2, promising him very great gifts if he did so. He refused to.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Eadwulf 2.meeting with messengers (Anonymi 387) of Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 sent messengers (Anonymi 387) to Eadwulf 2. Eadwulf 2 declared Wilfrid 2 would be killed if he did not leave his kingdom.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Wilfrid 2.attendance at Council of Austerfield: Beorhtwald 6 and other bishops (Anonymi 369) invited Wilfrid 2 to attend. He was warned of their plans by a king's minister [Anonymous 138] and so declined to sign any agreement. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  46-47
 Wilfrid 2.escape from attack: Wilfrid 2 escaped attack.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  25
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.plot to seize his property: Eormenburg 1 and Ecgfrith 4 conspired to suborn Theodore 1 in order to condemn Wilfrid 2 and seize property under his control by sending Theodore 1 gifts and inviting the latter to meet them.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
Conversation (2)
 Ealhfrith 1.meeting with Wilfrid 2: Following the recommendation of Cenwealh 2, the West-Saxon king (Ealhfrith 1) ordered Wilfrid 2 to come to him. Ealhfrith 1 conversed with him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Wilfrid 2.vision at Meaux of St Michael: Wilfrid 2 fell ill while travelling and had a vision of St Michael, which he recounted to Acca 3.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  56
Conversion (7)
 Eoppa 3.bringing of Christianity to Anonymi 806: Eoppa 3 first brought Christianity to the dwellers on the Isle of Wight (Anonymi 806).: ASC  661 ACEG, <661> B (661)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of kingdom of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 went back to Britain and converted the kingdom of the South Saxons.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of peoples, including the South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 converted peoples in many places, including South Saxony.: Alcuin.VersEubor  581-7
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of thousands of Frisians (Anonymi 1086): Wilfrid 2 made thousands of converts to Christ among the Frisian people (Anonymi 1086).: Alcuin.VersEubor  607-13
 Wilfrid 2.converting the South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Correspondence (7)
 Agatho 2-Anonymi 1321 122.letter to England: Agatho 2 and 125 bishops (Anonymi 1321) sent a letter to England in care of Wilfrid 2.: ASC (E)  675 E (p. 37)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 John 17.letter to Aldfrith 1 and Æthelred 2: John 17 wrote to Aldfrith 1 and Æthelred 2 bidding them restore Wilfrid 2 to his bishopric because he had been unjustly condemned.: Bede.HE  v.19
 John 17.ruling written to Æthelred 2 and Aldfrith 1 concerning Wilfrid 2: John 17 wrote to Æthelred 2 and Aldfrith 1 communicating his decisions arising out of the synod hearing Wilfrid 2's appeal.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  54
 Wilfrid 2.reconciliation with Theodore 1: Theodore 1 and Wilfrid 2 were reconciled in a peace treaty. At Wilfrid 2's urging Theodore 1 sent letters to various people urging reconciliation between them and Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  43
 Wilfrid 2.reconciliation with Æthelred 2: Following a letter from Theodore 1, Æthelred 2 was reconciled to Wilfrid 2 and returned many monasteries and estates to him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  43
 Æthelred 2.communications with Agatho 2: Æthelred 2 made known to Agatho 2 in writing and orally about Medeshamstede.: ASC (E)  675 E (p. 35)
Council-meeting, ecclesiastical (16)
 Agatho 2-others.synod: Agatho 2 called a synod of 125 bishops (Anonymi 685) to testify against those who declared that there was only one will in our Lord. Furthermore, it was decided that Wilfrid 2 had been wrongly accused, and so he was declared worthy to hold his bishopric.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Agatho 2.summoning of synod: Agatho 2 summoned a synod to hear the appeal of Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  29 (679)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Cenred 2-others.synod of Alcester: Cenred 2 summoned a council at Alcester. All the leading men and 'duces' (Anonymi 1486) met there. He reported about the outcome of the trip to Rome and the privilege of freedom granted to Evesham. He also ordered the letter to be shown and read out. All the people who were present agreed.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.4-6
 Oswiu 1-others.council of Whitby: When the question of Easter, and of the tonsure and other ecclesiastical matters were raised, it was decided to hold a council to settle the dispute.: Bede.HE  iii.25-6, iv.1 (664)
 Theodore 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.': WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.Synod of Whitby: Clerics (Anonymi 307) and others gathered at Streuneshalgh to consider the proper date for observing Easter. Colmán 1 was told that he must retire and leave his see if he could not accept the tonsure and method of keeping Easter, which he did.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  10
 Wilfrid 2.attendance at Council of Austerfield: Beorhtwald 6 and other bishops (Anonymi 369) invited Wilfrid 2 to attend. He was warned of their plans by a king's minister [Anonymous 138] and so declined to sign any agreement. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  46-47
 Wilfrid 2.attendance with 125 other bishops (Anonymi 378) at papal council: Wilfrid 2 subscribed to a papal synod also attended by 125 other bishops (Anonymi 378).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  53 (pp. 112, 114) (779)
 Wilfrid 2.council in Northumbria: When Osred 1 son of Aldfrith 1 was given his proper place on the throne, the most loyal and influential of his magnates, Beorhtfrith 3, agreed on the prompting of Archbishop Beorhtwald 6 to hold a council in Northumbria, so that Wilfrid 2's just cause might be brought to a peaceable conclusion at last. At this meeting, in accordance with the pope's [John 17] command, the bishops [from Anonymi 388] were given the choice either to yield Wilfrid 2 his part of the see, or to go to Rome to uphold their case. Anyone who thought fit not to comply would be excommunicate. The bishops made objections as was their wont, but the blessed Ælfflæd 2, sister of Aldfrith 1 and Hild 1's successor as abbess of Whitby, settled the matter by referring to her brother's deathbed request to have Wilfrid 2 restored. Beorhtfrith 3 also suggested that they should obey the pope's commands. The grave bishops hurried to embrace each other, and they preserved lifelong concord. Wilfrid 2 was given back control of two monasteries, Ripon and Hexham.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.2-6
 Wilfrid 2.synod at River Nidd: A synod was held and after some argument, they all agreed to receive Wilfrid 2 back into the bishopric of his own church.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.synod held near River Nidd: Beorhtwald 6 called a synod in accordance with the precept of the Apostolic See to consider Wilfrid 2's case. Reconciliation was made with Wilfrid 2, and Ripon and Hexham with their revenues were returned to him. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  60
 Wilfrid 2.synod to hear papal judgments: After Wilfrid 2 handed the papal decision to Ecgfrith 4, a synod was held after which he was imprisoned for nine months.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  34-35
 Æthelred 2.confirmation of agreement with Wilfrid 2: After the council of Austerfield Wilfrid 2 returned to Æthelred 2, who confirmed his previous conditions with Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  48
Death/dying (10)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Aldhelm 3.death: Aldhelm 3 died in the year of our Lord 709, eighteen years before Ine 1 and twenty-five before Bede 1, in the thirty-fourth year since he was made abbot by Leuthhere 2 and the fifth since Beorhtwald 6 made him bishop. As for his age, no written source has reckoned it. In the same year Wilfrid 2 and Cenred 2 died.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.231.2-3 (709)
 Eadwulf 2-Wilfrid 2.hostility: On the death of Aldfrith 1 one Eadwulf 2 planned to usurp the throne. Although he used to be friends with Wilfrid 2, he told the bishop to get out of his territory at once. However, after a couple of months Eadwulf 2 lost both life and kingdom.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.1-2
 Ecgfrith 4.death at the hands of Picts: Ecgfrith 4 was slain and all the best of his army (Anonymi 290) overcome by the Picts (Anonymi 291).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Ecgfrith 4.successful battles: King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 (670 x 675)
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
 Wilfrid 2.death: In 745 lord Wilfrid 2, bishop of the city of York, departed to the Lord on 29 April. His story had been compiled by Bede 1. : NorthernAnnals.FirstSet  40 (745)
 Wilfrid 2.death at Oundle: Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Ælfwine 4.death: Exactly one year after the appeal of Wilfrid 2 against the judicial decision by Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1 was rejected by them the body of Ælfwine 4 was carried into York to the grief of the people.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
Decision-making (3)
 Cudda 2.consent for Wilfrid 2 to go to Rome: After Wilfrid 2 decided he wanted to visit Rome, Cudda 2 consented.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 John 17.ruling written to Æthelred 2 and Aldfrith 1 concerning Wilfrid 2: John 17 wrote to Æthelred 2 and Aldfrith 1 communicating his decisions arising out of the synod hearing Wilfrid 2's appeal.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  54
 Wilfrid 2.entry into monastic life at Lindisfarne: Wilfrid 2 decided to enter the monastic life.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
Deposition of archbishop (1)
 Wilfrid 2.elevation to the see of York: Wilfrid 2 was chosen to fill the see of York, and sent by King Aldfrith 1 [more likely by Ealhfrith 1], son of King Oswiu 1, to Gaul for consecration. While he dallied overseas, King Oswiu 1 foisted Chad 1 on the throne of York. Chad 1 was very holy, but his election was illegal. The wrong was set right when Theodore 1 was sent from the papal see to be archbishop of Canterbury: Chad 1 was removed, and Wilfrid 2 put on the throne.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.2
Deposition of bishop (9)
 Chad 1.episcopal installation at Lichfield: After being deposed from York, Chad 1 was ordained through all the ecclesiastical degrees as bishop of Lichfield.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Theodore 1.episcopal installation of Wilfrid 2 at York: Theodore 1 came from Kent and demanded that Chad 1 be deposed. He installed Wilfrid 2 as bishop in York. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.deposition from bishopric by Ecgfrith 4: Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. : Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
 Wilfrid 2.ejection from York in a synod: Wilfrid 2's petition to Agatho 2, described how Theodore 1 had consecrated three bishops (Anonymi 331) in spite of Wilfrid 2 opposition.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  30
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Wilfrid 2.exile to Frisia: Wilfrid 2 was driven from the see and other bishops were consecrated in his place. He embarked on a ship and was driven by the west wind to Frisia.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.expulsion from bishopric: The bishop [sc. Wilfrid 2] was expelled from his bishopric.: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12) (677)
 Wilfrid 2.second exile: Wilfrid 2 was again accused and driven from the bishopric by the king (Aldfrith 1) and several bishops: Bede.HE  v.19
Diocese-visiting (3)
 Wilfrid 2.death at Oundle: Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11
 Wilfrid 2.division of his property: Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9
 Wilfrid 2.illness: After four years of peace following his restoration as bishop, Wilfrid 2 was struck down, as the archangel Michael had predicted, by a severe illness as one in Meaux, so sorely that he lost speech and consciousness. but when his people prayed God that he might at least be granted his speech back, in order to pronounce on the division of his property, he made a fine recovery, so that he was at once able to talk and, after some days, to visit all his estates with his old energy.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.6
Disobedience (1)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
Disputing/dispute-settling (4)
 Ecgfrith 4-Wilfrid 2.dissension: A dissension arose between Ecgfrith 4 and Wilfrid 2 with the result that the latter was driven from his see while two bishops were put in his place to rule over the Northumbrians.: Bede.HE  iv.12, v.24 (678 - ?)
 Wilfrid 2.council in Northumbria: When Osred 1 son of Aldfrith 1 was given his proper place on the throne, the most loyal and influential of his magnates, Beorhtfrith 3, agreed on the prompting of Archbishop Beorhtwald 6 to hold a council in Northumbria, so that Wilfrid 2's just cause might be brought to a peaceable conclusion at last. At this meeting, in accordance with the pope's [John 17] command, the bishops [from Anonymi 388] were given the choice either to yield Wilfrid 2 his part of the see, or to go to Rome to uphold their case. Anyone who thought fit not to comply would be excommunicate. The bishops made objections as was their wont, but the blessed Ælfflæd 2, sister of Aldfrith 1 and Hild 1's successor as abbess of Whitby, settled the matter by referring to her brother's deathbed request to have Wilfrid 2 restored. Beorhtfrith 3 also suggested that they should obey the pope's commands. The grave bishops hurried to embrace each other, and they preserved lifelong concord. Wilfrid 2 was given back control of two monasteries, Ripon and Hexham.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.2-6
 Wilfrid 2.exile: Wilfrid 2 was in exile for three years because of the disagreement between himself and King Ecgfrith 4 during which time he stayed for a while at Ely with Æthelthryth 2 before travelling to Rome where, by the judgement of Pope Benedict 2 and many others, he was found to be worthy of a bishopric. He then returned to Britain and converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 4 or Wilfrid 2.translated to Canterbury: There is a feud between York and Canterbury regarding which of the two has the body of Wilfrid 2: those of Canterbury claim that they possess Wilfrid 2 senior, while those of York contend that it was the younger Wilfrid 4 who was transferred to Canterbury by Archbishop Oda 1.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.111
Dreaming/seeing vision/revelation (5)
 Wilfrid 2.birth: Wilfrid 2 was born of respectable parents [Anonymous 121 and Anonymous 125] in Northumbria. While his mother [Anonymous 121] was in labour, retainers [Anonymi 1284] standing outside saw the house as if in flames on either side, seen only by men but not by maidservants.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.3-4
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of apparently burning house: The men (Anonymi 294) outside the house of the mother of Wilfrid 2 (Anonymous 121) saw that it appeared to be on fire but were then told by the women (Anonymi 293) that Wilfrid 2 had just been born.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  1
 Wilfrid 2.revelation to him by St Michael: St Michael appeared to Wilfrid 2 separately and told him how acceptable his deeds were and how long his life would be.: OEMart  63
 Wilfrid 2.vision at Meaux of St Michael: Wilfrid 2 fell ill while travelling and had a vision of St Michael, which he recounted to Acca 3.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  56
 Wilfrid 2.vision of St Michael: On the fifth day after his illness, Wilfrid 2 reported a vision of St Michael.: Alcuin.VersEubor  624-40
Easter-observance (2)
 Oswiu 1-others.council of Whitby: When the question of Easter, and of the tonsure and other ecclesiastical matters were raised, it was decided to hold a council to settle the dispute.: Bede.HE  iii.25-6, iv.1 (664)
 Wilfrid 2.Synod of Whitby: Clerics (Anonymi 307) and others gathered at Streuneshalgh to consider the proper date for observing Easter. Colmán 1 was told that he must retire and leave his see if he could not accept the tonsure and method of keeping Easter, which he did.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  10
Ecclesiastical reform (1)
 Wilfrid 2.return to Britain: Wilfrid 2 introduced many apostolic customs into the English churches, so that all the Irish who had remained among the English either gave way or returned to their own land.: Bede.HE  iii.28
Education/teaching (4)
 Wilfred 2.education in England: Wilfrid 2 ran the course of his childhood without education. But at the age of 14, loathing his overbearing stepmother [Anonymous 122] (his own mother [Anonymous 121] having died), he left his father's [Anonymous 125] home. He was then brought to the notice of Queen Eanflæd 1. On learning about this dream to become a monk, she passed Wilfrid 2 over to one Cudda 2, who had been a senator and royal chamberlain but was now proposing to enter the religious life at Lindisfarne. He looked after Wilfrid 2 kindly for some years, and then returned him to the queen. Wilfrid 2 then was sent to Rome to improve his education.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.5-6
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with Boniface 4 in Rome: Wilfrid 2 met Boniface 4, from whom he learnt the Gospels, the Easter rule and many other rules of ecclesiastical discipline.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Wilfrid 2.second visit to Dalfinus 1 after return from Rome: Wilfrid 2 spent three years with Dalfinus 1, where he learned from teachers (Anonymi 302).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
Election of bishop (1)
 Wilfrid 2.consecration of Swithberht 1: The brothers (Anonymi 683) engaged in the ministry of the Word in Frisia chose Swithberht 1 to be consecrated as their bishop. They sent him to Britain, where he was consecrated by Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  v.11
Embassy (1)
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
Episcopal see, acquisition/institution/division/merge (6)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Ecgfrith 4-Wilfrid 2.dissension: A dissension arose between Ecgfrith 4 and Wilfrid 2 with the result that the latter was driven from his see while two bishops were put in his place to rule over the Northumbrians.: Bede.HE  iv.12, v.24 (678 - ?)
 Theodore 1.consecration of three bishops to see of Wilfrid 2 at York: In the absence of Wilfrid 2, Theodore 1 consecrated without precedent and irregularly on his own three bishops (Anonymi 331) to sections of Wilfrid 2's see.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Wilfrid 2.exile to Frisia: Wilfrid 2 was driven from the see and other bishops were consecrated in his place. He embarked on a ship and was driven by the west wind to Frisia.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.second exile: Wilfrid 2 was again accused and driven from the bishopric by the king (Aldfrith 1) and several bishops: Bede.HE  v.19
 Æthelwalh 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2: The king [Æthelwalh 1] gave his own estate to be an episcopal see.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
Execution (2)
 Dalfinus 1.death: Balthild 1 sent soldiers and ordered the bishop to be executed. : Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.trial in Gaul: Wilfrid 2 accompanied Dalfinus 1 to the place of trial but the dukes (Anonymi 304) spared him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
Exhumation (1)
 Æthelthryth 2.translation: Seaxburg 1 decided that Æthelthryth 2's bones should be raised and placed in a new coffin.: Bede.HE  iv.19, 20 (poem)
Exile (9)
 Aldhelm 3.counsel to Wilfrid 2’s abbots (Anonymi 2005): Aldhelm 3 urged Wilfrid 2's abbots (Anonymi 2005) to cross the sea and join him in exile.: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12) (677)
 Cædwalla 1.acquisition of the kingdom of the West Saxons: After being in exile Cædwalla 1 gained the throne of the West Saxons.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Wilfrid 2.appeal to John 17: When Wilfrid 2 was again driven from his bishopric, he went to Rome, where he was given the opportunity of defending himself before John 17. It was decided unanimously that his accusers had manufactured false charges against him, at least in part.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.banishment from kingdom of Aldfrith 1: Aldfrith 1 banished Wilfrid 2, whom Æthelred 2 then received. Wilfrid 2 then lived in the bishopric ruled by Seaxwulf 1 before his death.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  45
 Wilfrid 2.exile: Wilfrid 2 was in exile for three years because of the disagreement between himself and King Ecgfrith 4 during which time he stayed for a while at Ely with Æthelthryth 2 before travelling to Rome where, by the judgement of Pope Benedict 2 and many others, he was found to be worthy of a bishopric. He then returned to Britain and converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.exile to Frisia: Wilfrid 2 was driven from the see and other bishops were consecrated in his place. He embarked on a ship and was driven by the west wind to Frisia.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.second exile: Wilfrid 2 was again accused and driven from the bishopric by the king (Aldfrith 1) and several bishops: Bede.HE  v.19
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
Exorcism (1)
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Eormenburg 1: After Eormenburg 1 was seized by a demon, she was healed once Ecgfrith 4 freed Wilfrid 2 on the advice of Æbbe 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
Expulsion (10)
 Eadwulf 2-Wilfrid 2.hostility: On the death of Aldfrith 1 one Eadwulf 2 planned to usurp the throne. Although he used to be friends with Wilfrid 2, he told the bishop to get out of his territory at once. However, after a couple of months Eadwulf 2 lost both life and kingdom.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.1-2
 Eadwulf 2.meeting with messengers (Anonymi 387) of Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 sent messengers (Anonymi 387) to Eadwulf 2. Eadwulf 2 declared Wilfrid 2 would be killed if he did not leave his kingdom.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Ecgfrith 4-Wilfrid 2.dissension: A dissension arose between Ecgfrith 4 and Wilfrid 2 with the result that the latter was driven from his see while two bishops were put in his place to rule over the Northumbrians.: Bede.HE  iv.12, v.24 (678 - ?)
 Theodore 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.': WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7
 Theodore 1.exercise of power: [Theodore 1], as Bede 1 tells us, was sent by the pope, and was the first of all the bishops at Canterbury who exercised episcopal power over all Britain. For example, he removed and installed bishops on both sides of the Humber as he pleased. At York itself, according to Bede 1, he consecrated the bishops of other cities, and as we read in the Life of St Wilfrid 2, he drove out, for good reason or by brute force, Chad 1 and Wilfrid 2 himself, bishops of the place.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.3
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.banishment from kingdom of Aldfrith 1: Aldfrith 1 banished Wilfrid 2, whom Æthelred 2 then received. Wilfrid 2 then lived in the bishopric ruled by Seaxwulf 1 before his death.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  45
 Wilfrid 2.deposition from bishopric by Ecgfrith 4: Wilfrid 2 was driven from his bishopric by Ecgfrith 4.: ASC  678 ACEG, <678> B, 677 F(OE and Lat.) (678)
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: After founding a monastery, Wilfrid 2 was forced to leave; he then went to Cenred 2, who also forced him to leave.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Wilfrid 2.expulsion from bishopric: The bishop [sc. Wilfrid 2] was expelled from his bishopric.: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12) (677)
Flight (5)
 Ecgfrith 4.defeat of Wulfhere 1: King Ecgfrith 4 fought against the king of the Mercians, Wulfhere 1 son of Penda 1, and having cut down [his] army he [Ecgfrith 4] vanquished him and put him to flight with only one small boy [Anonymous 10131] accompanying [him]. Ecgfrith 4 obtained this though the aid of St Wilfrid 2, who was with him, but especially through the prayers of St Cuthbert 1, who was absent.: Symeonof Durham.HistoriadeSanctoCuthberto  7 (670 x 675)
 Ecgfrith 4.successful battles: King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 (670 x 675)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Fostering (1)
 Wilfred 2.education in England: Wilfrid 2 ran the course of his childhood without education. But at the age of 14, loathing his overbearing stepmother [Anonymous 122] (his own mother [Anonymous 121] having died), he left his father's [Anonymous 125] home. He was then brought to the notice of Queen Eanflæd 1. On learning about this dream to become a monk, she passed Wilfrid 2 over to one Cudda 2, who had been a senator and royal chamberlain but was now proposing to enter the religious life at Lindisfarne. He looked after Wilfrid 2 kindly for some years, and then returned him to the queen. Wilfrid 2 then was sent to Rome to improve his education.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.5-6
Freeing captives (1)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
Friendship-making (2)
 Ecgfrith 4.amity with Wilfrid 2: Ecgfrith 4 and Æthelthryth 2 were in amity with Wilfrid 2 in all respects with consequent peace amongst his people and success over foes.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  19
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
Governing (1)
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Grant and Gift (46)
 Aldfrith 1.granting Hexham to Wilfrid 2: [Aldfrith 1] granted [Wilfrid 2] the monastery of Hexham with all the possessions attached to it.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  44, 47
 Benedict 2.granting privileges to Ely: Wilfrid 2, at the request of Æthelthryth 2 brought back privileges of Benedict 2 for Ely.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Beorhtwald 3.granting land to Wilfrid 2: Part of an estate ... [O]n that territory given for God's sake [Wilfrid 2] founded a small monastery.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  40
 Cenred 2-others.synod of Alcester: Cenred 2 summoned a council at Alcester. All the leading men and 'duces' (Anonymi 1486) met there. He reported about the outcome of the trip to Rome and the privilege of freedom granted to Evesham. He also ordered the letter to be shown and read out. All the people who were present agreed.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.4-6
 Centwine 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2: Centwine 1, king of Wessex, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of land at Wedmore, Somerset. : S1667    (676 x 685)
 Cædwalla 1.granting gifts to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1 gave [Wilfrid 2] gifts.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  42
 Cædwalla 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2: a fourth part of the land on the Isle of Wight, that is 300 hides: Bede.HE  iv.16
 Cædwalla 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2 S230: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of 70 hides (tributarii) at Pagham, Shripney, Charlton, Bognor, Bersted, North Bersted, Crimsham, North and South Mundham (and, in the shortened version, Slindon), all in Sussex, and to the community at St Andrew's church situated on the east of the harbour called Uedringmutha (Pagham Harbour), grant of 10 hides (tributarii) at Tangmere, Sussex: S230    (685)
 Cædwalla 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2 S232: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop, in order to found a monastery at Selsey; grant of 55 hides (tributarii) at Selsey, Medmerry, Wittering, Itchenor, Birdham, Egesawde, Bessenheie, Brinfast and Sidlesham, with 6 hides (cassati) at Aldingbourne and Lidsey, 6 at Geinstidegate (? Westergate), 8 at (North) Mundham, 8 at [Amberley and] Houghton and 4 at Coldwaltham, all in Sussex: S232    (683)
 Dagobert 3.granting gifts to Wilfrid 2: [Dagobert 3] sent [Wilfrid 2 to the Apostolic See with presents and great gifts.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Dagobert 3.supplying arms to Wilfrid 2: arms: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Ealhfrith 1.grant of land at ‘Stanforda’ to Wilfrid 2: Ealhfrith 1 granted Wilfrid 2 an estate of ten hides at 'Stanforda'.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
 Ealhfrith 1.granting Ripon to Wilfrid 2: a monastery with thirty hides at Ripon: Bede.HE  v.19
 Ealhfrith 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2: ten hides at Stamford : Bede.HE  v.19
 Ealhfrith 1.granting of Ripon to Wilfrid 2: Ealhfrith 1 granted to Wilfrid 2 a monastery at Ripon with 30 hides of land.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  8
 Ecgfrith 4.granting lands to Wilfrid 2: Many lands near Ribble and in Yeadon and in the region of Dent and at Catlow and in other places.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Oshere 1.granting land to Frithuwald 3 S52: Oshere 1, king, to Frithuwald 3, monk of Bishop Wynnfrith 1 (? for Wilfrid 2); grant of 30 hides (manentes) at Ripple, Worcs.: S52    (680)
 S1171 - Æthelred 4 granting land to Æthelburg 3: Hodilredus (Æthelred 4) to Hedilburg (Æthelburg 3), abbess, for her minster called Beddanhaam (Barking); grant of 40 hides (manentes) at Ricingahaam, Budinhaam, Dagenham, Angenlabeshaam and Widmundes felt (Wyfields in Great Ilford), all probably in Essex: S1171    (685 x 693)
 S1246 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: Eorcenwald 1, bishop of the East Saxons, to the nunnery of Barking 1; grant of privileges and grant and confirmation of many lands: S1246    (687 x 688)
 S1248 - Eorcenwald 1 granting land to Barking 1: (? Eorcenwald 1), bishop, to (? St Mary's, Barking); grant of 28 hides (manentes) at Battersea, 20 at Watsingaham (i.e. Washingham, lost, in Battersea) and 20 (cassatae) by Hidaburna (the river Wandle), all in Surrey. The land had been granted to him by Cædwalla 1, king of the West Saxons, and confirmed by Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians: S1248    (693)
 S230 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of 70 hides (tributarii) at Pagham, Shripney, Charlton, Bognor, Bersted, North Bersted, Crimsham, North and South Mundham (and, in the shortened version, Slindon), all in Sussex, and to the community at St Andrew's church situated on the east of the harbour called Uedringmutha (Pagham Harbour), grant of 10 hides (tributarii) at Tangmere, Sussex: S230    (685)
 S232 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Wilfrid 2: Cædwalla 1, king, to Wilfrid 2, bishop, in order to found a monastery at Selsey; grant of 55 hides (tributarii) at Selsey, Medmerry, Wittering, Itchenor, Birdham, Egesawde, Bessenheie, Brinfast and Sidlesham, with 6 hides (cassati) at Aldingbourne and Lidsey, 6 at Geinstidegate (? Westergate), 8 at (North) Mundham, 8 at [Amberley and] Houghton and 4 at Coldwaltham, all in Sussex: S232    (683)
 S235 - Cædwalla 1 granting land to Cedde 1 Cissa 1 and Criswa 1: Cædwalla 1, king of the (West) Saxons, to Cedde 1, Cissa 1 and Criswa 1 (? Crispa); grant, for the foundation of a minster, of 60 hides (cassati) at Farnham, Surrey, including 10 at Binton and 2 at Churt, Surrey, and land at Cusanweoh: S235    (688)
 S252 - Ine 1 granting land to Hæha 1 and Ceolswith 1: Ine 1, king of Wessex, to Hæha 1, patricius, and to Ceolswith 1; grant of 45 hides (cassati) at Bradfield, Bestlesford (near Basildon) and Streatley, all in Berks., for the construction of a monastery: S252    (688 x 690)
 S51 - Osric 2 granting land to Bertana 1: Osric 2, king, to Bertana 1, abbess; grant of 100 hides (manentes) at Bath, Somerset, for the foundation of a nunnery: S51    (676)
 S53 - Oshere 1 granting land to Cuthswith 1: Oshere 1, king of the Hwicce, to Cuthswith 1, abbess; grant of 15 hides (tributarii) at Penintanham (probably Inkberrow, Worcs.) and Dyllawidu (?), for the foundation of a minster: S53    (693)
 S72 - Æthelred 2 granting land to St Peter's, Medeshamstede 1: Æthelred 2, king, to St Peter's Minster, Medeshamstede 1; grant, appended to a bull of Pope Agatho 2, of land at Breedon on the Hill, Leics.; Hrepingas (? Repton, Derbys.); Cedenac; Swineshead, Lincs.; Heanbyrig; Lodeshale; Shifnal, Salop.; Costesford; Stretford (? Stretford, Salop.); Wattlesborough and Lizard, Salop.; Æthelhuniglond (? in Kent); and Bardney, Lincs: S72    (680)
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
 Wilfrid 2 OR Wilfrid 5.granting land to ?: Wilfrid, bishop, [either Wilfrid 2 OR Wilfrid 5] to ?; concerning land at Uckinghall in Ripple, Worcs..: S1840    (678 x 745)
 Wilfrid 2.appointment of Hiddila 1: Wilfrid 2 assigned the priest Hiddila 1 to Beornwine 1 after entrusting the latter with the 300 hides he was given by Cædwalla 1 on the Isle of Wight: Bede.HE  iv.16
 Wilfrid 2.consecration to abbacy: King [Aldfrith 1] gave [Wilfrid 2] a site at Ripon on which to build a monastery, and the magnates contributed many presents. He was ordained priest and abbot there by Agilbert 1, a Gallic bishop.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.12
 Wilfrid 2.entrusting land to Beornwine 1: the land that Wilfrid 2 had been granted by Cædwalla 1: Bede.HE  iv.16
 Wilfrid 2.episcopal consecration: When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.gift of purple Gospels to Ripon: Wilfrid 2 ordered the gospels to be copied out and given to the church at Ripon with a book case.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Wilfrid 2.granting land to Beorhtwald 5: Wilfrid 2, bishop, to Beorhtwald 5, abbot of Glastonbury; grant of land at Wedmore, Somerset.: S1674    (705 x 709)
 Wilfrid 2.granting land to Glastonbury: Wilfrid 2, bishop, to Glastonbury Abbey; grant of 1 hide at Clewer, Somerset.: S1675    (705 x 709)
 Wilfrid 2.property granted him before his death: People (Anonymi 415) who had held their possessions for many years gave it to Wilfrid 2 before his death.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  61
 Wulfhere 1.granting a place at Lichfield to Wilfrid 2: Place at Lichfield: Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Ælfwine 4-Ecgfrith 4.granting lands to Wilfrid 2: [Ælfwine 4 and Ecgfrith 4] granted in writing to our bishop [Wilfrid 2] many lands, and these are the names of the areas: near the River Ribble and in Yeadon and in the region of Dent and Catlow and many other places.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Ælfwine 4.granting lands to Wilfrid 2: Many lands near Ribble and in Yeadon and in the region of Dent and at Catlow and in other places.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  17
 Æthelberht 6.granting land to Wilfrid 2 S47: Æthelberht 6, king of Sussex, to Wilfrid 2, bishop; grant of a half-hide (tributarius) at Chichester, Sussex: S47   
 Æthelthryth 2.granting Wilfrid 2 Hexham: Æthelthryth 2 granted Wilfrid 2 Hexham.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.8
 Æthelthryth 2.granting land to Wilfrid 2: [Wilfrid 2] acquired a district.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  22
 Æthelwalh 1.granting land to Wilfrid 2: 87 hides of land at Selsey to maintain his exiled followers: Bede.HE  iv.13
 Æthelwalh 1.granting of estate at Selsey to Wilfrid 2 as a see: Æthelwalh 1 granted Wilfrid 2 a royal estate and land at Selsey, where Wilfrid 2 founded a monastery.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  41
Healing (8)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.healing: After being sick for four days and nights, Wilfrid 2 arose and sat up, as if he were awaking from a deep sleep. Then he asked to see the priest Acca 3.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.healing of Bothelm 1 at Hexham: After Wilfrid 2 prayed and blessed Bothelm 1, the latter regained the breath of life and recovered after medical attention.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
 Wilfrid 2.healing of young British boy (Eadwald 4): Wilfrid 2 healed and baptized Eadwald 4.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Wilfrid 2.illness: After four years of peace following his restoration as bishop, Wilfrid 2 was struck down, as the archangel Michael had predicted, by a severe illness as one in Meaux, so sorely that he lost speech and consciousness. but when his people prayed God that he might at least be granted his speech back, in order to pronounce on the division of his property, he made a fine recovery, so that he was at once able to talk and, after some days, to visit all his estates with his old energy.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.6
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Eormenburg 1: After Eormenburg 1 was seized by a demon, she was healed once Ecgfrith 4 freed Wilfrid 2 on the advice of Æbbe 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Æbbe 1: Wilfrid 2 healed Æbbe 1, the wife of the reeve, Osfrith 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  37
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of nun with withered hand (Anonymous 146): A nun (Anonymous 146) had her withered hand healed when she washed it in the water with the muslin garment of Bacula 1 used to prepare Wilfrid 2 for burial.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  66
Heresy-allegations/condemnations (1)
 Agatho 2-others.synod: Agatho 2 called a synod of 125 bishops (Anonymi 685) to testify against those who declared that there was only one will in our Lord. Furthermore, it was decided that Wilfrid 2 had been wrongly accused, and so he was declared worthy to hold his bishopric.: Bede.HE  v.19
Hiding/harbouring/sanctuary (2)
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Horse-using/giving/acquisition/riding (1)
 Wilfrid 2.recounting of his life to Tatberht 2: Wilfrid 2 had told from memory the story of his life to Tatberht 2 one day when they were riding together on a journey.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
Hospitality (3)
 Acca 3-Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome: On their way to Rome, Acca 3 and Wilfrid 2 stayed with Willibrord 1.: Bede.HE  iii.13
 Dagobert 3.reception of Wilfrid 2: Dagobert 3 received Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
Hostility (5)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Eadwulf 2-Wilfrid 2.hostility: On the death of Aldfrith 1 one Eadwulf 2 planned to usurp the throne. Although he used to be friends with Wilfrid 2, he told the bishop to get out of his territory at once. However, after a couple of months Eadwulf 2 lost both life and kingdom.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.1-2
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.deposition from bishopric by Ecgfrith 4: Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. : Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Illness/demonic seizure/madness (9)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.death at Oundle: Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11
 Wilfrid 2.disposition at Hexham of monasteries and property when ill: When Wilfrid 2 fell ill en route to Hexham, he organized where people should be located and under whom, and shared out his property. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  62
 Wilfrid 2.division of his property: Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9
 Wilfrid 2.healing: After being sick for four days and nights, Wilfrid 2 arose and sat up, as if he were awaking from a deep sleep. Then he asked to see the priest Acca 3.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.illness: After four years of peace following his restoration as bishop, Wilfrid 2 was struck down, as the archangel Michael had predicted, by a severe illness as one in Meaux, so sorely that he lost speech and consciousness. but when his people prayed God that he might at least be granted his speech back, in order to pronounce on the division of his property, he made a fine recovery, so that he was at once able to talk and, after some days, to visit all his estates with his old energy.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.6
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Eormenburg 1: After Eormenburg 1 was seized by a demon, she was healed once Ecgfrith 4 freed Wilfrid 2 on the advice of Æbbe 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Wilfrid 2.vision at Meaux of St Michael: Wilfrid 2 fell ill while travelling and had a vision of St Michael, which he recounted to Acca 3.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  56
 Wilfrid 2.vision of St Michael: On the fifth day after his illness, Wilfrid 2 reported a vision of St Michael.: Alcuin.VersEubor  624-40
Imprisonment (3)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.imprisonment: Wilfrid 2 was imprisoned.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  36
 Wilfrid 2.synod to hear papal judgments: After Wilfrid 2 handed the papal decision to Ecgfrith 4, a synod was held after which he was imprisoned for nine months.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  34-35
Injury and wounding (1)
 Wilfrid 2.miracles: Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28
Introduction (1)
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
Invitation (5)
 Ealhfrith 1.invitation to Wilfrid 2 to preach: Ealhfrith 1 urged Wilfrid 2 to stay with him and preach to him and the whole people. Wilfrid 2 agreed to stay.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Tunberht 1-Ceolfrith 1.journey to Ripon: At the invitation of Wilfrid 2, Tunberht 1and Ceolfrith 1 left to go to Ripon.: Anon.VitCeolfrithi  3
 Wilfrid 2.attendance at Council of Austerfield: Beorhtwald 6 and other bishops (Anonymi 369) invited Wilfrid 2 to attend. He was warned of their plans by a king's minister [Anonymous 138] and so declined to sign any agreement. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  46-47
 Wilfrid 2.invitation to Eddius 1: Wilfrid 2 invited Eddius 1 from Kent to Northumbria.: Bede.HE  iv.2
 Wilfrid 2.restoration to his episcopal see: Wilfrid 2 was restored to his episcopal seat and his bishopric at the invitation of Aldfrith 1.: Bede.HE  v.19
Journey (36)
 Acca 3-Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome: On their way to Rome, Acca 3 and Wilfrid 2 stayed with Willibrord 1.: Bede.HE  iii.13
 Acca 3.journey to Rome: Acca 3 travelled to Rome with bishop Wilfrid 2. : NorthernAnnals.FirstSet  36
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Aldhelm 3.counsel to Wilfrid 2’s abbots (Anonymi 2005): Aldhelm 3 urged Wilfrid 2's abbots (Anonymi 2005) to cross the sea and join him in exile.: Aldhelm.Ep  9 (12) (677)
 Biscop 2-Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome: Eorcenberht 1 gave Wilfrid 2 to Biscop 2 as a companion and ordered Biscop 2 to take Wilfrid 2 to Rome.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Cudda 2.consent for Wilfrid 2 to go to Rome: After Wilfrid 2 decided he wanted to visit Rome, Cudda 2 consented.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Dagobert 3.granting gifts to Wilfrid 2: [Dagobert 3] sent [Wilfrid 2 to the Apostolic See with presents and great gifts.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Dalfinus 1.sending of Wilfrid 2 to Rome: Dalfinus 1 sent Wilfrid 2 to Rome provided with guides (Anonymi 301) and supplies.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  4
 Eanflæd 1.sending of Wilfrid 2 to Eorcenberht 1: Eanflæd 1 sent Wilfrid 2 to Eorcenberht 1.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Ecgwine 1-Wilfrid 2.journey to Evesham: Cenred 2 ordered Wilfrid 2 to take the privilege drawn up by Beorhtwald 6 to Evesham, accompanied by Ecgwine 1.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6
 Eorcenberht 1.finding of Biscop 2 as a guide for Wilfrid 2: Eorcenberht 1 found Biscop 2 as a guide for Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Oswiu 1.request to go to Rome: If Oswiu 1 recovered form his illness, he intended to go to Rome. He had asked Wilfrid 2 to act as a guide, promising no small gift of money.: Bede.HE  iv.5
 Theodore 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.': WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7
 Tunberht 1-Ceolfrith 1.journey to Ripon: At the invitation of Wilfrid 2, Tunberht 1and Ceolfrith 1 left to go to Ripon.: Anon.VitCeolfrithi  3
 Wilfred 2.education in England: Wilfrid 2 ran the course of his childhood without education. But at the age of 14, loathing his overbearing stepmother [Anonymous 122] (his own mother [Anonymous 121] having died), he left his father's [Anonymous 125] home. He was then brought to the notice of Queen Eanflæd 1. On learning about this dream to become a monk, she passed Wilfrid 2 over to one Cudda 2, who had been a senator and royal chamberlain but was now proposing to enter the religious life at Lindisfarne. He looked after Wilfrid 2 kindly for some years, and then returned him to the queen. Wilfrid 2 then was sent to Rome to improve his education.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.5-6
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
 Wilfrid 2.appeal to John 17: When Wilfrid 2 was again driven from his bishopric, he went to Rome, where he was given the opportunity of defending himself before John 17. It was decided unanimously that his accusers had manufactured false charges against him, at least in part.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.escape from attack: Wilfrid 2 and his party, driven ashore in a storm, managed successfully to repulse attacks on them by the South Saxons (Anonymi 313) and escaped on their ship to Sandwich.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  13
 Wilfrid 2.exile: Wilfrid 2 was in exile for three years because of the disagreement between himself and King Ecgfrith 4 during which time he stayed for a while at Ely with Æthelthryth 2 before travelling to Rome where, by the judgement of Pope Benedict 2 and many others, he was found to be worthy of a bishopric. He then returned to Britain and converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.journey back to Britain: When Wilfrid 2 arrived, Beorhtwald 6 and Æthelred 2 readily took his part. Cenred 2 agreed to make peace with Wilfrid 2, whereas Aldfrith 1 scorned to receive him.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.journey back to Gaul: Wilfrid 2 returned to Dalfinus 1 in Gaul, where he spent three years.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.journey from Campania to Rome: Perctarit 1 sent Wilfrid 2 and his companions (Anonymi 347) with guides (Anonymi 346) to the Apostolic See, where they all arrived safely.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28, 29
 Wilfrid 2.journey to Kent: Eanflæd 1 sent Wilfrid 2 to Kent, where he spent some time, until another young man came (Biscop 2), who also wished to go to Rome.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.journey to Lyons: Wilfrid 2 travelled to Lyons with Biscop 2 and companions (Anonymi 300).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  3
 Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome: Wilfrid 2 was forced to hasten to Rome.: Alcuin.VersEubor  606
 Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome for second appeal: Wilfrid 2 and his clergy (Anonymi 374) travelled by ship to the southern shores and then by foot overland to the Apostolic See.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  50
 Wilfrid 2.journey to southern kingdoms: Wilfrid 2 travelled to the southern kingdoms, eventually arriving at his monastery at Oundle.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Wilfrid 2.reconciliation with Beorhtwald 6: When Wilfrid 2 returned to Kent, he was reconciled with the archbishop (Beorhtwald 6) and they went together to London.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  57
 Wilfrid 2.recounting of his life to Tatberht 2: Wilfrid 2 had told from memory the story of his life to Tatberht 2 one day when they were riding together on a journey.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Wilfrid 2.return from Rome to Gaul with companions (Anonymi 381): After visiting shrines, collecting relics and buying adornments for his churches, Wilfrid 2 made his way back and reached Gaul.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  55
 Wilfrid 2.return from Rome to the land of the Franks: Wilfrid 2 journeyed with his men (Anonymi 355) through Campania to the land of the Franks, where he encountered a hostile bishop (Anonymous 134).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  33
 Wilfrid 2.return to Lyons from first visit to Rome: Wilfrid 2 returned safely to the archbishop of Lyons (Dalfinus 1).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Wilfrid 2.return to his home-country: Wilfrid 2 returned to his own country to a port in safety.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Wilfrid 2.visit to Eanflæd 1: Wilfrid 2 went to Eanflæd 1.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
 Æthelred 2.despatch of Wilfrid 2 to Agatho 2: In his time he [sc. Æthelred 2] sent Wilfrid 2 to Rome to the pope called Agatho 2.: ASC (E)  675 E (p. 35) (679 x 680)
Judicial decision/review (4)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.appeal against judicial decision of Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1: Wilfrid 2 challenged the judgment of Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1, who refused to change their decision; he then declared he would appeal to the Apostolic See.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
 Wilfrid 2.trial in Gaul: Wilfrid 2 accompanied Dalfinus 1 to the place of trial but the dukes (Anonymi 304) spared him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  6
 Ælfwine 4.death: Exactly one year after the appeal of Wilfrid 2 against the judicial decision by Ecgfrith 4 and Theodore 1 was rejected by them the body of Ælfwine 4 was carried into York to the grief of the people.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  24
Killing/murder (6)
 Ecgfrith 4.death at the hands of Picts: Ecgfrith 4 was slain and all the best of his army (Anonymi 290) overcome by the Picts (Anonymi 291).: Stephen.VitWilfridi  44
 Ecgfrith 4.successful battles: King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 (670 x 675)
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.adventures on the Continent: Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Æthelwalh 1.baptism: Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2
Life - orally recounted (1)
 Wilfrid 2.recounting of his life to Tatberht 2: Wilfrid 2 had told from memory the story of his life to Tatberht 2 one day when they were riding together on a journey.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
Liturgical celebration (1)
 Anonymous 144.commemoration of Wilfrid 2’s death: The abbot of Oundle (Anonymous 144) engaged in various liturgical and eleemosynary acts in commemoration of the death of Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
Manumission (1)
 Wilfrid 2.manumission of 250 slaves: Wilfrid 2 granted freedom to Anonymi 661: Bede.HE  iv.13
Marital desertion/separation/repudiation (1)
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Marriage (1)
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Medical treatment/sick-care/cautery (1)
 Wilfrid 2.healing of Bothelm 1 at Hexham: After Wilfrid 2 prayed and blessed Bothelm 1, the latter regained the breath of life and recovered after medical attention.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
Meeting (8)
 Aldfrith 1.meeting with messengers of Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 sent Badwine 1 and Alfrith 1 to Aldfrith 1 seeking a meeting but Aldfrith 1 rejected this and they returned to Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  58-59
 Ealhfrith 1.meeting with Wilfrid 2: Following the recommendation of Cenwealh 2, the West-Saxon king (Ealhfrith 1) ordered Wilfrid 2 to come to him. Ealhfrith 1 conversed with him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Ecgfrith 4.promise of estates and money to Wilfrid 2: Ecgfrith 4 approached Wilfrid 2 both in person and through his friends, and quite frequently had meetings with him, begging and beseeching him, and trying to entice him with the promise of many great things, to induce him to persuade the queen [Æthelthryth 2] to set aside her resolve concerning virginity. He saw her assiduous friendly relations with the bishop for she kept receiving instruction from the latter’s exhortations; she was emulating him in the love of Christ. Consequently, the king kept wearying God’s herald with rewards – vainly. For Bishop Wilfrid 2 was never willing to urge marital relations upon the virgin, and she was never willing to give her acquiescence to the king.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.9
 Theodore 1.restoring bishopric to Wilfrid 2: Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1
 Wilfrid 2.final meeting with monastic community at Ripon: Wilfrid 2 met with the community at Ripon (Anonymi 395) and declared how his successor should be chosen.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  64
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with Boniface 4 in Rome: Wilfrid 2 met Boniface 4, from whom he learnt the Gospels, the Easter rule and many other rules of ecclesiastical discipline.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with Æthelred 2 and Cenred 2, his successor: Æthelred 2 agreed to uphold the decisions of the Apostolic See; he immediately met with Cenred 2 and secured his agreement to do likewise.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  57
 Wilfrid 2.miracles: Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28
Message-sending (8)
 Aldfrith 1.meeting with messengers of Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 sent Badwine 1 and Alfrith 1 to Aldfrith 1 seeking a meeting but Aldfrith 1 rejected this and they returned to Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  58-59
 Anonymi 338.conspiracy to have Perctarit 1 seize Wilfrid 2: Enemies (Anonymi 338) sent messengers (Anonymi 345) to ask Perctarit 1 to seize Wilfrid 2, promising him very great gifts if he did so. He refused to.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  28
 Cenred 2-others.synod of Alcester: Cenred 2 summoned a council at Alcester. All the leading men and 'duces' (Anonymi 1486) met there. He reported about the outcome of the trip to Rome and the privilege of freedom granted to Evesham. He also ordered the letter to be shown and read out. All the people who were present agreed.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.4-6
 Eadwulf 2.meeting with messengers (Anonymi 387) of Wilfrid 2: Wilfrid 2 sent messengers (Anonymi 387) to Eadwulf 2. Eadwulf 2 declared Wilfrid 2 would be killed if he did not leave his kingdom.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  59
 Ecgfrith 4.promise of estates and money to Wilfrid 2: Ecgfrith 4 approached Wilfrid 2 both in person and through his friends, and quite frequently had meetings with him, begging and beseeching him, and trying to entice him with the promise of many great things, to induce him to persuade the queen [Æthelthryth 2] to set aside her resolve concerning virginity. He saw her assiduous friendly relations with the bishop for she kept receiving instruction from the latter’s exhortations; she was emulating him in the love of Christ. Consequently, the king kept wearying God’s herald with rewards – vainly. For Bishop Wilfrid 2 was never willing to urge marital relations upon the virgin, and she was never willing to give her acquiescence to the king.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.9
 Ecgwine 1-Wilfrid 2.journey to Evesham: Cenred 2 ordered Wilfrid 2 to take the privilege drawn up by Beorhtwald 6 to Evesham, accompanied by Ecgwine 1.: Byrhtferth.VitEcgwini  iii.6
 Theodore 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.': WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7
 Wilfrid 2.reconciliation with Theodore 1: Theodore 1 and Wilfrid 2 were reconciled in a peace treaty. At Wilfrid 2's urging Theodore 1 sent letters to various people urging reconciliation between them and Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  43
Metal-working (1)
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of chains that fell off: Ecgfrith 4 transferred Wilfrid 2 to Dunbar where the reeve (Tydlin 1) required smiths (Anonymi 402) to make shackles for Wilfrid 2, which, however, were either too big or too small.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  38
Miracle (17)
 Anonymi 1284.attempt to extinguish apparent fire at birth of Wilfrid 2: Anonymi 1284 attempted to douse an apparent fire in the house where Wilfrid 2 was born.: OEMart  62-3
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.breaking of drought through baptism of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 baptized South Saxony [sc. Anonymi 1084] at which point a three-year drought was broken.: Alcuin.VersEubor  585-605
 Wilfrid 2.healing of Bothelm 1 at Hexham: After Wilfrid 2 prayed and blessed Bothelm 1, the latter regained the breath of life and recovered after medical attention.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  23
 Wilfrid 2.healing of young British boy (Eadwald 4): Wilfrid 2 healed and baptized Eadwald 4.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  18
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of apparently burning house: The men (Anonymi 294) outside the house of the mother of Wilfrid 2 (Anonymous 121) saw that it appeared to be on fire but were then told by the women (Anonymi 293) that Wilfrid 2 had just been born.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  1
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of chains that fell off: Ecgfrith 4 transferred Wilfrid 2 to Dunbar where the reeve (Tydlin 1) required smiths (Anonymi 402) to make shackles for Wilfrid 2, which, however, were either too big or too small.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  38
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Eormenburg 1: After Eormenburg 1 was seized by a demon, she was healed once Ecgfrith 4 freed Wilfrid 2 on the advice of Æbbe 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  39
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of healing of Æbbe 1: Wilfrid 2 healed Æbbe 1, the wife of the reeve, Osfrith 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  37
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of hedge spared from fire at Oundle: A hedge round the monastery at Oundle burned, except where a wooden cross had been erected and where the corner of the house where Wilfrid 2 died projected.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  67
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of illuminated house: The hidden place where Wilfrid 2 was illuminated when he was heard singing psalms.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  36
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of nun with withered hand (Anonymous 146): A nun (Anonymous 146) had her withered hand healed when she washed it in the water with the muslin garment of Bacula 1 used to prepare Wilfrid 2 for burial.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  66
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of sound as of birds at hour of his death: At the hour of Wilfrid 2's death those of Anonymi 409 singing the psalms heard a sound as of birds arriving. Many witnesses confirmed this.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  65
 Wilfrid 2.miracle of sound as of birds during preparations for his burial: When the brethren (Anonymi 409) had carried the body of Wilfrid 2 to the appointed place, the sound as of birds was heard.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  66
 Wilfrid 2.miracles: Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28
 Wilfrid 2.miracles after his death: At the hour of Wilfrid 2's passing, sweet birdsong and the beating of wings flying up to heaven was heard, though nothing was seen; the same happened during his burial, which was understood as the sound of a troop of angels. Water from the washing of the sheet on which the body had lain served to restore the strength of Anonymous 146's limbs. Fire would not burn the house in which Wilfrid 2 had died.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.10-11
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Mission/mission-sending (7)
 Eoppa 3.bringing of Christianity to Anonymi 806: Eoppa 3 first brought Christianity to the dwellers on the Isle of Wight (Anonymi 806).: ASC  661 ACEG, <661> B (661)
 Theodore 1.exercise of power: [Theodore 1], as Bede 1 tells us, was sent by the pope, and was the first of all the bishops at Canterbury who exercised episcopal power over all Britain. For example, he removed and installed bishops on both sides of the Humber as he pleased. At York itself, according to Bede 1, he consecrated the bishops of other cities, and as we read in the Life of St Wilfrid 2, he drove out, for good reason or by brute force, Chad 1 and Wilfrid 2 himself, bishops of the place.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.3
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 taught the faith to the South Saxons and administered the baptism.: Bede.HE  iv.13
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of kingdom of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 went back to Britain and converted the kingdom of the South Saxons.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.converting the South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.exile: Wilfrid 2 was in exile for three years because of the disagreement between himself and King Ecgfrith 4 during which time he stayed for a while at Ely with Æthelthryth 2 before travelling to Rome where, by the judgement of Pope Benedict 2 and many others, he was found to be worthy of a bishopric. He then returned to Britain and converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
Monastery, violation of (1)
 Æthelthryth 2.fleeing from Ecgfrith 4 and performing miracles: King Ecgfrith 4, who had long been dedicated to chaste marriage with Æthelthryth 2, did not take kindly to divorce from his beloved spouse, and soon began to be immeasurably sorrowful and grief-stricken. Hence, at the suggestion and instigation of his people, he began to remove her forcibly from the convent, despite the fact that she was under the protection of the veil of holiness. Without delay, he went up to the convent where the holy virgin was living, with fury and hullabaloo, and in a great hurry. On hearing him coming, the mother of the community Æbbe 2, advised her that the only means of safety lay in escape. And, Æthelthryth 2 resolved to take action whereby she might remain a virgin for the rest of her life; nor must she rest until she reached her home in Ely. ... Forthwith, this woman who, the day before yesterday, had been mistress over a kingdom, in contempt of earthly sovereignty, entered the monastic life. ... The king, wishing to take her back as his wife, went into action, not failing to set out in pursuit, in the hope that he might perhaps be able to catch her. But the holy woman, groaning and anxious now with redoubled fear, fled under compulsion from her pleasant hiding place and went forth ... Having secretly made a circuit of the place, she came, accompanied by two handmaidens of God, Sewenna 1 and Sewara 1, to a high hill nearby called Coldeburcheshevet and climbed it. ... The sea, leaving its bed and now pouting forth it waters in many directions, surrounded the place up which the holy virgins had climbed, and, as we have learnt from local inhabitants, kept them hidden for seven days on end, without food or drink, as they took their stand together in prayer, and that ... it forgot how to ebb back in the usual manner, so long as the king remained there, or near the place. ... For a long time they had been on top of the summit of the rock and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of waves, and yet the king had found it quite impossible to find any direction from which to approach them. In the end, however, he retreated from the place marvelling at what had happened, and reduced to stupefaction. He Ecgfrith 4 returned to York and thereafter did not regard the confessor of the Lord, Wilfrid 2, favourably in confidential matters, nor with affection, as he had before, but instead for a considerable while harboured anger against him in his breast, and having bided his time, ejected him – the reason being such as we have described – from his Episcopal see. ... The time came when the nuns of the summit of the rock were beginning to duffer, being exceedingly feverish because of the dryness of thirst, so Æbbe 2 urged Æthelthryth 2 to pray to the Lord Christ ... And as she was most earnestly pouring out her prayer to God ... a spring of water straight away broke forth close to her, sparkling clear, and, in answer to her prayers ... the dry rock gushed forth what it did not naturally contain: water which was sufficient for the nuns’ use and did not fail to supply their needs.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.11
Monastic life, converting to/joining/oblation (6)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.entry into monastic life at Lindisfarne: Wilfrid 2 decided to enter the monastic life.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  2
 Wilfrid 2.miracles: Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28
 Æthelthryth 2.entering the community at Coldingham: Æthelthryth 2 entered the monastic community of the holy Abbess Æbbe 2 ... The monastic house was situated in the place which they call the city of Coldingham. She received the veil of the religious life from Bishop Wilfrid 2.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.10
 Æthelthryth 2.religious habit: Æthelthryth 2 received the veil and a habit of a nun from Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  iv.19
Monastic reform (1)
 Wilfrid 2.introduction of Benedictine Rule: Wilfrid 2 returned to his own land, where he introduced the Benedictine Rule.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
Ordering (5)
 Biscop 2-Wilfrid 2.journey to Rome: Eorcenberht 1 gave Wilfrid 2 to Biscop 2 as a companion and ordered Biscop 2 to take Wilfrid 2 to Rome.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Dalfinus 1.death: Balthild 1 sent soldiers and ordered the bishop to be executed. : Bede.HE  v.19
 Ealhfrith 1.meeting with Wilfrid 2: Following the recommendation of Cenwealh 2, the West-Saxon king (Ealhfrith 1) ordered Wilfrid 2 to come to him. Ealhfrith 1 conversed with him.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Theodore 1.episcopal installation of Wilfrid 2 at York: Theodore 1 came from Kent and demanded that Chad 1 be deposed. He installed Wilfrid 2 as bishop in York. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  15
 Wilfrid 2.ordination of Oftfor 1: Oftfor 1 was appointed bishop in Bosel 1's place at Æthelred 2's command by Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  iv.23 (691)
Papal advice/audience/decision/privilege (12)
 Aldfrith 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108
 S72 - Æthelred 2 granting land to St Peter's, Medeshamstede 1: Æthelred 2, king, to St Peter's Minster, Medeshamstede 1; grant, appended to a bull of Pope Agatho 2, of land at Breedon on the Hill, Leics.; Hrepingas (? Repton, Derbys.); Cedenac; Swineshead, Lincs.; Heanbyrig; Lodeshale; Shifnal, Salop.; Costesford; Stretford (? Stretford, Salop.); Wattlesborough and Lizard, Salop.; Æthelhuniglond (? in Kent); and Bardney, Lincs: S72    (680)
 Theodore 1-Wilfrid 2.conflict: Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.': WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7
 Wilfrid 2-Ecgfrith 4.conflict: So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10
 Wilfrid 2.appeal to Agatho 2 in a papal synod: Wilfrid 2 presented a documentary appeal to the pope (Agatho 2), which was examined by ecclesiasts in a papal synod.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  29-33
 Wilfrid 2.appeal to John 17: When Wilfrid 2 was again driven from his bishopric, he went to Rome, where he was given the opportunity of defending himself before John 17. It was decided unanimously that his accusers had manufactured false charges against him, at least in part.: Bede.HE  v.19
 Wilfrid 2.exile: Wilfrid 2 was in exile for three years because of the disagreement between himself and King Ecgfrith 4 during which time he stayed for a while at Ely with Æthelthryth 2 before travelling to Rome where, by the judgement of Pope Benedict 2 and many others, he was found to be worthy of a bishopric. He then returned to Britain and converted the South Saxons to Christianity.: Anon.LiberEliensis  I.19
 Wilfrid 2.initial meeting with Pope Agatho 1: In his petition Wilfrid 2 stated that he had met Agatho 1 in person when he arrived and declared to him that three persons had invaded his bishopric.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  30
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with pope (Anonymous 127) during first visit to Rome: Boniface 4 introduced Wilfrid 2 to the pope (Anonymous 127) and explained the purpose of his journey. The pope (Anonymous 121) blessed Wilfrid 2.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Wilfrid 2.second appeal to papal court: Wilfrid 2 appealed to a papal court, which eventually acquitted him. : Stephen.VitWilfridi  50-55
 Wilfrid 2.synod to hear papal judgments: After Wilfrid 2 handed the papal decision to Ecgfrith 4, a synod was held after which he was imprisoned for nine months.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  34-35
 Æthelred 2.despatch of Wilfrid 2 to Agatho 2: In his time he [sc. Æthelred 2] sent Wilfrid 2 to Rome to the pope called Agatho 2.: ASC (E)  675 E (p. 35) (679 x 680)
Pastoral activities/preaching (9)
 Ealhfrith 1.invitation to Wilfrid 2 to preach: Ealhfrith 1 urged Wilfrid 2 to stay with him and preach to him and the whole people. Wilfrid 2 agreed to stay.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  7
 Wilfrid 2.actions while deposed from see of York: Wilfrid 2 returned to his duties as abbot of Ripon for three years and also performed episcopal duties in Mercia and Kent.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  14
 Wilfrid 2.consecration of Swithberht 1: The brothers (Anonymi 683) engaged in the ministry of the Word in Frisia chose Swithberht 1 to be consecrated as their bishop. They sent him to Britain, where he was consecrated by Wilfrid 2.: Bede.HE  v.11
 Wilfrid 2.conversion of South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 taught the faith to the South Saxons and administered the baptism.: Bede.HE  iv.13
 Wilfrid 2.ecclesiastical activities under Ecgfrith 4: The kingdom of churches belonging to Wilfrid 2 was increased to the south among the Saxons and to the north among the Britons and Irish and the Picts.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  21
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102
 Wilfrid 2.meeting with Boniface 4 in Rome: Wilfrid 2 met Boniface 4, from whom he learnt the Gospels, the Easter rule and many other rules of ecclesiastical discipline.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  5
 Wilfrid 2.preaching in Frisia: Wilfrid 2 preached in Frisia.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  26
 Wilfrid 2.preaching to South Saxons: Wilfrid 2 preached to Æthelwalh 1 and his queen (Eafe 1). With the king's permission Wilfrid 2 preached for many months to the pagan South Saxons (Anonymi 364). Many thousands were baptized in one day.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  41-42
Patronage (1)
 Wilfred 2.education in England: Wilfrid 2 ran the course of his childhood without education. But at the age of 14, loathing his overbearing stepmother [Anonymous 122] (his own mother [Anonymous 121] having died), he left his father's [Anonymous 125] home. He was then brought to the notice of Queen Eanflæd 1. On learning about this dream to become a monk, she passed Wilfrid 2 over to one Cudda 2, who had been a senator and royal chamberlain but was now proposing to enter the religious life at Lindisfarne. He looked after Wilfrid 2 kindly for some years, and then returned him to the queen. Wilfrid 2 then was sent to Rome to improve his education.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.5-6
Peace agreement (3)
 Ecgfrith 4.amity with Wilfrid 2: Ecgfrith 4 and Æthelthryth 2 were in amity with Wilfrid 2 in all respects with consequent peace amongst his people and success over foes.: Stephen.VitWilfridi  19
 Wilfrid 2.exile in southern kingdoms: So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict. : WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102