Event: Army-raising, Battle, Campaigning, Gafol payment, Hostage-giving/taking, Invasion, Journey, Killing/murder, Military strategy, Mustering, Oath-swearing/fealty, Provisioning, Pursuit, military, Raiding, Reporting, SubmissionEvents of 1066 (MS C)

Scholarly Info
Description Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.
Year 1066
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