Event: Appointment/consecration/elevation/ordination of king, Army-raising, Battle, Burh - building, Burning, Campaigning, Conquest, Desertion, military, Drowning, Election of king, Flight, Gafol payment, Hostage-giving/taking, Invasion, Journey, Killing/murder, Military strategy, Mustering, Oath-swearing/fealty, Promise, Provisioning, Pursuit, military, Raiding, Reporting, Submission, TaxationEvents of 1066 (MS D)

Scholarly Info
Description Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!
Year 1066
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