Event: Campaigning, Crime, Hostage-giving/taking, Hostility, Journey, Raiding, Skirmishing, WarHarold 3-Tosti 2.campaigning against Gruffudd 1 in 1063

Scholarly Info
Description Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.
Year 1063
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