||William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.