Source: Textual EditionAnon.VitaEdwardiRegis

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Life of Edward the Confessor

Source Information
Author Anonymous
Source Title Vita Edwardi Regis
Scholarly Source Dating 1067 x 1070

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Editor Article or Book Title Journal or Pub.Loc. Date pp.
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The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster attributed to a monk of St Bertin Barlow, Frank The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster attributed to a monk of St Bertin London 1992  

Translation(s)

Editor Article or Book Title Journal or Pub.Loc. Date pp.
Barlow, Frank The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster attributed to a monk of St Bertin London 1992  

Event/Transaction List

Factoid Type Source Reference Short Description
1 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Cnut 3 conquered the kingdom of England.
2 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 When some fitting business of the kingdom had called Cnut 3 to his own people [to Denmark] - for in his absence some men... had prepared to rebel - Godwine 51 was his inseparable companion on the whole journey.
3 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Cnut 3 gave Godwine 51 his sister [Gytha 1] as wife.
4 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Godwine 51 thrived until God cut down both this king (Cnut 3) and his whole stock (Harthacnut 1 and Harold 5)
5 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 When the royal wife (Emma 2) of old King Æthelred 32 was pregnant in her womb, all the men of the country took an oath that if a man-child should come forth... they would await in him their lord and king who would rule over the whole race of the English.
6 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 The boy [Edward 15] was declared beforehand by the oath of the people to be worthy to be raised at some time to the throne of his ancestral kingdom and by his serene rule so to still the tempest of preceding storms.
7 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 When the Danish ravagers burst in, the boy (Edward 15) was carried to his kinsmen in Francia, so that with them he could spend his childhood, or rather lest...the infant perish...
8 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 The beloved of God Beorhtwald 19 of holy memory, bishop of Wiltshire wept over the forsaken throne of the kingdom. He passed the watches of his weeping in the monastery of Glastonbury, and weary after so many tears the man of God fell asleep. When lo! In the Holy of Holies he saw the blessed Peter... consecrate the image of a seemly man as king, assign him the life of a bachelor, and set the years of his reign by a fixed reckoning of his life. And when the king even at this juncture asked him who of the generations to come would reign in the kingdom, Peter answered: 'The kingdom of the English belongs to God; and after you He has already provided a King according to his own will.'
9 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Earl Godwine 51... took the lead in urging that they should admit their king (Edward 15) to the throne that was his by right of birth; and since Godwine 51 was regarded as a father by all, he was gladly heard in the witengamot.
10 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Amid the festive joy of all the people, earls and bishops were sent to fetch [Edward 15]. By these he was brought back safely [from Normandy], by those acknowledged with alacrity; and before he was raised to the royal throne, he was consecrated God's anointed at Christ Church, Canterbury. Everywhere he was acclaimed with loyal undertakings with loyal undertakings of submission and obedience. Now that the kingdom was settled under its native rule there was rejoicing by all... not only the English... but indeed the whole of Gaul on account of its close kinship.
11 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 The whole of Gaul and its rulers hastened to send by their ambassadors friendly greetings and to seek the friendship of so great a king [Edward 15] together with the boon of peace.
12 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Henry 2 had married Edward 15's sister Gunnhild 1.
13 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Henry 2... delighted to hear that Edward 15 had been enthroned in his ancestral seat, dispatched ambassadors to confirm their amity, sent gifts to be bestowed with imperial generosity, and, as befitted these great lords of the earth, offered and asked for peace and friendship for him and his vassals.
14 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 The king of the Franks Henry 3, much pleased with the news, made with Edward 15 through ambassadors a treaty welcome to the friends of both.
15 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Even the king of the Danes (Swein 5), although separated by the immense distance of the intervening ocean, with ambassadors exhausted by their long travels on land and sea, entreated Edward 15's peace and love, chose him as a father, submitted himself in all things to him as a son, and by the order of the English king affirmed this agreement by oath and confirmed it with hostages.
16 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 All other nobles of those kings and all the most powerful dukes and princes approached Edward 15 with their ambassadors, made him their friend and lord for them and theirs, and put fealty and service in his hands.
17 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Edward 15 bestows on Frankish princes annual or perpetual grants.
18 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1 Lords presented the king with rival gifts, but Earl Godwine 51's overtopped them all, providing a loaded ship, its slender lines raked up in double prow, lay anchored on the Thames, with many rowing benches side by side, equipped for six score fearsome warriors.
19 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 It was decided to seek a wife worthy of so great a husband (Edward 15) from among the daughters of the magnates... the eldest of the daughters of the most illustrious Earl Godwine 51 was chosen, Eadgyth 3.
20 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 Christ prepared Eadgyth 3, making her a suitable bride for Edward 15.
21 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 Edward 15 agreed all the more readily to contract this marriage [to Eadgyth 3] because he knew that with the advice and help of that Godwine 51 he would have a firmer hold on his hereditary rights in England.
22 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 From the wealth of both families the nuptial feast is provided; the bishops administer the sacrament, and the girl [Eadgyth 3] is blessed as wife and crowned as queen.
23 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 When King Edward 15 of holy memory returned from Francia, quite a number of men from that nation, and they not base-born, accompanied him. And these, since he was master of the whole kingdom, he kept with him, enriched them with many honours, and made them his privy counsellors and administrators of the royal palace.
24 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Robert 5, who overseas had ruled the monastery of Jumieges, returned with Edward 15 and a group of French nobles.
25 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Robert 5 was always the most powerful confidential advisor of the king. By his counsel many things both good and bad were done in the kingdom, with varying result, as is the way of the world.
26 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 On the death of the bishop of London Robert 5 succeeded by royal favour to the see of his pontifical cathedral.
27 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 On becoming bishop of London with the authority derived from his promotion [Robert 5] intruded himself more than was necessary in directing the course of royal councils and acts; so much so, indeed, that, according to the saying "Evil communications corrupt good manners", through his assiduous communication with him the king [Edward 15] began to neglect more useful advice. Hence, as generally happens, he offended quite a number of the nobles of his kingdom by means of another's fault. And for such reasons his realm gradually became disturbed, because, when the holders of dignities died, one set of men wanted vacant sees for their own friends, and others were alienating them to strangers.
28 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Eadsige 12, archbishop of Kent, died.
29 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 After the death of Eadsige 12, Æthelric 65 was beloved in [the Christchurch] community. Both the whole body of the clergy and the monks of his monastery asked for his appointment as archbishop, and they elected him to the office both by general consent and by petition according to the rule.
30 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 The clergy and monks of Canterbury sent to Godwine 51 and reminded him of his kin, and entreated him for the love of his relative [Æthelric 65] to approach the king [Edward 15] and to approve this man as their pontiff, since he was a nursling of that church and elected according to canon law. But since... in those days the good king lent his ear more to the rival party, the earl [Godwine 51] suffered a defeat in pressing his request.
31 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Robert 5 left the see of London and, archbishop by royal grant, migrated to the Kentish church, while all the clergy protested with all their might against the wrong.
32 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 On becoming the Archbishop, Robert 5 began to provoke and oppose the earl [Godwine 51]. And since he stood with the king through the reverence due to his supreme rank as his principal counselor [of Edward 15], he often attacked Godwine 51 with schemes, and when he found him deserted by fortune vexed his with not a few injuries. However, that certain lands of the earl ran with some that belonged to Christ Church served to direct the hostile movements into a cause in which right was on the bishop's side. There were also frequent disputes between them, because he said that Godwine 51 had invaded the lands of his archbishopric and injured him by keeping them to his own use. ... The injury to the earl tormented some of his vassals, and, had he not forbidden it, they would often have punished the bishop [Robert 5] with serious insults.
33 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.2 Edward 15 became a temple of virginity.
34 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Although Robert 5 had first-hand evidence of [Godwine 51's benevolence], he did not desist, but, adding madness to madness, tried to turn the king's [Edward 15's] mind against him, and brought Edward 15 to believe that Godwine 51 was guilefully scheming to attack him, just as once upon a time he had attacked his brother [Alfred 54]. And with continual persuasion [Robert 5] got the king to give more credence to this than was right.
35 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Harold 5 succeeded to the kingdom [of England]
36 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Alfred 54 entered Britain unadvisedly with a few armed Frenchmen. Then, when he acted rashly about getting possession of the paternal kingdom, he was, by order of King Harold 5, they day, wrongfully arrested and tortured to death, and his comrades, they say, were disarmed by guile and then some murdered and the rest given to slavery to the victors.
37 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 Edward 15 believed the accusations of Robert 5 against Godwine 51, and all the nobles and earls from the whole of Britain assembled in the royal palace of Gloucester; and there, after Edward 15 had complained of all these things, he guiltless earl [Godwine 51] was formally charged with [killing of Alfred 54 and plotting against the king's life]. Godwine 51 asked through messengers for the king's peace, and offered to purge himself by ordeal of the crime with which he had been charged. Edward 15 refused. Gathered there were Siweard 11, Earl Leofric 49, and Ælfgar 46. And after they had all struggled in vain to get the foul charge put to the ordeal, the royal court moved from that palace to London. The earl [Godwine 51] too, guiltless and trusting in his conscience, which was for ever clear of such a crime, approached it with his men from the other side, and took up position outside the walls of that city on the River Thames, on a manor that belonged to him. From here he again sent messengers and showed himself in every way ready to satisfy the king in accordance to the law or beyond it. Whereupon by the efforts of Stigand 1, bishop of Winchester, the day of judgment was postponed. Meanwhile Archbishop Robert 5 stood fiercely in the way of the earl, and at length at his instigation there was declared by the king against the earl this insoluble judgment: that he could hope for the king's peace only when Godwine 51 gave him back his brother [Alfred 54] alive together with all his men and all their possessions.
38 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 When Godwine 51 saw that, through Robert 5's prompting, Edward 15 made reconciliation impossible, he pushed away the table in front of him (while Bishop Stigand 1, who had been the sorrowful bearer of the message, wept abundantly) and mounting horse rode hard for Bosham-on-Sea. Forced into banishment, he got ships there, and prayed to God to guide his life and way on sea and in this exile, as he had been faithful to his lord, King Edward 15, and guiltless of all those things that had caused these hatreds. And with his wife [Gytha 1] and children he came to his destination, to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. Meanwhile Robert 5 went from the king's palace with a large force of soldiers in pursuit of Godwine 51 all night.
39 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 In order that not a single member of the earl's [Godwine 51] family should remain at king [Edward 15's] side, Robert 5 used every device to secure that even the queen [Eadgyth 3] herself, the earl's daughter, should be separated from the king, against the law of the Christian religion. Although the king did not reject this scheme, he nevertheless curbed the divorce proceedings, alleging the honourable pretext that she was to wait the subsidence of the storms over the kingdom in the monastery of Wilton, where she had been brought up. And so, with royal honours and an imperial retinue, but with grief in heart, she was brought to the walls of Wilton convent, where for almost a year in prayer and tears she awaited the day of salvation. Such grief deeply moved and wounded the crowd of courtiers, for she was in all the royal counsels.
40 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 The famous Earl Godwine 51 was received by Count Baldwin 4 with great honour, partly on account of their old alliance, partly in repayment of the many benefits he had received from the earl.
41 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 Godwine 51 was staying with Baldwin 4 during the very marriage celebrations of Godwine 51's son, Earl Tosti 2, when he took as wife Judith 2, a niece of that famous King Edward 15 and sister of this Count Baldwin 4.
42 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 Harold 3 and Leofwine 69 crossed to Ireland, so that with military forces drawn from there they could avenge their father [Godwine 51's] wrong. This disturbance in the English kingdom happened about the beginning of October [1051]; and the one party (i.e. Godwine 51) was received into Flanders for winter by Count Baldwin 4 and the other (i.e. Harold 3 and Leofwine 69) into Ireland by king Diarmait 1.
43 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 Many English hurried after Godwine 51 into exile, some sent messages that they were ready, should he want to return, to receive his forcibly in the country, to fight for him, and, if need be, they were willing to die for him as well. And this was proclaimed not secretly or privily but openly and publicly, and not by a few only but by almost all the natives of the country [of England].
44 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 Godwine 51 sent again [to England] to ask for peace and mercy from the king [Edward 15], his lord, that he might with his permission come before him and lawfully purge himself. Also the king of the Franks [Henry 3], both for love of him and as in duty bound, asked through ambassadors for this; and the marquis of Flanders, [Baldwin 4], with whom Godwine 51 was overwintering, urged the same. But even they had little enough success when they suggested it, for the malice of evil men had shut up the merciful ears of the king.
45 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.3 When the active earl [Godwine 51] saw that he was wrongfully overthrown and barred from a legal trial, he assembled a large fleet of the River Yser, and in the middle of the summer [of 1052] put to sea; and entered a port on the shore of Britain. All the eastern and southern English who could manage it met his ship; all came to meet him, like children their long-awaited father. At the same time his two sons, [Harold 3 and Leofwine 69] came with large naval forces from Ireland to meet him; and they wasted with sword, fire, and the seizure for booty all the kingdom from the farthest limits of the western Britons or English to the place where the earl was stationed. With the soldiers made more resolute by mutual exhortation, they crossed the Kentish sea and entered the mouth of the River Thames. Although Edward 15 did not believe the news about the invasion, he nevertheless came with such military force as he could muster to London; and he tried to deny them entry into the city where he was encamped. But the whole city went out to help and protect the earl [Godwine 51].
46 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 Godwine 51 came into the presence of Edward 15 and immediately cast away his weapons and threw himself at his feet, and begged as a suppliant that he would grant him permission to purge himself of the crime, with which he was charged, and bestow the peace of his favour on him when cleared. The king was constrained both by his mercy and the satisfaction offered by the earl - who in any case appeared much superior in arms, if he chose to use them. So Edward 15 returned them their arms and entered the palace with the earl. There he gradually calmed the boiling tumult of his peace, and, with the advice of his witan, gave the earl the kiss of peace, condoled all offences, and also granted his full favour both to him and all his sons.
47 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 When Godwine 51 approached London with his army, Robert 5 and many of his men who feared to face the earl, flew, since it was they who had been responsible for that storm of trouble.
48 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.4 [Eadgyth 3] was sent for with royal pomp to the monastery of Wilton and the queen, that earl [Godwine 51's] daughter, was brought back to the king [Edward 15's] bed-chamber.
49 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 In the second year after the earl [Godwine 51] had been reconciled to the king [Edward 15], and the whole country had settled down in peaceful tranquility, that earl of happy memory died; and at his obsequies the people showed great grief and recalled with sighs and many tears this father, their and the kingdom's protector.
50 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 [Godwine 51] was buried with fitting honour in the monastery they call the Old Minster at Winchester, to which church he had given many gifts of ornaments, and rents of lands for the redemption of his soul.
51 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 [Godwine 51's] eldest - and also his wisest - son, Harold 3, was, by the king's [Edward 15]'s favour, appointed to the earldom in his place; and at this the whole English host breathed again and was consoled for its loss [of Godwine 51].
52 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Siweard 11, the earl of the Northumbrians, died not long after [1053].
53 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 [Siweard 11] was buried in the church he had built from its foundations in honour of St Olave, king and martyr.
54 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Siweard 11 built a church [in York] from its foundations in honour of St Olave, king and martyr.
55 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 With the kingdom made safe on all sides by these nobles [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], the most kindly King Edward 15 passed his life in security and peace, and spent much time in the glades and woods in the pleasures of hunting. After divine service, which he gladly and devoutly attended every day, he took much pleasure in hawks and birds of that kind which were brought before him, and was really delighted by the baying and scrambling of the hounds. In these and such like activities he sometimes spent the day, and it was in these alone that he seemed naturally inclined to snatch some worldly pleasure.
56 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Tosti 2, with the aid of his friends, and especially, and deservedly, his brother, Earl Harold 3, and his sister queen [Eadgyth 3], and with no opposition from the king [Edward 15] because of innumerable services faithfully performed, assumed his earldom.
57 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 King [Edward 15] appreciated [the outstanding qualities of Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and with them thus stationed in his kingdom, he lived all his life free from care on either flank, for the one drove back the foe from the south and the other scared them off from the north.
58 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 King [Edward 15] did not suffer [Harold 3 and Tosti 2's] younger brother, Gyrth 1, to be left out of the honours, but gave him a shire at the extremity of East Anglia, and promised to increase this when the was older and had thrown off his boyhood years.
59 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 [Harold 3] made his way to the relics of the Apostles at Rome. And when he had worshipped there with fitting bounty the threshold of the saints, by God's grace he came home, passing with watchful mockery through all ambushes, as was his way.
60 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 [Tosti 2], with fruitful purpose, crossed the Channel with his fortunate wife [Judith 2] and his younger brother, Gyrth 1, and travelled to Rome through Saxony and the upper reaches of the Rhine. And what tongue or what words could properly tell with what devotion and generosity he worshipped on the outward and return journey each saint's shrine? At Rome he was received with fitting honour by Pope Nicholas 2, and at his command sat in the very synod of Rome immediately next to him. There had come, however, in his party Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, who had just then been presented with the archbishopric of York by the most holy king Edward 15, so that at Rome he could both plead the business which the king had entrusted him and also obtain the use of the pallium.
61 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Ealdred 37, bishop of Worcester, was presented with the archbishopric of York by Edward 15 and went to Rome to obtain the use of the pallium from Nicholas 2. Wherefore he was examined on how he had come to sacred orders; and by his own free admission Ealdred 37 was discovered to have transferred from the bishopric of his first ordination to another, contrary to canon law. And so when the apostolic and pontifical decretals had been considered, and the whole synod gave its judgement, he failed in his request; and not only did he not obtain the use of pallium, but also he was even deposed from his episcopal rank; and he had to go away in this confusion.
62 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Giso 1 and Walter 2, men most suitably and excellently trained in their office, came to Rome at the king [Edward 15]'s command, so that they might be ordained bishop by the lord pope [Nicholas 2], and their business was successfully completed.
63 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 Tosti 2 and his party, joined by Giso 1 and Walter 2, left Rome together and on the same day fell among thieves; and, robbed and plundered, some even to nakedness, they were compelled to turn back again. On that occasion a young man named Gospatric 1, a kinsman of King Edward 15, a knight who accompanied Earl Tosti 2 on his journey, bore himself courageously in his service to his lord. For as he rode clad in garments suited to his rank in the very van of the pilgrims, he was asked by the robbers which of them was Earl Tosti 2. Realizing immediately what was their trade, he said that he was, and signalled as best as he could to the earl to ride away. He was believed because of the luxury of his clothes and his physical appearance, which was indeed distinguished; and so he was taken away, in vain hope indeed, with the rest of the booty. When, however, he thought the earl far enough away to be safe, during his interrogation on various matters he confessed in the end that he was not the man they though they had captured. Although when the robbers first understood the case they put his life in jeopardy, finally, however, some of them treated his behaviour more generously, and not only was he allowed to depart, but, marked with these soldiers' great esteem and praise, and restored to possession of his own things, he was escorted back in peace, followed by the good wishes of all.
64 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 As Tosti 2's stay in Rome was protracted owing to Bishop Ealdred 37's case, he had sent his wife [Judith 2] and her royal escort on ahead, together with most of his own men; and these had had a successful journey, in total ignorance of the robbery that had happened to the party which followed them behind.
65 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.5 When Tosti 2's party returned in confusion and distress [having been robbed], sorrowful compassion was felt in Rome; and the lord pope [Nicholas 2], afraid most of all of an attack from so famous an earl, and calling to mind especially the bishop [Ealdred 37's] free confession and his humble acceptance of the mortification which they had inflicted by degrading him, and advised by the Roman fathers that important persons should not depart from the holiness of St Peter in such distress, both pillaged and embarrassed, made all rejoice by reinstating the bishop and giving him the honour of the pallium. The earl he soothed with loving words and, especially, with great gifts taken from the bounty of St Peter; and then let him and all his men depart in peace, enriched by the apostolic absolution and benediction. And when they had journeyed home across the great distances of the intervening countries and ocean, all England rejoiced.
66 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 Edward 15 kindly received religious abbots and monks, above all foreign, whom he knew to be very devout and strict in their service to God, joined humbly in their conversation, and, at their departure, generously lavished himself on them. This he used to do throughout his reign; and since the news spread widely that such was his pleasure, he kept hospitality of this kind not only frequently but all the time. Moreover, like a good father, he exhibited such men as models to the abbots and monks of his own kingdom, for monastic discipline had come to these more recently, and was on that account less strict.
67 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 [Edward 15] stooped with great mercy to the poor and infirm, and fully maintained many of these not only daily in his royal court but also at many places in his kingdom. His royal consort [Eadgyth 3] did not restrain him in those good works in which he prepared to lead the way, but rather urged speedier progress, and often enough seemed even to lead the way herself. For while he would give now and then, she was prodigal, but aimed her bounty to such good purpose as to consider the highest honour of the king as well.
68 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 There arose Gruffudd 1, the king of the West Britons, but he, with Earl Harold 3 directing the English army, was often defeated, and in the end was killed.
69 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 The Scottish king [Macbeth 1] was defeated with the destruction of almost all his men by Earl Siweard 11 and forced to take to shameful flight.
70 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 When Earl Tosti 2 riled the earldom, the Scots, since they had not yet tested him and consequently held him more cheaply, harassed his often with raids rather than war. But this irresolute and fickle race of men, Tosti 2, sparing his own men, wore down as much by cunning schemes as by martial courage and military campaigns. And as a result they and their king [Malcolm 5] preferred to serve him and King Edward 15 than to continue fighting, and, moreover, to confirm the peace by giving hostages.
71 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 Outside the walls of London, upon the River Thames, stood a monastery dedicated to St Peter, but insignificant in buildings and numbers, for under the abbot only a small community of monks served Christ. The king [Edward 15], being devoted to God, gave his attention to that place. because of his love for the Prince of the Apostles, whom he worshipped with uncommon and special love, he decided to have his burial-place there. Accordingly [Edward 15] ordered that out of the tithes of all his revenues should be started the building of a noble edifice; so that God would look kindly upon him, both for the sake of his goodness and because of the gift of lands and ornaments.
72 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 The queen [Eadgyth 3] was drawn to emulate the [building project of Edward 15 in Westminster]. She instantly imitated the king's love with her own, and demonstrated her own heart's devotion for the holy church in he place of her up-bringing. For at Wilton at that time, although there was a convent of the maidens of Christ, a choir, too, of the greatest antiquity, and her namesake saint, adequately housed, was worshipped there - Eadgyth 4, from whose stock King Edward 15 himself was descended - the church was still of wood. Benignly she planned this [rebuilding] herself and began here royally to build a monastery in stone. Impetuously she urged the workmen to make haste. The prudent queen's building, because it was more modestly planned [than that in Westminster], was completed more quickly.
73 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6 The resting place of Eadgyth 4's relics was in Wilton.
74 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.6-7 In having a speedy dedication [of the new church in Wilton] performed the woman blessed by God [i.e. Eadgyth 3] would suffer no delay. Indeed, she warned in advance Herman 2, the famous and well-educated bishop of the diocese [of Wiltshire], for this task, and prepared most earnestly all the things that would be required on the appointment day for the ceremony. However, a short time before the appointed day, devil set fire to the town, and all that had been prepared there, together with almost all the houses, except for this church, was burned in one vast conflagration. But this did not affright this faithful woman's mind, nor did it deter her from completing the divine project she had planned. She made haste with other preparations of even greater splendour, and, with a multitude of bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks and a concourse of all the faithful, she devoutly performed the ceremony of dedication. The consecration of this church in honour of St Benedict [was] performed in the year 1065.
75 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 In 1065 Tosti 2 was at the king [Edward 15's] court, dealing with some palace business which had been put on him. Meanwhile, a party of nobles, whom Tosti 2 had repressed with the heavy yoke of his rule because of their misdeeds, conspired against him. The broke into his house, killed those of his knights who were surprised and could not get away, and finally with fire and sword laid waste all his possessions. To give them authority for their savage rashness, they made the younger son of Earl Ælfgar 46 [Morcar 3] their leader and lord, and invited his elder brother [Edwin 33] to join their mad conspiracy, for there was ill will from long-standing rivalry between these boys of royal stock and Earl Tosti 2. Anyone put on the list by any member of that band out of personal enmity was ordered to be killed either by open force or in ambush. Many were slaughtered in the cities of York and Lincoln, in the streets, on water, in woods, and on roads. Whosoever could be identified as having been at some time a member of Tosti 2's household was dragged to the torments of death without trial. The rebels gathered together in an immense body, and, having passed some distance beyond the boundary of the Middle Angles, they came in hostile array to Oxford town. King Edward 15 sent them through messengers goodly orders, to desist from the madness they had begun and receive right and justice for every injury which they could prove against him. But they rejected the conciliatory message, and replied to the king that either he should straightaway dismiss that earl [Tosti 2] of his from his person and the whole kingdom, or he himself would be treated as an enemy and have all them as enemies. And when the most gracious king had a second and third time though messengers tried to turn them from their mad purpose, and failed, he moved from the forests, in which he was as usual staying for the sake of hunting, to Britford, a royal manor near the royal town of Wilton. And when he had summoned the magnates from all over the kingdom, he took counsel there on what was to be done. Not a few charged that glorious earl with being too cruel; and he was accused of punishing disturbers more of desire of their property which would be confiscated than for the love of justice. It was also said, if it be worthy of credence, that they had undertaken this madness against their earl at the artful persuasion of his brother, Earl Harold 3. Earl Tosti 2, publicly testifying before the king and his assembled courtiers, charged him with this; but Harold 3, rather too generous with oaths, cleared this charge too with oaths. When the rebels, after many negotiations with the king through messengers, would not agree, but rather raged more furiously, Edward 15 stirred up the whole population of the rest of England by a royal edict and decided to crush them by force. But because of changeable weather was already setting in from hard winter, it was not easy to raise a sufficient number of troops. Seeing this, Edward 15 fell ill with a sickness of the mind.
76 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 Seeing that he cannot overcome the Northern rebels and that Tosti 2 will have to leave, Edward 15 fell ill, and from that day until the day of his death he bore a sickness of the mind. He protested to God with deep sorrow, and complained to Him, that he was deprived of the due obedience of his men in repressing the presumption of the unrighteous; and he called down God's vengeance upon them. The queen [Eadgyth 3] was, on the one hand, confounded by the quarrel of her brothers [Harold 3 and Tosti 2], and, on the other, bereft of all support by the powerlessness of her husband, the king. And when her counsels came to nought, she plainly showed her foreboding of future evils by her tears. And when she wept inconsolably, the whole palace went into mourning. For when misfortunes had attacked them in the past, she had always stood as a defence, and had both repelled all the hostile forces with her powerful counsels and also cheered the king and his retinue.
77 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 When Edward 15 could not save his earl [Tosti 2 from exile], graciously heaped on him many gifts and then let him depart, profoundly distressed at the powerlessness that had come upon him. And a short tine after, Tosti 2 took leave of his sorrowful mother [Gytha 1] and some of his friends, and with his wife [Judith 2] and infant children and a goodly company of his thegns crossed the Channel and came to that old friend of the English people, Count Baldwin 4. He received the husband of his sister honourably and graciously, as was his wont, and bade him dwell and rest from his labours in a town of St Omer, because it was there that his solemn court met on special days and it was the first place met by those who have crossed the British ocean. Thus he gave him there both a house and an estate, and put in his hands the revenues of the town for his maintenance; and he ordered all the knights who were attached to that place to be at the service of Tosti 2, his deputy commander. This happened a few days before Christmas [1065].
78 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.7 Within the festal days [of Christmas 1065] King Edward 15, languishing from the mental illness he had contracted, died indeed to the world, but was joyfully taken up to live with God.
79 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue Gruffudd 1, king of Western Britons, carried wrongful war across the Severn, and England's realm endured his hostile blow, until King Edward 15, marked by worth and fame, compelled him to regret the crime. For when the English hastening under Harold 3 joined fast columns and platoons of Tosti 2's men they terrified the foe, till then so bold, with close attack in strength, with fire and sword. And Gruffudd 1 did fear to engage with these, and sought remote retreats. Inured to lurk in distant dikes, from which he can with safety fly upon the foe, exploiting barren lands with woods and rocks, he galls the brother earls [Harold 3 and Tosti 2] with drawn-out war. And these, resourceful in a doubtful case, throw down the country into one general ruin. The enemy's house is sacked, the girded chests are broached, the royal pomp exposed to loot. They return, and bring back this fine ornament: they smashed a fleet – for Welsh control and lore was not the equal of the Ocean’s chiefs – and take a prow and stern of solid gold, and this, with looted treasures and the hostages, they give to their king [Edward 15] as proof of victory.
80 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.Prologue Who will write that Humber, vast and swollen with raging seas, where namesake kings [Harold 3 and Harold 5] had fought, has dyed the ocean waves for miles around with Viking gore? Report feels shame at such a crime. This murderous page will hardly please the queen their [Harold 3 and Tosti 2's] sister [Eadgyth 3].
81 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.2 A certain young woman [Anonymous 10057], already provided with a husband [Anonymous 10058], but gladdened with no fruit of the marriage, had an infection of the throat and of glands. These had so disfigured her face with an evil-swelling disease that she could scarcely speak to anyone without great embarrassment. She was advised in a dream that if she were washed in water by King Edward 15 she would be cured. She then, with the certainly of faith, revealed the dream's instructions. And when the king heard of it, he did not disdain to help the weaker sex, for he had the sweetest nature, and was always charming to all suitors. A dish of water was brought; the king dipped in his hand; and with the tips of his fingers he anointed the face of the young woman [Anonymous 10057] and the places infected by the disease. He repeated this action several times, now and then making the sign of the cross. Those diseased parts that had been treated by the smearing of the king softened and separated from the skin; and, with the pressure of the hand, worms together with pus and blood came out of various holes. Again the good king [Edward 15] kneaded with his holy hand and drew out the pus. Nor did he shrink from enduring the stench of the sick woman until with his healing hand he had brought out all that noxious disease. Then he ordered her to be fed daily at the royal expense until she should be fully restored to health. And hardly had she been at court a week, when, all foulness washed away, the grace of God moulded her with beauty. And she, who formerly through this or some other sickness had been barren, in that year became pregnant by the same husband [Anonymous 10058], and lived henceforth happily enough with all around her.
82 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.2 Although it seems new and strange, the Franks aver that Edward 15 had done [healing from regium morbum with water] often as a youth when he was in Neustria, now known as Normandy.
83 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.3 A certain blind man [Anonymous 10059] was going about claiming that he had been advised in sleep, that if his blind face were washed in the water with which the king rinsed his hands, he would both overcome the blindness and restore his lost sight. When Edward 15 heard of this from his domestic servants [Anonymi 10040], at first he contradicted them and blamed them for believing it to be true. But when they demanded urgently that he should not resist God's will, he courteously agreed. It was then the day of the vigil of the festival of All Saints, when the king, having made his morning ablutions, entered the chapel. Meanwhile his servant washed the blind man [Anonymous 10059] with the same water, and conducted him after the king into the house of prayer. When the king left after the canonical offices had been solemnly sung in honour of all saints, word was brought to him by his domestics that he who was blind now saw. The king, with pious curiosity, came unto him in the chapel, and, calling [Anonymous 10059] to him, inquired whether he could indeed see. This man began to affirm and gave thanks to God. Edward 15 tested him three times, and when he considered the man to be sufficiently examined, he went forward for a little while to pray; and, having thrice bowed his knee before the altar, he gave thanks to God and entrusted the man to Anonymi 10040 to be maintained as long as he lived at the royal charge. [Anonymous 10059] lived for a long time at court, a witness to the virtue that he had received by the glory of God.
84 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.4 A certain man of the city of Lincoln, [Anonymous 10060], who had been completely blind for three years, received a vision that he would recover the sight of both eyes through the king [Edward 15's] washing-water. And when his face had been washed, the blindness disappeared. This man survives today as a witness to how the darkness overwhelmed him and how the attacks went away with the help of the blessed King Edward 15.
85 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.5 The glorious king [Edward 15] ordered a royal palace to be built at Brill, whereupon a great crowd of rustics poured into the wood with axes. It was summer time, when men, after they have filled their bellies, are quick to rest, and then, in the afternoon, hasten back more eagerly to work. Among the other labourers on the royal building was a young man named Wulfwine 12, who, from his greediness for wheat, was surnamed 'Spillecorn'. He rose from sleep having lost his sight, and remained blind for nineteen years. A citizen's wife [Anonymous 10061] approached this man and told him what she learnt about him in a vision. 'Dear Man,' she said, 'visit eighty churches, bare-footed and wearing only woollen clothes; and thus you will experience the merits of the saints, whose patronage you seek with faith, in the purging of your blindness; but the privilege is reserved specially to St Edward 15 the king that the water in which he washes his hands should restore to you the light of your eyes'. He visited that number of churches, and finally he put his case to the king’s chamberlains [Anonymi 10041]. These made no haste to seek out the king and acquaint him with the poor man’s requirements. Wulfwine 12, however, battered diligently at the door; worn out by the insistence of the blind man, a chamberlain went straight to the prince and related the vision which had been told to him. The king ordered that he should be brought in, and God showed his mercy to the poor man. ‘Mother of God’, said the king, ‘my Lady, ever virgin Mary, stand witness that I shall be exalted beyond measure if God should work through me that of which the vision told’. Then the king dipped his fingers in the liquid element and mercifully touched the sightless eyes. And lo! Blood poured copiously through the hands of the prince. The man, cured of his blindness, cried out, and, filled with a great joy, exclaimed, ‘I see, O king, your bright countenance. I see the gracious face of life. God has given me light, and Edward 15, his anointed.’ This miracle was performed, just as it had once been revealed to Wulfwine 12 by Anonymous 100061’s vision, at the royal town called Windsor. Edward 15 entrusted to his man, miraculously made to see, the custody of his chief palace for the term of his whole life. And this man kept the royal hall at Westminster up to the time of King William 1; and he, who had been blind for score of years less one, saw with clear sight until his death.
86 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.5 The glorious king [Edward 15] ordered a royal palace to be built at Brill, whereupon a great crowd of rustics poured into the wood with axes. It was summer time.
87 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.5 [The royal town of Windsor] the glorious king [Edward 15] granted to the blessed apostle Peter at Westminster, and confirmed it with his charter.
88 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.6 When one of the courtiers [Anonymous 10062] had witnessed this great miracle [the healing of Wulfwine 12], in which a blind man was freed from darkness by the king [Edward 15], he endeavoured reverently to steal what remained of the king's washing water. Having carried the water out of doors, he came upon four beggars [Anonymi 10042], of whom three were burdened with the loss of their eyes, and on the fourth only one eye was bright. But the courtier, a man of faith, washed their blindness, and the power of God restored to them, in the court of the great king, the seven lost eyes.
89 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.9 As Christmas of 1065 approached, everything was ready for the consecrating of the church of St Peter at Westminster. But on Christmas eve Edward 15 began to get worse. Concealing this fact, however, he spent Christmas Day both in the church and in the palace rejoicing with his nobles. But on the morrow, when he could hide it no longer, he began to rest apart and sent messengers to carry out the dedication of his monastery through fitting persons. His consort [Eadgyth 3] exerted herself on the orders of the noble king so that the sacrament of the holy consecration should be completed.
90 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 [After the consecration of St Peter's church in Westminster Edward 15] survived, alas, for only a few more days. Then, fortified by the last sacrament, he died and was buried, it would seem, before the very altar of the Prince of the Apostles, when not only England but also other neighbouring kingdoms gave way to tears.
91 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 On his deathbed Edward 15 had a vision of two monks, whom he used to know in Normandy as a young man, who foretold that God would deliver the kingdom of England into the hands of the enemy in a year for the sins of the earls, bishops, abbots and monks. When those who were present had heard these words - that is to say, the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting on the floor warming his feet in her lap, her full brother, Earl Harold 3, and Robert 14, the steward of the royal palace and a kinsman of the king, also Archbishop Stigand 1 and a few more whom the blessed king when roused from sleep had ordered to be summoned - they all were sore afraid. And while all were stupefied and silent from the effect of terror, the archbishop himself, who ought to have been the first either to be afraid or to give a word of advice, with folly at heart whispered in the ear of the earl [Harold 3] that the king was broken with age and disease and knew not what he said. But the queen, and those who had been wont to know and fear God in their hearts, all pondered deeply the words they had heard, and understood them quite otherwise, and correctly.
92 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 [Edward 15] addressed his last words to the queen [Eadgyth 3], who was sitting at his feet, in this wise: 'May God be gracious to this my wife for the zealous solicitude of her service. For certainly she has served me devotedly, and has always stood close to my side like a beloved daughter. And so from the forgiving God may she obtain the reward of eternal happiness.' And stretching forth his hand to his governor, her brother, Harold 3, he said: 'I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your protection. Serve and honour her with faithful obedience as your lady and sister, which she is, and do not despoil her, as long as she lives, of any due honour got from me. Likewise, I also commend those men who have left their native land for love of me, and have up till now served me faithfully. Take from them an oath of fealty, if they should so with, and protect and retain them, or send them with your safe conduct safely across the Channel to their own homes with all that they have acquired in my service. Let the grave for my burial be prepared in the minster in the place which shall be assigned to you. I ask that you do not conceal my death, but announce it promptly in all parts, so that all the faithful can beseech the mercy of Almighty God on me, a sinner'. Now and then he also comforted the queen, who ceased not from lamenting, to ease her natural grief.
93 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 [Edward 15] gave up his spirit to God the Creator on the fourth of January.
94 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 Then could be seen in the dead body [of Edward 15] the glory of a soul departing to God. For the flesh of his face blushed like a rose, the adjacent beard gleamed like a lily, his hands, laid out straight, whitened, and were a sign that his hole body was given not to death but to auspicious sleep. And so the funeral rites were arranged at the royal cost and with royal honour, as was proper, and amid the boundless sorrow of all men. They bore his holy remains from his palace [at Westminster] into the house of God, and offered up prayers and sighs and psalms all that day and the following night. Meanwhile, when the day of the funeral ceremony dawned, they blessed the office of the interment they were to conduct with the singing of masses and the relief of the poor. And so, before the altar of St Peter the Apostle, the body, washed by his country's tears, is laid up in the sight of God. They also caused the whole of the thirty days following to be observed with the celebration of masses and the chanting of psalms, and expended many pounds of gold for the redemption of his soul in the alleviation of different classes of the poor.
95 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.11 At the tomb [of Edward 15] through him the blind receive their sight, the lame are made to walk, the sick are healed, the sorrowing are refreshed by the comfort of God.
96 Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.7 Once during an Easter feast at the royal court at Westminster Edward 15 received a vision of the Seven Sleeping saints, that they turned on their left side and would lie thus for seventy-four years, after which many things written in the Gospel would come to pass. Harold 3 was very surprised by the vision and sent ambassadors to Ephesus, Greece, to see the saints, which indeed took place.