Source: Textual EditionWilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum

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Author William of Malmesbury
Source Title Gesta Pontificum Anglorum
Language Latin
Date from Source 1124-25
Scholarly Source Dating before 1118 x soon after Feb. 1126


Editor Article or Book Title Journal or Pub.Loc. Date pp.
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Gesta Pontificum Anglorum M. Winterbottom and R. M. Thomson Gesta Pontificum Anglorum   2007  


Editor Article or Book Title Journal or Pub.Loc. Date pp.
M. Winterbottom Gesta Pontificum Anglorum   2007  

Event/Transaction List

Factoid Type Source Reference Short Description
1 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.87.2-6 Holy virgin Eadgyth 4, buried in Wilton, was consecrated to God from her infancy. When Bishop Æthelwold 1 rebuked her for wearing rich clothes, inappropriate for her monastic status, she replied that even mourning clothes can be to show off, whereas golden clothes can conceal a pure unblemished mind. Dunstan 1 foretold her death at the age of 23. He also saw a vision of her after her death.
2 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.2 Augustine 1 was succeeded by Laurence 2 [as the archbishop of Canterbury], for five years.
3 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.3 [Theodore 1], as Bede 1 tells us, was sent by the pope, and was the first of all the bishops at Canterbury who exercised episcopal power over all Britain. For example, he removed and installed bishops on both sides of the Humber as he pleased. At York itself, according to Bede 1, he consecrated the bishops of other cities, and as we read in the Life of St Wilfrid 2, he drove out, for good reason or by brute force, Chad 1 and Wilfrid 2 himself, bishops of the place.
4 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.1.4-7 Theodore 1 expelled Wilfrid 2 wrongfully, and Wilfrid 2 appealed to the pope of Rome, Agatho 2, after being buffeted by many dangers. His appeal was couched in moderate terms: he wished neither to bring charges against the pope's nominee, nor yet to allow his own innocence to be imperilled. these are the words of his memorandum to the pope: 'How has it come about that Theodore 1 should, while I yet lived, in the see which I controlled, ordain three bishops on his own authority, without the consent of any bishop, and against my humble wishes?' Wilfrid 2 was on this occasion adjudged innocent by the Roman council and sent back to his see. But he did not carry his point, thanks to the strong measures of King Ecgfrith 4, particularly as Theodore 1 either purposely obstructed him or let things take their course without interfering. This is also backed up and supported by the letter which Agatho 2 sent to the sixth synod assembled at Constantinople: 'We are hoping to join with our humble self Theodore 1 from Britain, our fellow servant and fellow bishop, archbishop of the great island of Britain, and a lover of wisdom; and this is why we have delayed this council up until now.'
5 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.2.1 Theodore 1 was succeeded by Beorhtwald 6, for thirty-seven years, and he by Tatwine 2.
6 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.2.2 Goscelin 1 adds [to the saints buried in Augustine's church] stones of glory beyond price, whose lightning flashes bring destruction on the wicked and help to the suppliant: Abbot Hadrian 2 and the virgin Mildrith 1, notable alike for their name and their sweet natures.
7 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.3 After three years as archbishop, Tatwine 2 died in the same year as Bede 1, and was succeeded by Nothhelm 2, thought to be the priest of the church of London whom Bede 1 mentions in the prologue to his History of the English as having been of great assistance to him in putting together his account, for he brought from the archives at Rome letters vital for his researches.
8 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.4 Nothhelm 2 died after five years, to be replaced by Cuthbert 7, bishop of the Mercians at Hereford.
9 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.4.1-2 [Cuthbert 7] assembled a great council of England for the suppression of vice, on the advice of Boniface 5 and with the help of King Æthelbald 4. The synod took place at the start of September near the place called Clovesho. There were present these bishops of the churches of Christ: the honourable archbishop Cuthbert 7; Dunn 2, the venerable bishop of Rochester; the very reverend bishops of the Mercians, Totta 2, Hwita 1, and Podda 1; the highly regarded bishops of the West Saxons Hunfrith 1 and Herewald 3; the venerable priests Eardwulf 1, bishop of the East Angles, Ecgwulf 1 bishop of the East Saxons, and Mildred 1 bishop of Hwicce; and the honourable bishops Alwig 1 of Lindsey and Sigefrith 4 of the South Saxons: in the year of our Lord 747, the fifteenth indiction, in the thirty-third year of the reign of Æthelbald 4 the king of the Mercians, who was present on that occasion with his princes and duces.
10 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.6.1 Archbishop Cuthbert 7 immediately sent the full proceedings to this synod [of Clofesho], by the hand of his deacon Cyneberht 5 to Boniface 5 archbishop of Mainz, previously called Winfrith.
11 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.6.2 Both [Boniface 5 and Eoba 2] were growing weary of their mortal life and were being claimed by heaven, when suddenly the Frisians, driven by furies from hell, murdered the pair and made martyrs of them.
12 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.6.3 Lull 1 filled Boniface 5's place at Mainz.
13 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.1 After seventeen years as bishop, Cuthbert 7 fell ill, and on the verge of death ordered his people to bury his body in the cathedral.
14 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.1 After seventeen years as bishop, Cuthbert 7 fell ill, and on the verge of death ordered his people to bury his body in the cathedral. The monks of St Augustine's were by long-standing custom unmanageable, and prone to snatch away the bodies of dead archbishops with some force. So Cuthbert 7 laid down that there should be no weeping or wailing in court or city, no funeral rites in public. All was quiet within, and outsiders were barred entry, when the bishop's body was brought into the bosom of the church of St John the Baptist, which he had built next to the main church, and it was not claimed back by the other party.
15 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.1 Cuthbert 7's body was brought into the bosom of the church of St John the Baptist [in Canterbury], which he had built next to the main church.
16 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.2 Bregowine 1 took over Cuthbert 7 for three years, and then left the see open for Jænberht 1, formerly abbot of St Augustine's.
17 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.2-4 Offa 7 king of the Mercians quarrelled with the people of Kent and tried to rob Jænberht 1 of his primacy. At the same time, in his concern to give the realm of the Mercians the distinction of an archbishopric, he communicated with Pope Hadrian 3 by letters, with which, perhaps, went bribes, and prevailed upon him, against all precedent, to mark out the bishop of Lichfield with a pallium and subordinate to him all the bishops of the Mercians (their names were Deneberht 1 of Worcester, Werenberht 1 of Leicester, Eadwulf 7 of Sidnacester, Wulfheard 5 of Hereford), together with two bishops of the East Angles, Ealhheard 1 of Elmham and Tidfrith 1 of Dunwich. The bishop of Lichfield was also called Ealdwulf 13. (Of the bishoprics some have been moved, like Elmham to Norwich, some merged with others, like Dunwich with Norwich, while some no longer exist, like Leicester and Sidnacester.) But the archbishop of Canterbury retained four bishops, London, Winchester, Rochester, and Selsey. This unsatisfactory situation prevailed throughout the tenure of Jænberht 1, though he spared no expense or trouble to press the rights of his see and stamp on the greed of the usurpers.
18 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.7.3 So powerful was Offa 7 that he had also invaded East Anglia after killing king Æthelberht 11.
19 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.1 Jænberht 1 died after twenty-seven years [of being the archbishop of Canterbury].
20 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.1 [Jænberht 1] was buried in the chapter house at St Augustine's, [Canterbury].
21 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.1 [Jænberht 1's] successor for thirteen years was Æthelheard 13 bishop of Winchester, a man of remarkable energy and high influence with the nobility.
22 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.1 Softened by [Æthelheard 13's] counsels, Offa 7's son Ecgfrith 7 would have restored the distinction of the archbishopric to Canterbury, had not fate removed him abruptly from the stage.
23 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.8.2 Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians was advised by Æthelheard 13 and the archbishop of York, Eanbald 2, how wickedly his predecessor [Offa 7] had behaved, and brought back the old system in full; the king sent letters from himself and all the bishops of England to Leo 1, Hadrian 3's successor, and the archbishop in person actively forwarded the mission. This is proved by ancient sources such as letters by Alcuin 1.
24 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.13 Plegmund 1 ordained Æthelhelm 15 for Wells.
25 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.14.3, 5-6 Having served in England for some time, Oda 1 took the tonsure and professed as a cleric. He had never worn a monk's habit [when he was made the archbishop of Canterbury], and made a stout resistance, not wishing to be seen overturning the customs of the past out of personal ambition. For no one, he said, had ever yet been archbishop without being a monk. But the king's will was seconded by the consent of all the bishops, and in the end the venerable man's principles were overcome, and so he went overseas and became a monk at Fleury.
26 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.15.1-2 Oda 1 went to Northumbria to bring away the holy bodies of saints, in whom that district had once been so fertile. So it came about that he saw to his grief the church of the excellent father Wilfrid 2 at Ripon in the state of ruin brought on it by the Danes; he cleared away the rubble over the tomb, and respectfully moved the relics to Canterbury.
27 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.17.1 Eadwig 4 fell into disrepute for his headstrong behaviour and fleshly licentiousness, and so provoked the bishop [Oda 1] that he put him under a ban, and furthermore cut short the reign of his strumpet [Ælfgifu 2] by first exiling and then hamstringing her. The king retaliated by conduction a furious assault on the monks of all Britain that no one but Oda 1 and Dunstan 1, then an abbot, ventured to resist even verbally.
28 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.17.3 Through Oda 1's prayers no drop of rain wetted the cathedral [of Canterbury] while the roofing was going on. He also displayed altar bread turned to flesh and the wine in the chalice to blood, and then brought them back to their true appearance and made them fit for human purposes again.
29 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.17.4 When [Oda 1] was consecrating the blessed Dunstan 1, bishop elect of Worcester, at Canterbury he conducted the whole ceremony as though it was not the bishop of the Hwicce but the archbishop of Canterbury he was blessing. The clerics voiced mild protests, but Oda 1 uttered a prophecy. He knew, he said, what he was about, for when he died Dunstan 1 would rule the metropolitan church.
30 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.17.5-6 On Oda 1's death Ælfsige 30 got supporters together by greasing their palms, forged an edict from King Edgar 11, and was foisted upon Canterbury. He stamped on the grave of the blessed Oda 1, and abused his soul. Later he set off across the Alps to receive the pallium at Rome and froze to death.
31 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  I.18.1 Dunstan 1 was begged by King Edgar 11 to give the primacy the benefit of his holy energies. More than once he turned a deaf ear to the king's request, but at last, under pressure from the unanimous sentiments of the bishops, he gave in.
32 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.18.2 Dunstan 1 had great influence on and authority over Edgar 11. Dunstan 1 punished him with seven-year penance for his illicit lust for one [Anonymous 10077] who had in however shadowy a way been a nun.
33 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.18.3 Edgar 11, with Dunstan 1's prompting, introduced capital penalties restraining the greed of thieves and counterfeiting by moneyers.
34 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.19 Dunstan 1's life was marked with miracles even before his birth and after his death.
35 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.20.2-3 On Sigeric 9's advice King Æthelred 32 sold his freedom of action to the Danes: he gave silver to buy peace from people he could have driven out with steel. As a result an insupportable tribute was laid on England, which brought the people to their knees.
36 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.20.3 Ælfheah 44 scorned the policy of submission to the Danes, unwilling to buy ease for himself at the cost of others' sufferings. He was accordingly seized and put in chains, and finally gave up his soul to heaven after being stoned by the Danes.
37 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.20.4 Ælfheah 44, while in Rome, announced to his people, in accurate detail, the demise of Cenwulf 6.
38 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.21.2 Æthelred 32 brought no help to Lyfing 9 when he was imprisoned for seven months, and bestirred himself not a whit to avenge him.
39 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.21.3 Eadsige 12, after the death of Harthacnut 1, helped Edward 15 to the throne, for he seconded by his authority and blessing the efforts of Earl Godwine 51, thus thwarting the wishes of the Danes who took a different line.
40 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.22.1-2 Robert 5, long loved and now newly honoured [by having been made archbishop] by Edward 15, played a leading part in his counsels, able to demote and promote men at his whim. Robert 5 in the end succeeded in having the leading nobles, Godwine 51 and his sons, accused of treason before the king and banished from England. For the moment his opinion held the day; but next year the cause was referred to the popular judgement, and the exiles were restored. The archbishop was clear that this reconciliation would do him no good; he therefore anticipated any judgement and went to Rome. He came back with letters asserting his innocence and asking for his return; but he met his end at Jumièges.
41 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.3 [Stigand 1] never won a pallium from Rome, for all the efficacy of bribery there too, though a usurper known as Benedict 10 did send him one, so glad that Stigand 1 addressed him as pope when other archbishops made mock of him.
42 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8 William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.
43 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.25.1 In 1070, on 29 August Lanfranc 1 was consecrated in the metropolitan see by the suffragans of that see, William 2 of London, Walkelin 1 of Winchester, Remigius 1 of Dorchester or Lincoln, Siweard 13 of Rochester, Herfast 1 of Elmham or Thetford, Herman 2 of Sherborne, and Giso 1 of Wells. The others who did not attend sent apologies both by envoy and in writing.
44 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.30 Boniface 1 through Mellitus 1 grants permission to Æthelberht 3 to found a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury under Laurence 2.
45 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.31 Boniface 2 supposedly writes to Justus 1 confirming the primacy of Canterbury and referring to conversion of King Eadbald 2.
46 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.32 Honorius 2 confirms to Honorius 1 the primacy of the church of Canterbury.
47 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.33 Vitalian 1 confirms to Theodore 1 the primacy of the church of Canterbury.
48 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.34 Sergius 1 commends Beorhtwald 6 to Æthelred 2, Aldfrith 1, and Ealdwulf 3 as the primate of all England.
49 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.34 Sergius 1 supposedly informs the bishops of Britain that he has conferred the right of pallium on Beorhtwald 6, the successor of Theodore 1.
50 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.36 Gregory 3 informs the bishops of England of the appointment of Tatwine 2, arriving with the pallium and the dalmatic and approving for him all the privileges of the office which his predecessors are known to have enjoyed. He also confirmed the primacy of the bishop of Canterbury.
51 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.37 Leo 1 confirms to Æthelheard 13 the primacy of Canterbury.
52 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.38 Formosus 1 confirms Plegmund 1's primacy to all the bishop of England.
53 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.39 John 24 confirms to Dunstan 1 all the insignia of his predecessors.
54 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.42.7b5-7 Wulfstan 55 preached that the Normans were send to the English as a punishment for their sins.
55 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.42.7(1-2) In 1075 there was assembled in London in the church of the apostle St Paul a council of the entire district of England, composed of bishops, abbots, and many persons in religious orders. It was ordered and presided over by Lanfranc 1, archbishop of the holy church of Canterbury and primate of the whole island of Britain; and there sat with him venerable persons: Thomas 2 archbishop of York, William 2 bishop of London, Walkelin 1 of Winchester, Herman 2 of Sherborne, Wulfstan 55 of Worcester, Walter 2 of Hereford, Giso 1 of Wells, Remigius 1 of Dorchester or Lincoln, Herfast 1 of Elmham or Norwich, Stigand 5 of Selsey, Osbern 8 of Exeter, and Peter 10 of Lichfield.
56 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.43.7 Lanfranc 1 enjoyed the lavish favour of St Dunstan 1. If he ever was hesitant to act, fearful that it might turn ill, the saint would come to him in a dream to reveal the subtle tricks of his enemies and show the way to bypass them. Once, indeed, when Lanfranc 1 was ill and weary of his lingering life, Dunstan 1 appeared in a vision and seemed to wrestle with him, so rescuing him from his peril and restoring his to health.
57 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.64.3 In 1102 there was assembled a council in the church of St Peter to the west near London. The council, led by Anselm 1, condemned the fraudulent heresy of simony. There were detected in this fault and deposed Guy 2 of Pershore, Wimund 4 of Tavistock, and Ealdwine 6 of Ramsey; others not yet consecrated were removed from their abbeys, namely Godric 36 from Peterborough, Hamo 1 from Cerne, and Æthelric 74 from Milton.
58 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.66.3 Eadmer 1 was named Anselm 1's successor by the pope during Anselm 1's lifetime.
59 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.2 Justus 1 made Romanus 1 his successor at Rochester, and sent him off to pope Honorius 1 on a church mission; but he lost his life by drowning in the wild waves of the sea.
60 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.3-4 [Paulinus 1] was (we are told) a Roman by birth, one of the men sent by St Gregory 1 to serve the Word in England. Archbishop Justus 1 ordained him bishop and appointed him to evangelize the Northumbrians. He summoned the reluctant Edwin 2 to the faith by confronting him with a miracle which God had in his mercy once sent to the king, and which the spirit of prophecy now put into Paulinus 1's mind. He received the pallium from Pope Honorius 2, and consecrated Honorius 1 archbishop of Canterbury to follow Justus 1. After winning much booty from the Devil among the northern people, he was forcibly turned out of his see by enemy action, and returned to Kent. It was then that he took over the rule of the church of Rochester, for this holy priest was favoured and solicited by Archbishop Honorius 1 and King Eadbald 2. He took on what in their charity his brethren suggested, and, after contenting himself of a while with this inferior post, went the way of all flesh at the due time, nineteen years, two months and twenty-one days after he was ordained to York.
61 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.5 [Paulinus 1] was buried in the church which King Æthelberht 3 had raised in Rochester to the apostle St Andrew, patron saint of the see.
62 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.5-6 Paulinus 1' place at Rochester was filled by Ithamar 1, provided and consecrated by Archbishop Honorius 1. He was English by birth, but lacked nothing you could have wished for in sanctity of life or in the positively Roman accomplishment of his learning. He was the first Englishman to bring his land the grace of a bishop's rank, thus adding greatly to the prestige of his countrymen. After Honorius 1 he ordained Deusdedit 1 as archbishop at Canterbury. That should have been the duty of the archbishop of York, but after Paulinus 1 had been expelled no one had taken his place.
63 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.7-8 Theodore 1 appointed bishop of Rochester Putta 1, a man as fit for the ease of the church life as he was dull and lazy in lay business. In the end, after frequently thinking of retiring from his bishopric while all was perfectly peaceful, he was happy to embrace the excuse of injury from an enemy. For Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians, inflamed by some insolent reply from the king of Kent, was putting his whole realm to fire and sword, and he had devastated all the lands of the bishopric of Rochester. Putta 1 took this misfortune calmly, and repaired to Seaxwulf 1 bishop of the Mercians. By his generosity he obtained a country church and a small estate, where he lived out his live in peace, conduction public instruction in church music wherever he was asked to go.
64 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.72.8 Cwichelm 2 was ordained to Rochester as bishop, but he soon left in his turn, put out by the shortage of essential provisions.
65 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.2 The church of the apostle Paul was built in London by Æthelberht 3 king of Kent.
66 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.3 Mellitus 1 built a monastery of St Peter to the west of the city [of London].
67 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.5 Edward 15 gathered a large body of monks [in Westminster] and built a church in a new style.
68 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.6-7 After the death of Æthelberht 3 and Sæberht 1, Mellitus 1 was deposed by the petty kings who followed, and came to Canterbury. There he found his fellows in a turmoil of problems; so, taking Justus 1 with him, he withdrew to Gaul to await calmer times. But God did not fail them; the heart of King Eadbald 2 was softened into belief, and both men were soon recalled. Justus 1 had no difficulty in entering his own see, but Eadbald 2 was powerless to restore Mellitus 1. For some time he held no office; but later, on Laurence 2's death, he was made archbishop of Canterbury.
69 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.8 The stain of paganism persisted among the East Saxons until the days of their king Sigeberht 5, who, at the urging of Oswiu 1 king of the Northumbrians, was baptized by Bishop Finan 1, and with the help of Bishop Cedd 1 brought his people back to the faith they had banished along with Mellitus 1.
70 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.8 Although Cedd 1 was the second bishop of London, he was buried in Northumbria, at his monastery Lastingham.
71 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.10-11 One when [Eorcenwald 1] was lame and was visiting his parishes in a litter, he happened to come to the bank of a river in spate. His companions were at a loss, for the sick man could cross neither on horseback nor on foot, and they were afraid the litter might sink in the surging water; but suddenly the tumult died away, and the whole river parted at that point, though as soon as the bishop had crossed with his retinue the water, which had stood apart and curled up into a cliff of waves, was restored to its bed. Bede 1 tells us that many invalids were cured by touching this litter.
72 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.11-12 [The monastery Eorcenwald 1 built for himself] is called Chertsey, and thanks to the help of one Frithuwald 4, a sub-king under Wulfhere 1, he filled it with monks and riches. Religion flourished brilliantly there until the coming of the Danes, who destroyed the place, burning the church, abbot, monks and all. But the incomparable prince King Edgar 11, not content with the building new monasteries everywhere, either personally or by the agency of bishops, was also concerned to repair old ones, and he put Chertsey back in firm footing.
73 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.13 [Eorcenwald 1's] sister's convent is called barking. It is situated to one side of London, at eight miles' distance. Closely associated with Æthelburg 3 in sanctity and power are Hildelith 1, her immediate successor (to whom was sent St Aldhelm 3's still extant book in praise of virgins), and Wulfhild 2, almost a modern, who came a few years before the times of King Edgar 11.
74 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.16 Theodred 3's memory has not been completely lost. The Londoners say that he lived in the time of King Æthelstan 18, that he went at his side to war against Olaf 3, and that, along with Oda 1 bishop of Wiltshire, he prayed for the gift from heaven [so that Æthelstan 18's sword will miraculously return to him during the battle]. His pre-eminent virtues won him the nickname of 'the Good'. He had one lapse (they say), more an error than a crime, in that he handed over to the rigour of execution on the gallows thieves caught at St Edmunds.
75 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.73.21 There is a place in the diocese of London, among the East Saxons, called Chich in the heathen tongue, where rests St Osgyth 2, a virgin well known for her miracles.
76 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.1 The first bishop of the East Angles was a Burgundian, Felix 2, who became friends with Sigeberht 3 when he was in exile in Gaul and came with him to England after the death of Eorpwald 1. When the kingdom fell to Sigeberht 3, Felix 2 was ordained bishop and gave full support to the spirited king. He also founded schools of letters in suitable places, gradually bringing a barbarous people over to Latinate cultivation.
77 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.2 [Felix 2 died] after seventeen years as bishop, and was buried in Dunwich, his episcopal seat, before being transferred to Soham, a village on a marsh. Later it was moved to the monastery at Ramsey.
78 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.5 Beornwulf 3 and Ludeca 1 invaded the province of East Anglia, and the bishops [of it] were rendered destitute. It is true that both kings were killed there, but the two bishoprics [of Dunwich and of Elmham] too came to an end, and merged into one, with its seat at the not particularly large village of Elmham.
79 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.6-8 Ælfgar 31, keeping vigil of the Ascension two days prior Dunstan 1's death, saw a vision of Dunstan 1 praised by angels.
80 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.21 Danish chieftains Ivar 1 and Ubba 5 arrived to plunder the provinces of the Northumbrians and East Angles. Ivar 1 captured the king [Edmund 6], who made no resistance, but threw away is weapons and lay praying flat on the ground; and after various tortures he was beheaded.
81 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.22-27 Edmund 6 worked miracles: his head, lost in the bushes, spoke to Anonymi 1738 and thus was found; a wolf guarded his body; when forgotten by the locals, Edmund 6 appeared to them in visions and dreams and healing the blind; his head grew back on to the body, the previous injury marked by a scarlet scar; the dead man's hair and nails continued to grow, and a holy woman Oswynn 1 would every year trim them; a youth called Leofstan 3, who demanded to see the martyr's body to test his sanctity, went mad and soon died. Edmund 6 was venerated even by kings, who used to send him their royal crowns and then buy them back for large sums of money.
82 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.28-29 When Swein 1 was laying waste all England in the days of Æthelred 32, his threats were equally unrestrained in the territory of St Edmund 6. Swein 1 was gently admonished by the martyr in a dream, and when it did not work, killed him with a blow from a pike. Cnut 3 was aware of the story and therefore built St Edmund's ditch to protect the martyr's lands, and granted many gifts to the monastery.
83 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.30-32 Leofstan 24 exposed the incorrupt body of Edmund 6 to the unbelievers, praying to the martyr to have some infirmity in this life rather than punishment in the next. His fingers immediately became deformed. Later he was attacked by other infirmities and sent to Edward 15 for a doctor. Edward 15 sent Baldwin 5, a monk of Saint-Denis, who grew attached to St Edmund 6 and later succeeded Leofstan 24 as abbot.
84 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.33 Germinus 1 lies in the church of the monastery of Bury St Edmunds.
85 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.74.33 Botwulf 1 lies in the church of the monastery of Bury St Edmunds.
86 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.2-7 Birinus 1, who was the first bishop of the West Saxons under Cynegils 1 and Cwichelm 1, was sent to England by Honorius 2 and ordained by Asterius 1, bishop of Genoa. He was in such a hurry to leave that he left his corporals behind. Once out at the sea, he remembered his loss and, unwilling to interrupt the voyage, walked upon the water to the shore, found his corporals and returned to the ship in the same way. On arrival he converted King Cwichelm 1 and baptised him on the day of his daughter’s [Anonymous 215] wedding to Oswald 1, most holy king of the Northumbrians, who acted as Cwichelm 1’s godfather. Both kings then gave Birinus 1 Dorchester for is episcopal seat.
87 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.7 Birinus 1 was buried in Dorchester in the church he had built. In after years, when the bishopric of the West Saxons had been established at Winchester, Birinus 1 was transferred there by Bishop Hædde 2 and is regarded as the patron of the city.
88 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.8 Wine 1 usurped the bishopric of Winchester, but, having been replaced by Agilbert 1, found refuge with Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, from whom he bought the bishopric of London, spending the rest of his life there.
89 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.9 Leuthhere 2, nephew of Agilbert 1, was consecrated bishop of the West Saxons by Theodore 1.
90 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.10 Hædde 2 composed learned official letters, and Aldhelm 3 addressed his erudite writings to him.
91 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.16 Æthelwulf 1 wanted to honour Swithhun 5 with the bishopric of Winchester, and the ordination was carried out by Ceolnoth 3 archbishop of Canterbury.
92 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.20 Swithhun 5 died in the year of our Lord 863, six years after the death of Æthelwulf 1.
93 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.22 Deorwulf 1, if report to be credited, was up to an advanced age not only illiterate but a swineherd. When Alfred 8 lost his throne by the violence of his enemies and took refuge in the woods, he came upon Deorwulf 1 feeding pigs. He perceived the good tendencies of his nature, and sent him to be educated. Indeed he went on favouring him until, on the completion of his training, he made him a bishop, an astonishing appointment indeed.
94 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.23 Frithestan 1 was one of the seven bishops consecrated on a single day at Canterbury by Archbishop Plegmund 1 in the time of Alfred 8's son King Edward 2. His many good works are still observable from a quantity of books, and the holiness of his life from a tomb that is not, like that of others, hidden away.
95 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.27-8 Æthelwold 1, whilst praying in the church in Winchester, saw a vision of Beornstan 5, accompanied by Birinus 1 and Swithhun 5, testifying that Beornstan 5, although quite forgotten of earth, was enjoying great glory in heaven.
96 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.29-33 Ælfheah 19 ad a gift of prophecy; he could foretell death. Once he ordained three men - Dunstan 1, Æthelwold 1, and Æthelstan 30, his relative - to priesthood, saying that two of them would become bishops, and the third would come to a miserable end.
97 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.75.34-46 Æthelwold 1's parents were from Winchester, neither poor nor ill-bred. He was educated at the court, becoming a favourite of Æthelstan 18's. He was tonsured as a cleric by Ælfheah 19, and later given the cowl as monk by Dunstan 1 abbot of Glastonbury, soon becoming its dean. Dunstan 1 saw a vision concerning Æthelwold 1's brilliant future, and so did his mother, Anonymous 679, wile was pregnant with him. Æthelwold 1 craved stricter life but was kept at home by King Eadred 16, thanks to the king's mother Eadgifu 4. He was given the house of Abingdon. When Dunstan 1 became archbishop, Æthelwold 1 was chosen by King Edgar 11 to be bishop of Winchester. He drove clerics out of New Minster for their sins and introduced monks instead. St Swithhun 5 commanded him in vision to open his tomb in the Old Minster, and showed his benevolence towards Æthelwold 1 through miracles. Æthelwold 1 himself worked many miracles in his lifetime.
98 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.76 Æthelwold 1 was succeeded by Ælfheah 44. He took habit at Deerhurst and then moved to Bath, were he shut himself up in a private cell and thought of the divine, receiving visions. When the bishop of Winchester died, Dunstan 1 put Ælfheah 44 in his throne. He elevated Æthelwold 1's bones twelve years after his death. After twenty-two years as bishop, he was moved to Canterbury, against his will, they say. He had to go to Rome and received the pallium from the pope, performing miracles on the way. When the Danes arrived, he was first imprisoned for seven months, then stoned to death and buried at St Paul's in London. Nine years later, at the orders of King Cnut 3 and in his presence, is body was exhumed and found incorrupt.
99 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.76.5 Cenwulf 6 abbot of Peterborough purchased the bishopric of Winchester for cash. But he did not live long to rejoice in his sacrilegious exploit, for he died before two years were out.
100 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.78.1 In Winchester there is a monastery built by Alfred 8, in which he placed canons. But Æthelwold 1 drove out the canons and put in monks, placing over tem as abbot Æthelgar 8.
101 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.78.3 Æthelwold 1 constructed in Winchester a house for nuns, and put in charge of it an old virgin lady Æthelthryth 7, who uttered many prophecies about him. On this site there had previously been a small monastery in which Eadburg 8, daughter of Edward 2 the Elder, had lived and died.
102 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.78.7 Ælfthryth 8 the king's wife built a monastery at Werwell in honour of the Holy Cross, in repentance for the foul murder of her stepson Edward 12, which she was aware of and responsible for.
103 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.78.7 At Romsey, in the house founded by most excellent King Edgar 11, lie the bodies of two virgins, Mærwynn 1 and Æthelflæd 17.
104 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.82.2-4 Ælfwald 68 had a distressing dispute with Earl Godwine 51, the reasons of which are unknown.
105 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.82.5-6 Ælfwald 68 was a warm devotee of St Cuthbert 1, and once he set off for Durham to visit the saint.
106 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.4-5 Once Beorhtwald 19 kept vigil at Glastonbury and received a vision from God in his sleep. He was sad about the virtual extinction of the royal line of the English under Cnut 3, when he saw St Peter holding the hand of Edward 15, that time in exile in Normandy, and consecrating him king, marking out his life as celibate and fixing a precise number of years, twenty-four, for his reign. When Edward 15 complained of his lack of issue, Peter replied: 'The kingdom of the English belongs to God; and He will make provision of a king after you to please Himself.'
107 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.5 Beorhtwald 19 was buried at Glastonbury, to which he was very generous.
108 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.83.6-11 Herman 2 was Edward 15's Flemish chaplain. The king made him the bishop of Ramsbury. Earl Godwine 51 and his sons disliked Herman 2's growing influence, and Herman 2 was forced to leave English. After Godwine 51 and Ælfwald 68, bishop of Sherborne, died, he returned, supported by Queen Eadgyth 3, and regained the see of Wiltshire. He moved it from Sherborne to Salisbury and started to build a new church there.
109 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.84.6-7 Eadwald 39 years after his death gave impulse to a very rich man, Æthelmær 15, to build a monastery there [in Cerne] in honour of St Peter.
110 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.85 Æthelstan 18 founded the abbey of Milton for the soul of his brother Edwin 4 whom he had on evil advice expelled from England.
111 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.86.1 A stone from an ancient wall reads: 'King Alfred 8 made this city [Shaftsbury] in the year of our Lord 880, the eighth of his reign'.
112 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.86.1-2 Ælfgifu 3, wife of the Edmund 14 who was great-grandson of Alfred 8, founded a nunnery [in Shaftsbury], and here her bodily remains lay after her death. She was a woman ever devoted to good works, pious and sweet-natured.
113 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.86.4-6 In Shaftesbury lay St Edward 12, grandson of Ælfgifu 3 by her son Edgar 11, who went to heaven after being killed for no good reason by his stepmother [Ælfthryth 8]. His first place of burial was Wareham, close to the sea not far from Corfe, and then translated to Shaftsbury. In after time, however, half of the body was taken to Leominster, half to Abingdon.
114 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.87.1 The nunnery at Amesbury was founded by Ælfthryth 8 as penance for the murder of Edward 12.
115 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.87.7-9 Cnut 3, successor of Eadgyth 4's brother Æthelred 32, had little respect for English saints. Despite protests of Æthelnoth 43, who was present, he ordered the opening of Eadgyth 4's grave, at which point she emerged as far as the waist, with her face veiled. The frightened king fell over to the ground.
116 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.87.10 Initially Wulfthryth 6 was not fully professed as a nun of Wilton, but assumed veil for fear of Edgar 11, but had it torn off before being forced into the king's bed. Edgar 11 was reproved by St Dunstan 1 and served seven years of penance. As for her, once [Eadgyth 4] was born, she returned to the nunnery. She is truly called holy, and is buried in the same church at Wilton as her daughter.
117 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.88.1 Cenred 1 and then his son Ine 1 were founders of the monastery in Abingdon.
118 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.88.1 After the Danes levelled the buildings of Abingdon 1 with the ground, Alfred 8 listened to evil counsel and embezzled all the lands belonging to it for his own purposes and those of his men.
119 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.88.2-3 King Eadred 16 restored the possessions of Abingdon 1 using as agent Æthelwold 1, whom he had installed as abbot. Æthelwold 1 was whisked away to the see of Winchester by the celebrated King Edgar 11 before he could provide the finishing touches. Osgar 1, whom he made abbot in his stead, completed his master's project.
120 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.90.3 In Bath Offa 7 founded a monastery, which Edgar 11 enlarged.
121 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.91.1-2 King Ine 1 built a monastery in Glastonbury on the advice of the blessed Aldhelm 3. During the reign of King Alfred 8 the monastery was destroyed by the Danes, but noble restored by Dunstan 1 thanks to King Edmund 14's generosity.
122 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.91.8-9 Many of the early English saints were discovered by King Edmund 14 on his northern expedition, disinterred, and sent to Glastonbury, among them: Hild 1, abbess of the monastery once called Streneshalh and now Whitby - Bede 1 in his History rated her highly; also Ceolfrith 1, abbot of Monkwearmoth, to whom the same Bede 1 devoted a special book. He died at Langres, on extremely old age, while on his way to Rome, but later brought back. Also some of the bones of Aidan 1, first bishop of Lindisfarne. His other bones were taken by Colmán 1 to Scottia; Bede 1 is again our authority. Praise is given at Glastonbury to the confessor Benignus 1, a local hermit, whose remarkable miracles inspired the monks nearby to venerate and translate him. In the house [of Glastonbury] are buried King Edmund 14, the renewer of the place, and his son King Edgar 11, who, remembering his father with gratitude, crowned his gifts with the grant of expensive properties.
123 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.92.1-3 Alfred 8, on seeing St Cuthbert 1 in a dream, gave a vow to build a monastery at Athelney, where he had once found a safe refuge from the Danes. Its monks are few in number and poor, but they trust in the help of their heavenly patron, St Æthelwine 1, who was brother of Cenwealh 2 king of the West Saxons, and who served God despite chronic illness.
124 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.93 Æthelstan 18 founded the abbey of Muchelney for the soul of his brother Edwin 4 whom he had exiled.
125 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.94.2 Lyfing 15 was buried in Tavistock, to which he had made many notable donations.
126 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.94.4 Æthelstan 18 was the first to fortify Exeter.
127 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.95.1 The monastery called Tavistock was begun by Ordgar 5, comes of Devon, father of King Edgar 11's wife Ælfthryth 8, and developed by Bishop Lyfing 15.
128 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.95.3 Ordgar 5 and his son Ordwulf 4 are both buried in Tavistock.
129 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1 Cædwalla 1 routed Æthelwalh 1, the king of the South Saxons, in battle.
130 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.96.1-2 Æthelwalh 1 had been baptised in Mercia on the persuasion of King Wulfhere 1, and had given kindly hospitality to the blessed Wilfrid 2 when in exile from the see, even honouring him with a bishopric at a place called Selsey. When [Æthelwalh 1] was killed, Wilfrid 2 went back home, though not before building a monastery at Selsey.
131 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.97 St Martin's monastery, Battle, was founded and advanced by King William 1 in the place where he had conquered England. The altar of the church is on the very spot where the dead body of Harold 3 was found, who was slain for love of his country.
132 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.99.1-2 William 1 laid low York because he was enraged with its people, who had taken in and served the needs of the Danes on their arrival.
133 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  ii.99.5-6 Alcuin 1 in a letter to King Æthelred 7 prophesizes a disaster for York.
134 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.2 Wilfrid 2 was chosen to fill the see of York, and sent by King Aldfrith 1 [more likely by Ealhfrith 1], son of King Oswiu 1, to Gaul for consecration. While he dallied overseas, King Oswiu 1 foisted Chad 1 on the throne of York. Chad 1 was very holy, but his election was illegal. The wrong was set right when Theodore 1 was sent from the papal see to be archbishop of Canterbury: Chad 1 was removed, and Wilfrid 2 put on the throne.
135 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.3-4 Wilfrid 2 was born of respectable parents [Anonymous 121 and Anonymous 125] in Northumbria. While his mother [Anonymous 121] was in labour, retainers [Anonymi 1284] standing outside saw the house as if in flames on either side, seen only by men but not by maidservants.
136 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.5-6 Wilfrid 2 ran the course of his childhood without education. But at the age of 14, loathing his overbearing stepmother [Anonymous 122] (his own mother [Anonymous 121] having died), he left his father's [Anonymous 125] home. He was then brought to the notice of Queen Eanflæd 1. On learning about this dream to become a monk, she passed Wilfrid 2 over to one Cudda 2, who had been a senator and royal chamberlain but was now proposing to enter the religious life at Lindisfarne. He looked after Wilfrid 2 kindly for some years, and then returned him to the queen. Wilfrid 2 then was sent to Rome to improve his education.
137 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.6-10 Eanflæd 1 recommended Wilfrid 2 to the personal attention of Eorcenberht 1 king of Kent, her uncle [Eadbald 2's] son. So he arrived in Canterbury and increased his knowledge. A year later, he was attached by the king to the company of an energetic young man, Biscop 2, later abbot of Monkwearmouth, and with him sped on his way to Rome. Arrived at Lyon, he won over the archbishop Dalfinus 1. Having visited Rome and fulfilled his desires, he returned to Dalfinus 1 at Lyon, who adopted him as his son and made him cleric. Wilfrid 2 would have stayed with his benefactor, but Balthild 1 sent people to kill the archbishop. Wilfrid 2, ready to die with Dalfinus 1, was nevertheless saved at the last moment and sent back to England.
138 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.12 King [Aldfrith 1] gave [Wilfrid 2] a site at Ripon on which to build a monastery, and the magnates contributed many presents. He was ordained priest and abbot there by Agilbert 1, a Gallic bishop.
139 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.19-23 When Wilfrid 2 discovered that Chad 1 had been appointed to his see, her retired to Ripon for three years, acting as a priest. He was often called in by Wulfhere 1 king of the Mercians, who gave him a site called Lichfield on which to build a cathedral or a monastery. He was honoured with equal generosity by Ecgberht 3 king of Kent; and when Ecgberht 3 summoned him there Wilfrid 2 advanced many of his subjects up the grades of church preferment. One was Putta 1, whom he made a priest (later Theodore 1 promoted him to be bishop of Rochester). When Theodore 1 arrived to England, he saw that the canons had been flouted, and he degraded Chad 1, whose long-suffering touched Wilfrid 2's heard; by his help, Chad 1 was advanced for a second time though all the degrees and installed as bishop of Lichfield. At York Wilfrid 2 repaired and rebuilt a church built long ago by King Edwin 2; he also had a church built in Ripon. To its consecration were invited the brother kings Ecgfrith 4 and Ælfwine 4. For their father Oswiu 1 had died meanwhile, and it was they who endowed the place with vast estates.
140 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.24-28 Wilfrid 2, on entering the village of Tiddanefre, was met by a large group of women offering children for confirmation. Among them was Anonymous 131 who offered her son [Eadwald 4] as if he was still alive, hoping that her trick would bring him back to life. Wilfrid 2 discovered her deceit, but, moved by her tears and determination, he prayed over the child, placed his right hand over the corpse and brought him back to life. This boy [Eadwald 4] later became a monk of Ripon. A similar miracle happened at Hexham. A monk [Bothelm 1] fell from the top of the church, which was being built, and had all his bones broken. But the bishop [Wilfrid 2] called the monks to prayer, and the broken bones knitted together, and the patient regained his strength.
141 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.28-30 King Ecgfrith 4 expanded his kingdom into the territory of the Picts, and maintained it against the Mercians. For the Picts [Anonymi 321], on the death of king Oswiu 1, made light of the infant reign, and they combined in an unprovoked attack on the Northumbrians. Accompanied by the sub-king Beornhæth 1, the royal youth [Ecgfrith 4] went to meet them and with his small force annihilated them completely. Wulfhere 1 too, king of the Mercians, led an army [Anonymi 323] against the Northumbrians, recalling with resentment how they had killed his father [Penda 1]. But fortune did not favour him - hardly more that it had favoured his father; but he did live to turn tail in shameful retreat. Not many days later he died, part of his lands passing to the king of the Northumbrians. As a result of these successes, Wilfrid 2's estates were enlarged, and churches established with many monks.
142 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.100.32-101.10 So long as the blessed Æthelthryth 2 shared Ecgfrith 4's bed, she strove to keep Wilfrid 2 on good terms with her husband. But Ecgfrith 4's new wife, Eormenburg 1, stirred up hostility to the bishop on the grounds of his great wealth and influence. On hearing that, Archbishop Theodore 1 took measures against Wilfrid 2. Wilfrid 2 went to the Continent to appeal to the pope. In his absence Æthelred 2, king of the Mercians and Wulfhere 1's brother, began a campaign against the Northumbrians to avenge the injuries done to his brother. He put Ecgfrith 4 to flight, slaying his brother Ælfwine 4. Æthelred 2 then banished Bishop Wynnfrith 1, successor of Chad 1 at Lichfield, because he had favoured Ecgfrith 4. Wynnfrith 1, driven by chance on to the coast of the Gaul, came upon King Theoderic 2 and Ebroin 1 duke of the Franks. They had received instructions from Britain to seize and despoil Bishop Wilfrid 2. Mistaken by the name, they killed Wynnfrith 1's company, Anonymi 337 and took away his property, though they let him get away. Meanwhile, Wilfrid 2 befriended Aldgisl 1 and converted him to Christianity; then he moved to Dagobert 3. Dagobert 3 offered Wilfrid 2 the see of Strasbourg, but the latter put off an answer till he should come back from Rome, and Dagobert 3 sent him freely on his way in the company of bishop Deodatus 1. On their way they encountered Perctarit 1, who first wanted to harm Wilfrid 2, but when he heard the true story he helped Wilfrid 2 to crown his business with success. Finally, he arrived to Rome. There had arrived earlier from Theodore 1 a monk of impeccable devoutness, one Cenwald 1, with written accusations against the bishop. Disturbed by this, Pope Agatho 2 summoned a council of fifty bishops and abbots. Andrew 1 and John 10 were present; John 12 kept the records. The council decided that Wilfrid 2's bishopric should be restored to him. Wilfrid 2 then returned to Britain, obtained audience of Ecgfrith 4 and gave him the papal decree. The king, however, showed no respect for the see of Rome, robbed the bishop of his property and handed him over to a certain reeve Osfrith 2, a man notorious for his cruelty. The court itched to do Wilfrid 2 some injury, and Eormenburg 1 went as far as to seize the bishop’s reliquary from him by force and carried it around, relics and all, on her neck or in her carriage. Osfrith 2 put the bishop into a dark prison, but through its darkness a light burst to shine on Wilfrid 2. The reeve was in fear when he heard about it, but he was even more afraid of Ecgfrith 4. Meanwhile his wife [Æbbe 1] grew very ill, first foaming at the mouth and then becoming paralyzed; Osfrith 2 threw himself at the bishop’s feet, and his wife’s health was restored; he then begged the king not to impose on him the guilt of punishing the innocent bishop. Ecgfrith 4 then passed Wilfrid 2 on to a more cruel man called Tydlin 1, who ordered the bishop to be chained – but the chains kept slipping off Wilfrid 2’s hands. The king and his wife continued to ignore these signs and treated the bishop with scorn and hostility, keeping him under arrest. But one night, on a visit from Ecgfrith 4’s aunt, Abbess Æbbe 2, Eormenburg 1 was seized with the Devil. The abbess understood what had happened and prevailed upon her nephew to restore the blessed man’s reliquary. To restore his spouse’s health, the king had to allow Wilfrid 2 to go free. The queen made a good recovery; later, after her husband’s death, she took the habit and was a religious repented of what she had done.
143 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.102 So Wilfrid 2 was driven out from his native soil, and headed for Wessex. There he was taken in by a nobleman called Beorhtwald 3. But Æthelred 2, Beorhtwald 3’s lord and uncle, commanded him not to harbour Wilfrid 2: this was to curry favour with Ecgfrith 4, whose sister Osthryth 1 had married Æthelred 2 to solace him for the murder of his brother Ælfwine 4, cementing peace between husband and brother. Wilfrid 2 had already founded a little monastery in Wessex; but he left his monks [Anonymi 403] behind and fled to the South Saxons. There he won over King Æthelwalh 1, his queen [Eafe 1] and their people through his preaching, baptizing many them and becoming the bishop of Selsey. At this time Cædwalla 1 had been driven from Wessex by a conspiracy of the nobles. He often turned to Wilfrid 2 for advice, and the holy man was quick to give him solace, offering him and his men cavalry and money. Angry and resentful with everyone, Cædwalla 1 killed Æthelwalh 1 when by some ill chance he confronted him. Taking control of Wessex, he put Wilfrid 2 in charge of the kingdom as lord and master; he gave him vast properties in the Isle of Wight, and was happy to confirm his previous possessions by grant of an edict.
144 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1 Ecgfrith 4 fell in the war against the Picts.
145 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.103.1-104.1 Theodore 1 was nearing his death, and feeling remorse for his sin against Wilfrid 2 he summoned both him and Bishop Eorcenwald 1 to London. He confessed his sins before the two bishops, asking Wilfrid 2 to forgive him and to accept his archbishopric in his place. Wilfrid 2 would not agree to take over the archbishopric without a decision in a higher council. Theodore 1 did everything to ensure that Wilfrid 2 receives his bishopric back, sending envoys to Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians, Ecgfrith 4's successor, to his sister Ælfflæd 2 abbess of Whitby, and to Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Aldfrith 1, who had known Wilfrid 2 well in the past, received the archbishop's letter, he granted him the monastery at Hexham and then, on the decision of his council, the bishopric of York and the monastery of Ripon.
146 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.104-108 Under the influence of venomous counsels, King Aldfrith 1 stripped the monastery of Ripon of its possessions, and began to think of setting up a bishopric there, following the plans of the middle years of Archbishop Theodore 1, that had so notoriously caused trouble [between Wilfrid 2 and Ecgfrith 4]. Wilfrid 2 took offence, and went off to his friend Æthelred 2 king of the Mercians. When Seaxwulf 1 bishop of Lichfield died he governed that see. But King Aldfrith 1 and Beorhtwald 6, Theodore 1’s successor, thought up many schemes against Wilfrid 2. They lured him to a council, trying to make him renounce his property and bishopric. Wilfrid 2, that time already 70, decided to appeal to Rome and soon made his entrance to the great city. There he wrote a letter to Pope John 17, outlining the essence of the conflict. The accusers sent by Beorhtwald 6 maintained that Wilfrid 2 had refused to obey the decisions of the archbishop. Wilfrid 2 responded that he would only obey the decisions which did not conflict with canon law. This reply satisfied the Romans, and matter was decided in favour of Wilfrid 2, who, being an old man, wanted to stay in Rome and die on the holy city, but Pope John 17 insisted that he was needed in England. So back he went, bringing letters from the pope to Æthelred 2, who was now a monk. Æthelred 2 had no difficulty in obtaining the fulfilment of their instructions from Cenred 2, son of his brother Wulfhere 1, whom he had appointed as his successor. With equal promptness Archbishop Beorhtwald 6, genuinely desiring peace, hastened to be reconciled with Wilfrid 2. Only Aldfrith 1 king of the Northumbrians persevered in obstinacy, but he had not much longer to live, before his death regretting his disregard for the pope’s letter. The letter, addressed to Æthelred 2, cleared Wilfrid 2 before all those persons of great holiness on record who assailed Wilfrid 2 with such deadly hatred: Theodore 1, Beorhtwald 6, John 17, Bosa 1, and abbess Hild 1.
147 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.1-2 On the death of Aldfrith 1 one Eadwulf 2 planned to usurp the throne. Although he used to be friends with Wilfrid 2, he told the bishop to get out of his territory at once. However, after a couple of months Eadwulf 2 lost both life and kingdom.
148 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.2-6 When Osred 1 son of Aldfrith 1 was given his proper place on the throne, the most loyal and influential of his magnates, Beorhtfrith 3, agreed on the prompting of Archbishop Beorhtwald 6 to hold a council in Northumbria, so that Wilfrid 2's just cause might be brought to a peaceable conclusion at last. At this meeting, in accordance with the pope's [John 17] command, the bishops [from Anonymi 388] were given the choice either to yield Wilfrid 2 his part of the see, or to go to Rome to uphold their case. Anyone who thought fit not to comply would be excommunicate. The bishops made objections as was their wont, but the blessed Ælfflæd 2, sister of Aldfrith 1 and Hild 1's successor as abbess of Whitby, settled the matter by referring to her brother's deathbed request to have Wilfrid 2 restored. Beorhtfrith 3 also suggested that they should obey the pope's commands. The grave bishops hurried to embrace each other, and they preserved lifelong concord. Wilfrid 2 was given back control of two monasteries, Ripon and Hexham.
149 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.6 After four years of peace following his restoration as bishop, Wilfrid 2 was struck down, as the archangel Michael had predicted, by a severe illness as one in Meaux, so sorely that he lost speech and consciousness. but when his people prayed God that he might at least be granted his speech back, in order to pronounce on the division of his property, he made a fine recovery, so that he was at once able to talk and, after some days, to visit all his estates with his old energy.
150 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.7-9 Frequent illness made Wilfrid 2 well aware of his nearing death, he appointed heads for all the houses, and divided his treasure into four parts. A quarter, and that the finest, was to be given to the church on Rome. Another quarter he gave to the poor, the third to the heads of the monasteries. The fourth quarter went to those who had in person shared his troubles but had not yet received lands to support them. So, taking leave of the monks of Ripon, always his special favourites, and the rest of the Northumbrians, he set out to speak with Ceolred 1 king of the Mercians, who had invited him, and also to see to the peaceful progress of his monasteries, so many of which he had with the king's blessing founded in that district. There he went round every property making improvements. But he was shaken by the onset of illness at Oundle and realized his end was near.
151 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.9-11 Wilfrid 2 fell ill during visiting his monastery at Oundle and died in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the forty-sixth of his bishopric. His body was carried to Ripon and buried with great reverence. When after many years the monastery of Ripon was destroyed, Wilfrid 2 was taken to Canterbury, where he is regarded as among the greatest and receives pre-eminent honour.
152 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.109.10-11 At the hour of Wilfrid 2's passing, sweet birdsong and the beating of wings flying up to heaven was heard, though nothing was seen; the same happened during his burial, which was understood as the sound of a troop of angels. Water from the washing of the sheet on which the body had lain served to restore the strength of Anonymous 146's limbs. Fire would not burn the house in which Wilfrid 2 had died.
153 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.110.3 In Beverly, John 18 performs the following miracle: wild bulls, brought to the churchyard where he lies buried, become completely tame.
154 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.111 Wilfrid 4 outlived Bede 1, who remarks that Wilfrid 4 was bishop of York in the year he died.
155 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.111 There is a feud between York and Canterbury regarding which of the two has the body of Wilfrid 2: those of Canterbury claim that they possess Wilfrid 2 senior, while those of York contend that it was the younger Wilfrid 4 who was transferred to Canterbury by Archbishop Oda 1.
156 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.112.3 [Ecgberht 7] was buried with his brother [Eadberht 11] in the same porticus at York, after thirty-six years as bishop.
157 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.113.2 Eanbald 2 joined forces with Æthelheard 13 archbishop of Canterbury to thwart the attack that Offa 7 king of the Mercians had made on the church of Canterbury. This is what Alcuin 1 appears to be talking about in a letter to the archbishop.
158 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.114 Wulfstan 14 made Edmund 14 justifiably angry by his obstinate policies; for he favoured the Danes when they were in revolt against the king, and so provoked that placid and kindly soul that he threw him into prison. But he soon repented of what he had done, and out of respect for his clerical status let him go scot-free.
159 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.2-8 Oswald 8 returned to England from Fleury shocked by the news that his uncle Oda 1 was dying. By the time he landed at Dover, Oda 1 had already died. From there Oswald 8 travelled to Oscytel 5 archbishop of York, a near relation of his, which whom he stayed for several years. Meanwhile Dunstan 1 demitted the sees of Worcester and London, and transferred to Canterbury. Well aware of Oswald 8's holiness and practical abilities, he prevailed on the king [Edgar 11] to give him the see of Worcester. The episcopal see was dedicated to St Peter. Oswald 8 built a second church in the same precinct in the name of the Mother of God, moved monks there, and lived happily with them. On Dunstan 1's advice the king gave Oswald 8 the vacant see of York, but he would not let him give up the see of Worcester. Oswald 8 also invited to England men of letters, such as Abbo 1, monk of Fleury, who at the instance of Archbishop Dunstan 1 embellished literature with a Passion of Edmund 6 the Martyr. Oswald 8 over many years proved himself up to holding both sees, though he used to visit Worcester more often. He outlived Dunstan 1 and Æthelwold 1, reproducing the authority of the former, the efficiency of the latter, and the holiness of both.
160 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.9-10 The day before Oswald 8 died, he stood at the doors of the church at Worcester and wept for joy, for some time looking upwards. Next day, when after the customary washing of the feet of the poor he was singing the hymn 'Glory be to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit', he was robbed of his life's breath in mid-genuflexion. He was buried in the church of the Blessed Mary, but after twelve years was raised from the earth after the showing of signs from heaven.
161 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.11 Ealdwulf 18 lies at Worcester.
162 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.12 It was on Ælfric 105's advice that Harthacnut 1 had the body of his brother Harold 5 dug up, and the head cut off and flung into the Thames. He also instigated Harthacnut 1 to burn down the city of Worcester and plunder the inhabitants, because of their obstinacy in standing up to the king's tax-gatherers.
163 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.13-17 Making use of his money and the innocent nature of King Edward 15, Ealdred 37 took on the archbishopric of York without giving up Worcester. After arranging matters with the King, he proceeded to Rome with Giso 1 of Wells and Walter 2 of Hereford, together with Tosti 2, earl of the Northumbrians. Pope Nicholas 2 gave the earl a gracious welcome, and made him sit at his side at a synod he had convoked against simony. Ealdred 37 was found guilty of simony and stripped of his honours. On their way back the English party was attacked by robbers, lost all their property and fled to Rome. Tosti 2 urged Nicholas 2 either to use his authority and return their property, or to restore pallium to Ealdred 37. The pope did the latter but he laid down that Worcester should have its own bishop.
164 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.18-20 William 1 refused to be blessed by Stigand 1 as king. Ealdred 37 was induced to conduct the consecration, but he made the king first to take an oath before the whole people to conduct himself with moderation towards his subjects, and treat English and French even-handedly. So as long as William 1 did so, Ealdred 37 loved his as his son; but when the king started to demand an inappropriate sum by way of tax from the people of the province, the bishop approached him through envoys. William 1 sent them away with a dusty answer, and Ealdred 37 cursed William 1. The king had to send to win the bishop over, but Ealdred 37 fell ill and died before the messengers arrived.
165 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.20 Ealdred 37 died from sickness at heart.
166 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.115.21 Ealdred 37's independence of mind showed up splendidly in one remark: Urse 1, who had been made sheriff of Worcester by William 1, built a castle almost down the monks' throats. When the archbishop saw Urse 1, he confronted him with: 'Hattest þu Urs, haue þu Godes kurs', adding that he or his heirs would not hold of the lands of St Mary for long. Not many years later his son Roger 2 was driven away from his lands.
167 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.116.1 Ealdred 37 now dead and in his grave at York.
168 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.116.2 Recently at Whitby have been found and elevated the bodies of holy men, Bishop Trumwine 1, King Oswiu 1, and his daughter Ælfflæd 2, who ruled the monastery after Hild 1, together with the monk [Cædmon 1] who, according to Bede 1, received the gift of song from God.
169 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.117.1 Hexham was a contributor to the royal fisc when Wilfrid 2 took it from Queen Æthelthryth 2 in exchange for other estates. Here he constructed buildings of remarkable polish, with menacing high walls and ringed around by various winding ways, [joined] by spiral staircases. Much was the product of his own judgement, but he also learned from stonemasons who had been lured from Rome by hope of generous reward.
170 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.117.4 Alcuin 1 wrote a letter to Æthelberht 10 and his congregation.
171 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.126.2 Eadberht 3 was so exceptionally holy that he obtained the privilege of being buried in the tomb sanctified for eleven years by the immaculate body of his sainted predecessor [Cuthbert 1]. He himself foretold his imminent death and burial, when the sacred garments were brought to him, that had for so many years of interment escaped the stain of putrefaction.
172 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.127-8 Alcuin 1 in his letters to bishop Hygebald 3 and king Æthelred 7 alluded to the devastation of Lindisfarne by the Danes.
173 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.129 Because of the attacks of the Danes it was decided that the bodies of the saints should be removed to the mainland from Lindisfarne. The body of St Cuthbert 1 was nearly taken to Ireland, but a strong wind brought the ship back. So it was interred with due honour at Ubbenford [Norham], on the river Tweed. There it lay for many years, until the arrival of King Æthelred 7 on the scene, though Cuthbert 1 had not in the interval been inactive in helping his countrymen, but had wandered all over England working miracles.
174 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.130.1-4 King Alfred 8 had been reduced by the attacks of the barbarians to such straits that he had to lurk ignominiously on a tiny island Athelney. There St Cuthbert 1 appeared before him in his sleep (caused by sickness at heart) and promised that within a short time Alfred 8 would be put back on his throne in glory.
175 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.130.6-7 On the death of Bishop Ealdhun 6 the clerics discussed the choice of their future ruler, and Edmund 26 said in his usual joking manner: 'Take me and make me bishop'. They all, as if God had inspired them, snatched the words out of his mouth. Aghast and repenting what he had said, he was made monk; then they asked Cnut 3 [other manuscript says Æthelred 32, which is wrong], who was king at that time, to make him bishop. Under Edmund 26's rule the church's prosperity was much advanced. The holy body [of Cuthbert 1] was taken to Durham.
176 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.131 Æthelwine 40 was accused of rebellion under William 1, on the grounds that he had violated the king's peace by taking to piracy. He was removed to Westminster for lifelong exile, where he won himself a reputation for sanctity by voluntary fasting and abundant tears.
177 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.132 William 15 was both earl and bishop of the province [of Northumbria]. He put his kinsman Gilbert 1 in charge of his external affairs, and a cleric, Leobwine 1, of his domestic. They both acted energetically in their posts, though they showed no restraint. This Leobwine 1 brought about, through Gilbert 1, the killing of Ligwulf 1, the devout servant of St Cuthbert 1, so loved by him that the saint would stand by him in person while he was awake and tell him to carry out his will. Leobwine 1's motive was envy; he felt that Ligwulf 1 had a bigger share in the bishop's affections because he was so knowledgeable and fair in judgement. Under the impact of these news, William 15 met the rage of the relatives [Anonymi 10050] with the offer of a legal case, asserting forcibly that Leobwine 1 was his murderer and his people's murderer. When the case came up, the family in their fury would not listen to reason, but put the blame on the bishop, saying that they had seen both murderers making themselves at home in his court after Ligwulf 1's death. Shouting and angry scenes ensued, and when Gilbert 1 chose to go out of the church, where he had been seated with the bishop, to try to purchase his master's life at the risk of his own, he was ruthlessly killed. The bishop was too sent to his death as he stood at the doors displaying the olive branch of peace. Leobwine 1, who had supplied the tinder for the calamity, shot out of the church half-charred, for he insisted on staying inside the church until it was on fire, only to be received on a thousand sword points. The even had been foretold by Queen Eadgyth 3, widow of King Edward 15. Seeing William 15 in Winchester being led to his consecration, tall, white-haired, and rosy of cheek, she said: 'Here we have a pretty martyr'. Her prophecy rested on an inference from the violent character of the Northumbrians. Such was the end of William 15, a modest and educated man. He imposed a clerical rule on the canons, who had been used to serving as monks, having always had a monk as bishop.
178 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iii.134.4-5 In Durham the elevation of holy bodies took place: the body of St Cuthbert 1 was found incorrupt; all the clothes shone as though new. On the breast was a chalice, the upper part of gold, the lower of onyx. The head of Oswald 1 king and martyr was found between the arms. The bones of the saints Bede 1 and King Ceolwulf 3, who had been monk and saint at Lindisfarne, were discovered in separate linen bags.
179 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.Prologue The kingdom of Mercia was always large, and so was divided into several episcopal sees. The high spirit of King Offa 7, in particular, was responsible for this; and he set up the archbishopric in Lichfield, not because the place was important but because of the pleasantness of this central district.
180 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.138.1-3 One night, as Wulfstan 55 was praying at the altar, the Evil One started to wrestle with him. The braver for his very fear, Wulfstan 55 turned on the attacker and squeezed him tight in his arms. He did this for a second and a third time. By the third he was out of breath, but God in His mercy came to his aid, and drove off the crazy monster. As it faded into thin air, Wulfstan 55 realized it was the Devil; he had previously thought he recognized him as one of the servants [Anonymous 10081], but actually the Devil had taken on the man's appearance. Whenever Wulfstan 55 happened to see the man subsequently, a shiver at once ran over him and he became white as a sheet. In every other circumstance Wulfstan 55 was quite free of fear, and went so far as to claim that he did not know the meaning of the word. He never, for example, got off his horse just because a bridge was broken, and strode without a qualm along the narrowest planks of high scaffolding.
181 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.139.1-2 Ealdred 37 consecrated Wulfstan 55 bishop of Worcester.
182 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.139.3-4 Wulfstan 55 was abstemious in food and drink, although in his hall there was, in the English manner, drinking to all hours after dinner. Not that he flouted Norman customs either: he took around with him an array of knights, whose yearly stipend and daily food were a tremendous drain on his resources.
183 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.141.1 A priest called Æthelmær 40 came to Wulfstan 55, drawn by reports of his devoutness.
184 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.142 A man [Anonymous 10082] refused to make peace with his enemy and was commended by Wulfstan 55 to the Devil and then healed by the same three times; on the third the man agreed to be reconciled.
185 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.143 Lanfranc 1 accused Wulfstan 55 of illiteracy, while Thomas 1 the archbishop of York claimed that by ancient right he should be subject to him. In council Wulfstan 55 was told to answer both charges, and he left the chamber in order to give more careful thought to the presentation of his reply. But instead he summoned his monks to sing Nones. During the service Wulfstan 55 saw a vision of the blessed archbishops Dunstan 1 and Oswald 1. As the result of the council Wulfstan 55 was completely cleared, and even recovered every of the remaining vills of the bishopric which Archbishop Ealdred 37 had kept under his thumb; for Archbishop Lanfranc 1 was stout in his support, no doubt wishing to put pressure on a rival to his primacy and power [i. e. Thomas 2].
186 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.145 Monk Ealdwine 7, who lived a life of a hermit in the wild woods of the Great Malvern, decided to go to Jerusalem and went to Wulfstan 55 for advice first. The bishop dissuaded him saying that God would work through Ealdwine 7 in that place. And indeed, soon he was joined by thirty companions, one by one; if anything was lacking, faith supplied it.
187 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.146 Sæwulf 1, a merchant, used to come to Wulfstan 55 every year for confession. Once after absolution the bishop told him he should become a monk to avoid repeating sins he had just confessed. Sæwulf 1 retorted that he could not become a monk; then the bishop foretold that he would anyway, whether he liked it or not. Later, broken by age, Sæwulf 1 indeed become a monk in our monastery [presumably of Malmesbury] at the prompting of illness.
188 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.147 Wulfstan 55 foretold that his favourite pupil Nicholas 3 would go completely bald after his death. In the same week that Wulfstan 55 bade farewell to his life, all Nicholas 3's hair disappeared.
189 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.148.1-3 On hearing about the death of his only sister [Anonymous 10083], Wulfstan 55 said: 'Now the plough has reached by furrow, and brother will follow sister within a few days'. He went ill with fever half a year before he died, and underwent many a trial to enter the life of heaven. Rather than asking for prayers he consoled his people, promising to pray for them.
190 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.148.4-5 The corpse of Wulfstan 55 lay on a bier before the altar, decked in the episcopal robes, without any covering. Waves of people poured in, made their offerings, reverenced the body, and left grieving. On the fourth day the body was buried by Robert 15 bishop of Hereford, long bound to him in holy friendship. It lies between two pyramids, under a beautiful stone arch.
191 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3 In Gloucester at the time of King Alfred 8 his daughter Æthelflæd 4 and her husband Æthelred 1 had built a well-provisioned monastery on which no expense was spared; and they had transferred there from Bardney the remains of King Oswald 1, all Mercia being under their sway.
192 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.156.1-3 The monastery of Winchcombe was built by Cenwulf 3 king of the Mercians, a piece of munificence on a scale inconceivable in our own times. He had the church dedicated by thirteen bishops, foremost among them Wulfred 6 archbishop of Canterbury. There, during the formalities of the dedication, he freed at the altar the king of Kent [Eadberht 18], whom he had lately made captive by right of war. There too he gave a pound of silver to all landless men, a mancus of gold to priests, a shilling to monks, and much besides to the whole people. This monastery was hardly more than a name in King Edgar 11's time, but thanks to Archbishop Oswald 8 in enjoyed some recovery. Oswald 8 appointed as abbot Germann 4, whom he had brought with him from Fleury, a fine aide in religious matters and in the restoration of the church. At Winchcombe rests Cenwulf 3, with his son Cynehelm 1.
193 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.156.3-4 At the age of seven Cynehelm 1 had been left by his father Cenwulf 3 to be brought up by his sister Cwenthryth 1. In her greed, she entertained the illusory hope of the throne, and assigned the job of eliminating her little brother to the retainer who looked after him [Anonymous 10084]. He took the innocent child off on the pretence of a hunt, killed him, and hid him in some bushes. A crime so well concealed in England became, by the will of God, public knowledge in Rome through a piece of parchment with the story written out in English, carried by a dove and laid on the altar of St Peter's. After it was interpreted by an Englishman [Anonymous 10085], a letter was sent telling English kings of an English martyr. So in the presence of a great company the child's body was raised up and brought to Winchcombe, accompanied by sonorous chanting of the clerics. The murderess that time was chanting the psalm 'God my praise', going through it backwards to undermine the pleasure of the singers. But then by God's power the witch's eyes were torn out from her hollow sockets.
194 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.160.1-2 Evesham was the foundation of Bishop Ecgwine 1. There had been a little church there from olden days, possibly the work of the British. There Ecgwine 1 spent many watchful nights in solitude, and was found worthy to enjoy the consolation of seeing the Mother of God and speaking with her. She told him explicitly and unambiguously to found her a monastery at that place, a pleasure for her, though a toil for him.
195 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.160.1-4 Bede 1 is for some reasons silent on Ecgwine 1, particularly as he went to Rome with Cenred 2 king of the Mercians and Offa 5 king of the East Angles, a visit that our historian did speak of. If we are to believe the old story, Ecgwine 1 once, knowing himself guilty of sins in his youth, shackled his feet and threw the keys into the river, proclaiming to all and sundry that he would only feel free of his sins when the shackles were unlocked, either by a miracle or with the actual keys. He went to Rome in this state, and came back unscathed. But while he was crossing the strait between Gaul and England, a monster of a fish leapt into the ship carrying the bishop and was trapped there thanks to the valiant efforts of the sailors. They gutted it, and found in its liver a key, which when applied to the lock of the fetters freed the saint, greatly relieving his conscience.
196 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.161.1 Wigstan 8 was killed by his kinsman Beorhtfrith 13.
197 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.161.2 Wigstan 8's body was found in the column of light; in revealed the crime in its deep cavern, and proved the wickedness of the murder. His remains, raised by his attentive relatives, were placed at Repton, a monastery famous in those days, though now it is a vill of the earl of Chester. Its glory decayed with the years, and now he lies in Evesham.
198 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.162 At Pershore a monastery was founded and completed in the time of King Edgar 11 by Æthelweard 56 dux of Dorset, no miser but a man of great generosity. But it too decayed and was reduced by more than a half. Part of it was taken over by the greed of the rich, part buried in oblivion; but a sizeable portion was transferred to Westminster by Kings Edward 15 and William 1. Here are kept some of St Eadburg 4's bones, and they are revered with fervent devotion, because here specially the glory of her miracles lives on.
199 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.163.3 Cuthbert 6 buried the remains of six people in a tomb, built with wondrous beauty: bishops Wealhstod 2, Torhthere 1, and Tyrhtel 1; King Milfrith 1 and his wife Cwenburg 1, and Osfrith 6 son of Oshelm 2.
200 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.163.4 In the time of King Edward 15, Gruffudd 1 king of the Welsh robbed Leofgar 4 of his see and his life, burning the city [of Hereford].
201 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.170.1-2 The episcopal see [of Worcester] is distinguished by the relics of the king and martyr Æthelberht 11, who was born and become king among the East Angles. He was killed, for no just cause, by Offa 7 king of the Mercians, to strengthen and advance his own kingdom, a wicked piece of plotting against the wooer of his own daughter [Æthelswith 2]. On his death, Offa 7 straightaway invaded his eastern realm, and he was to pass on the tradition of such invasions to his successors. But the unprovoked death of Æthelberht 11 is believed to have been avenged by Offa 7's own death soon afterwards and the brevity of his son's [Ecgfrith 7] reign.
202 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.170.3 The blessed Dunstan 1, into whom literary knowledge and the grace of God so bountifully poured, allowed Cynehelm 1, Æthelberht 11 and Wigstan 8 to be adored as martyrs.
203 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.171.1 Mildburg 1 lived her life and is now buried in a very ancient nunnery of Wenlock.
204 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.172.5-9 Wærburg 4 had land in the country beyond the walls of Chester whose crops were being preyed upon by wild geese. The bailiff in charge [Anonymous 10086] did all he could to drive them away, but with little success. So, one day, when he was in attendance on his mistress, he put in a complaint about the matter. 'Go,' she said, 'and shut them all up indoors.' When he realized she was not joking, he went back to the crops and laid down the law in a loud voice: they must follow him as his lady commanded. They formed a flock, lowered their necks, trooped after their foe, and were all penned up. The bailiff took the opportunity to have one of them for supper. At dawn came the virgin. She reproached the birds for stealing things that did not belong to them, and told them to be gone. But the birds, sensing that not all of them are present, refused to make move. God inspired her to realize that the birds were not making all this fuss for nothing, so she closely questioned the bailiff and discovered the theft. She told him to assemble the goose's bones and bring them to her. At a healing gesture of her hand, skin and flesh immediately formed on the bones, and the skin began to sprout feathers; then the bird came to life and after a preliminary jump launched itself into the sky. Although Wærburg 4 is never slow to respond to anyone's petitions, she is particularly close at hand to help women and children who pray to her.
205 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.178.1-4 Frithuswith 1 rejected the attentions of a king [Anonymous 10088], for she vowed her virginity to Christ. Her suitor was set on marriage, and, after wasting prayers and blandishments on the empty air, he resolved to use force. Learning this, Frithuswith 1 took refuge in a forest. But she could not remain hidden from her admirer, and he was not so indolent as to fail to go in pursuit of the fugitive. So yet again the girl took to obscure paths and came at dead of night into Oxford. Her attentive lover arrived there in the morning, and the girl, now with no hope to escape and in any case too tired to go on, prayed to God to help her and punish her lover. He was just coming up to the city gates with his company when bolt from heaven blinded him. He realized he was at fault for his obstinate pursuit, sent messengers to ask Frithuswith 1's forgiveness, and recovered his sight as quickly as he had lost it. It was at Oxford that his woman founded a monastery, and, when her time came, was summoned to death by her Bridegroom. Under King Æthelred 32 some Danes who had been condemned to death took refuge in the monastery, and were burned up, together with the buildings. But the king soon repented; he had the shrine cleansed, the monastery restored, old lands returned, and new estates added.
206 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.179.1-2 Bede 1 and Venantius praised St Alban's martyrdom. His most sacred body, which had long lain in the dust of the earth, King Offa 7 placed in a shrine and displayed, honouring it with a beautifully constructed church and a large body of monks. there is no doubt that Offa 7 received a hint in a dream while he was at bath, and that when he travelled to the spot and was in the vicinity, he was inspired by the sign given by a shaft of light like a huge torch that came down over the place of burial day and night.
207 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.180.1 Cenwulf 6 ringed Peterborough with a wall, and the place began to be called Borough because it resembled a city.
208 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.180.1 St Æthelwold 1 built a monastery at Peterborough, well endowed with money and estates.
209 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.180.1 Most excellent virgins Cyneswith 1 and Cynethryth 7 are buried at Peterborough.
210 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.180.2 Cyneswith 1 converted her betrothed, Offa 3, to celibacy and monastic life. On her advice he went off, accompanied by Cenred 2 king of the Mercians and Ecgwine 1 bishop of Hwicce, to Rome. There he was tonsured for a monk, and said goodbye to the world for his lifetime.
211 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.180.3 Oswald 1's arm is said to be kept at Peterborough, with sinews, skin, and flesh intact.
212 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.181.1 The abbey of Ramsey was built by St Oswald 8 archbishop of York, with the collaboration of one Æthelwine 2, comes of East Angles.
213 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.181.2 Felix 2, first bishop of the East Angles, was brought to Ramsey from Soham at the instance of Æthelwine 2.
214 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.181.2, 4 Two brothers Æthelred 42-Æthelberht 23 lie in Ramsey, transferred there by Æthelwine 2.
215 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.181.2-4 Ecgberht 3, king of Kent, was afraid that Æthelred 42 and Æthelberht 23, sons of his uncle were growing up in hopes of the throne, and after having them about him for a while he banished them from the court circle, grudging them sight of him. His sinister servant called Thunor 1 deceived them by his constant kisses and stabbed them one day while in his actual embrace. He buried his victims in a deep pit below the king's seat, to make sure no one thought the royal children should be sought for there. But God brought a terrifying miracle upon the king, making him catch fire as he sat over the grave. The locals, much concerned, dug out the rubble that had been piled on the bodies and built a church at the sight of their martyrdom. The king himself repented of the murder, and handed over to the boys' sister [Æbbe 3?] a great part of the Isle of Thanet on which to build a monastery where prayers could be said for killer and the killed. Thunor 1 put an evil construction on this gift; but a chasm suddenly appeared in the ground and he was swallowed up, entering hell alive and with open eyes.
216 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.4 Waltheof 2, a well-born earl was arrested by King William 1 on suspicion of conspiring against him, and long kept in prison. Finally he was beheaded and buried at Crowland.
217 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.182.6 Ingulf 2, influenced by miracles, handled the noble and quite incorrupt body of Waltheof 2; the head had been stuck back on the trunk, and only a red line witnessed to his violent end. So the prior did not scruple to call him 'saint' whenever Waltheof 2 was spoken of.
218 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.183.2 Æthelthryth 2 was the first to found a house for nuns at Ely.
219 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.183.6-7 Æthelwold 1 drove the clerics out [of the Ely church] and brought in monks instead. He bestowed many estates of remarkable size on Ely, purchasing them all from his own resources.
220 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.184.1 Beorhtnoth 19, appointed abbot by Æthelwold 1, moved to the monastery of Ely the body of St Wihtburg 1, perfectly preserved.
221 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.186.4 Æthelwold 1 ordered the uprooting of the brambles and the hoeing out of the thorns, when, right at the start of his bishopric, he thought of utterly rejecting the world and living a hermit's life. He used to pass the forty days of Lent there alone, in a church he had personally built in the wilds. This is why he did not amass as much land there as elsewhere, but just enough for himself and twelve monks.
222 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.186.7 On either bank of the Wear, a river famous among the Northumbrians, Biscop 2 built monasteries, one called after Peter, one after Paul, but linked by ties of affection and discipline.
223 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.186.9 Biscop 2 spent most of his life abroad on business. He therefore gladly yielded control of St Augustine's Canterbury to Hadrian 2 on his arrival, although King Ecgberht 3 had appointed him abbot there. Biscop 2 did so out of respect for his superior, Archbishop Theodore 1.
224 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.186.11 Æthelwold 1 bought Benedict Biscop 2's body for a high price and conveyed to Thorney.
225 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.188.3 Ine 1 paid a visit to Rome.
226 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.189.2 Aldhelm 3 took the habit of a religious in the monastery of Malmesbury.
227 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.189.5, 199 Leuthhere 2 granted the abbey of Malmesbury to Aldhelm 3.
228 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.190.3 Despite his great learning, Aldhelm 3 did not neglect the poetry of his native tongue. On one has ever rivalled him in the ability to write poetry in English, to compose songs, and to recite or sing them as occasion demanded. Alfred 8 relates that Aldhelm 3 was the author of a popular song still current today.
229 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.192 When Wilfrid 2 was exiled, Aldhelm 3 wrote letters in his defence.
230 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.197 Aldhelm 3 re-built the monastery at Malmesbury
231 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.198.1 Aldhelm 3 built a monastery by the river Frome, as one can read in the privilege granted by Pope Sergius 1.
232 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.198.1 It is a popular view that Aldhelm 3 fitted out a monastery at Bradford.
233 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.200.2-201 Cenfrith 2 gave to Abbot Aldhelm 3 ten hides in Wootton.
234 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.203-204 Beorhtwald 4 gave Aldhelm 3 and the monastery of Malmesbury a gift of land to the east of the river Thames, near the ford called Somerford, fourteen hides.
235 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.205-8 Cædwalla 1, after his baptism, gave to Aldhelm 3 a wood called Kemble, to the east of the boundary set by the road, up to the river Thames, a place near another wood called Bradon [Purton], and a place at the confluence of the rivers Avon and Wyliye, for brothers to fish. Part of these lands were exchanged in the same year for others of one .
236 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.209.2 Ine 1 founded the monastery of Glastonbury on Aldhelm 3's advice.
237 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.209.2-210 Ine 1 granted the venerable Abbot Aldhelm 3 lands to enlarge the monastery Meldumesburg[Malmesbury]: five hides in Garsdon, twenty where the stream Gauze Brook rises, and in another place by the same stream ten; and by the brook called Rodbourne ten.
238 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.213.1-4 Aldhelm 3 voluntary fed his mind by starving his body; he never left the monastery without a compelling cause; to tame the rebellious flesh, he would plunge himself in a spring close to his house, right up to his shoulders, spending there nights in the freezing winter cold. He spent sleepless nights worshiping God; he did avoid feminine society, but rather had some woman by him, with his mind elsewhere, intent on singing the Psalter.
239 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.215.2 The Northumbrians planned a revolt, only for King Centwine 1 to put them down with such a thorough slaughter that they could entertain hope no longer.
240 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.215 Aldhelm 3 spent much time and energy preaching to the Britons and refuting their adherence to the false Easter; he even wrote a book for them which they then lost.
241 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.216 In the monastery at Malmesbury, centred on St Peter's church, Aldhelm 3 built two more churches, in honour of Mary Mother of God, and of St Michael. When the first one had its roof timbers fastened, one turned out too short. Aldhelm 3, moving his lips in prayer and making a gentle gesture with his arm, caused the short beam to become as long as the others.
242 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.217.3-6 Aldhelm 3 built a church in Dorset, near Wareham and Corfe Castle. It is now roofless and open to the sky, but miraculously no drop of rain ever falls inside of it.
243 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.217-222 On consultations with Ine 1 and Æthelred 2, Aldhelm 3 resolved to go to Rome to win privileges from the pope Sergius 1 for his monasteries, which he founded thanks to the generosity of Leuthhere 2. During his stay in Rome, Aldhelm 3 won the pontiff's heart by his devotion and by two miracles: a chasuble he dropped having celebrated a mass hung on a sunbeam; he also cleared the pope from accusations of fathering a nun's son by making the infant proclaim miraculously that Sergius 1 was innocent. The pope granted the privileges Aldhelm 3 was asking for, writing a letter. Aldhelm 3 returned safely to England with rich gifts, particularly a marble altar. The camel carrying it collapsed under its weight, and the altar broke in two; but Aldhelm 3's prayers restored both the piece to its former entity and the animal to its strength. In England Aldhelm 3 was welcomed back by Ine 1 and Æthelred 2; the latter was given many gifts from the pope, but the altar Aldhelm 3 gave to the former. Ine 1 placed it in his town called Bruton.
244 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.223 When Hædde 2 bishop of Wessex died, there was much joy in heaven and much grief on earth. His see was divided: Daniel 1 was placed over Winchester; Sherborne fell to Aldhelm 3. He objected as long as he could, but was finally escorted to archbishop Beorhtwald 6, his old friend, for consecration.
245 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.224 Once Aldhelm 3 was in Dover, looking at goods brought from the coast of Gaul to England. He noticed a book containing the complete text of the Old and New Testaments, but the sailors refused to sell it to him for the price he offered and abused him verbally. Although Aldhelm 3 was not offended, God took revenge and brought out a terrible storm, so that the sailors' boat was about to be swallowed by the sea. Aldhelm 3 pacified the storm, and was offered the book as a free gift; he, however, paid for it a sum nicely judged so that he neither took advantage of paupers nor rejected the prayers of suppliants.
246 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.225 Aldhelm 3 grants the monasteries of Malmesbury, Frome, and Bradford the right to free election of their abbots. The grant was confirmed twice, in the nunnery of Wimborne, ruled by Cuthburg 3, and in the holy synod by the river Nadder.
247 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.226 Ine 1, acting on the counsel and ruling of bishop Aldhelm 3, grants liberty to the churches and confers privilege on the monasteries so that they may serve God alone.
248 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.228 Aldhelm 3 died at a village in Somerset called Doulting, which he had once given to the monks of Glastonbury. The building where he died was a wooden church, to which he had himself carried as he was breathing his last. Later the church was rebuilt in stone. During its consecration a blind widow [Anonymous 10089] received sight. In this church there is a stone on which the saint sat when he was dying; many sick people are known to have been cured by means of water from its washing.
249 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.229-230.2 Ecgwine 1 saw a vision from heaven telling him of the death of his friend [Aldhelm 3]. Hurried to Doulting with all speed. He made arrangements for the body to be taken to Malmesbury. Famous indeed was that funeral procession: every seven miles stone crosses were put up; many victims of chronic illness have brought their faith to these crosses and regained their health.
250 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.230.4 Once, when Aldhelm 3 was preaching in a village, he happened to plant his trusty ash staff in the ground. During the sermon it miraculously grew to an astonishing size, taking on living sap, a covering of bark, and a lovely canopy of leaves. Later from the spring of the first tree sprouted many ashes.
251 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.231.1 Aldhelm 3 was interred in the church of St Michael, where the saint long ago made provision for his burial.
252 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.231.2-3 Aldhelm 3 died in the year of our Lord 709, eighteen years before Ine 1 and twenty-five before Bede 1, in the thirty-fourth year since he was made abbot by Leuthhere 2 and the fifth since Beorhtwald 6 made him bishop. As for his age, no written source has reckoned it. In the same year Wilfrid 2 and Cenred 2 died.
253 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.232.3-233 Cuthred 7, king of the Gewisse, to Aldhelm, abbot ( reference either to the already deceased Aldhelm 3, or to Aldhelm 5), and Malmesbury 1 Abbey, with the consent of bishop Daniel 1; grant of 10 hides (mansiones) at Wootton Bassett, Wilts.
254 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.234 Cynewulf 4, king, to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; grant of 30 hides (manentes) at Moredon and Rodbourne, Wilts.
255 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.235.1 Offa 7 defeated Cynewulf 4 in a battle near the village of Besington and took over most of the West Saxon territories.
256 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.235.1 Offa 7 snatched two vills belonging to Malmesbury 1: Tetbury, given to it by Æthelred 2, and Purton, gift of Cædwalla 1. The first Offa 7 gave to [Wærmund 5] the bishop of Worcester.
257 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.235.2-5 Ecgfrith 7, king of the Mercians, to Cuthbert 11, abbot, and the brethren of Malmesbury 1 Abbey; restitution of 35 hides (manentes) at Purton, Wilts., previously seized by King Offa 7, in return for 2000 silver solidi.
258 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.236 Æthelwulf 1 made a shrine to hold the bones of St Aldhelm 3, with solid silver figures chased on the front part, while at the back he represented in raised metal work his miracles. The king also added a crystal filial to the shrine, and one may read his name on it in letters of gold.
259 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.237.1-3 Æthelwulf 1, king of the West Saxons, to the Church; general grant of land and privileges, with list of lands assigned to Malmesbury 1 Abbey, namely at 35 hides at Purton, 15 at Lacock, 5 at Sutton Benger, 5 at Gauze Brook, 10 at Crudwell, Wilts.; 10 at Kemble, Gloucs.; and 2 at Dauntsey, Wilts.
260 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.237.4 Æthelwulf 1 naming these lands as belonging to Malmesbury 1: Ellendune, 30 hides; Elmhamstede, 15; Wootton, 10; Charlton, 20; Tockenham, 5; Minety, 5; Rodbourne, 10.
261 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.238 Æthelwulf 1, king of the West Saxons, to St Peter and the familia of Malmesbury 1; grant of 5 hides (mansiones) at Tockenham, Wilts.
262 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.239 Æthelwulf 1, king of the West Saxons, Kent, and of all the southern people of the English, to Malmesbury 1 Abbey; grant of 5 hides (mansiunculae) at Minety, Wilts.
263 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.240.7-8 John 31 was invited to England by Alfred 8. He was the teacher of the king, and settled at Malmesbury, only to die some years later, run through by the styli of the boys he was teaching.
264 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.241 Alfred 8, king of the Anglo-Saxons, with the consent of the familia of the church of Malmesbury 1, to Dudig 1, his faithful friend; lease, for four lives, of 4 hides at Chelworth, with reversion to the church of Malmesbury after the passing of three heirs.
265 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.242-244 With the consent of Edward 2, the king of the Anglo-Saxons, Ordlaf 1 to the familia of the church of Malmesbury 1; grant of 4 hides (manentes) at Chelworth, which Ordlaf 1 purchased from the respected Dudig 1, in exchange for 5 hides at Mannington, For this grant Ordlaf 1 was rewarded with a noble tomb and lasting memory in Malmesbury.
266 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.245 King Edward 2 to the familia of the church of Malmesbury 1; grant of 10 hides at Hankerton, in exchange for 10 hides at Farmborough.
267 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.246.2 Æthelstan 18 saw to it that Æthelwine 13 and Ælfwine 9, the sons of his uncle Æthelweard 15 and particular favourites of his, who had been lost in the war against Olaf 3, were brought to Malmesbury and buried right and left of the altar in the church of the Holy Mother of God.
268 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.246.4 Æthelstan 18 died at Gloucester. He was carried to Malmesbury, to be buried there in the tower beneath the altar of St Mary.
269 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.247 Æthelstan 18 purchased many relics of numerous saints and brought them to Malmesbury.
270 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.249 Radbod 2 sends the king relics of St Senator, St Paternus and St Scubilo. He implies that both Æthelstan 18 and his father Edward 2 were confratres in St Samson's, Dol. The letter was found in the archive at the monastery at Milton, which Æthelstan 18 built from its foundations, and where he placed the relics of St Samson.
271 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.250 King Æthelstan 18 to the familia and church of Malmesbury 1, for the souls of his cousins Æthelwine 13 and Ælfwine 9; grant of 10 hides at Wootton, 60 at Bremhill, 5 at Norton, 5 at Somerford, and 5 at Ewen,, forfeited by Alfred 33 for conspiracy.
272 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.250.5-6 After the death of Edward 2 Alfred 33 conspired to blind Æthelstan 18 at Winchester. When his machinations were exposed, he was sent of to the church of Rome to answer for himself on oath before Pope John 32. He did so at the altar of St Peter, but after swearing it he collapsed and was carried by his men to the School of the English, where he died two nights later. Æthelstan 18 gave Alfred 33 Christian burial, little though he deserved it, and took over his property.
273 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.252 King Edgar 11 to Ælfric 48, abbot of Malmesbury 1; restoration of 10 hides at Eastcourt. The land had been forfeited by Æthelnoth 29.
274 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.255.1-3 In the days of King Edgar 11 Archbishop Dunstan 1 did much for the restoration and ornamentation of the Malmesbury abbey. He even gave to it large bells and an organ with bronze pipes.
275 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.255.5-7 Dunstan 1, concerned with the safety of Aldhelm 3's relics moved them from a precious reliquary into a stone tomb.
276 Transaction WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.257 King Æthelred 32 to Abbot Æthelweard 30 and Malmesbury 1 Abbey; grant of 10 hides at Rodbourne.
277 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.259 Ælfhild 9 was an English woman taken prisoner to Scandinavia; there she was made a concubine of a Norwegian king, by whom she had a son called Magnus 2. After the death of her lord and her son she set off to England, making vow to God not to eat meat if He granted her a safe journey. On her happy homecoming she bought three vills and lived on their revenues. During one of the feasts she was persuaded by her friends to eat some meat, abandoning her vow, and was struck by paralysis. Three years later she visited the shrine of St Aldhelm 3 on his feast day, 25 may, and was healed. In her gratitude Ælfhild 9 gave all her goods to the monastery of Malmesbury and made profession as a nun, living close to the church, and on her death she was given a distinguished burial place in the cloister.
278 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.261 Anonymous 10090, a country dweller from near Malmesbury, became the victim of possession by a wicked demon, making him violent and dangerous for himself and others. He was caught and brought before the altar of the church, and, having offered prayers of supplication to St Aldhelm 3, was healed completely.
279 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.262 Anonymous 10091 had been reduced to a sorry state by the seizing up of the ligaments of his hams that he could proceed only on his knees, looking more like a beast than a man. He set off to Christ's Church, hoping of a miracle, in a hired cart; Malmesbury offered him hospitality as he travelled though. On Saturday night, soon after the feast of St Aldhelm 3, the cripple crept into the church, where he fell as though in trance at the altar, waking up completely healed.
280 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.263 Queen Emma 2, on the death of king Æthelred 32, had gone over to join her brother [Richard 2] to Normandy. While staying in Rouen, she purchased the relics of St Ouen. On her return to England, she presented the body to Canterbury, while privily keeping the head. Years later, when her son Edward 15 had come to the throne, memories of the past provoked the king's heart against his mother; for she had been all to niggardly with her son when he was in his tender years. So he now commanded the expropriation of all her property, including the shrine housing the saint's head, which was eventually given to the monastery of Malmesbury.
281 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.264 Abbot Beorhtwald 20 died, and Bishop Herman 2 thought to remove his see to the vacant abbey. but the monks were too quick for him, and had Earls Godwine 51 and Harold 3 to back them. The leading monk, Beorhtric 34, was made abbot, and ruled the house with high distinction for seven years. But when William 1 became the king of England he intruded one Turold 1 to take Beorhtric 34's place while he yet lived. Later, realizing that he had done wrong, William 1 made up for the exiled Beorhtric 34's loss by giving him Burton Abbey. The same Turold 1, who was treating his subjects like a tyrant, was moved by the king to Peterborough, a wealthy abbey, but at that time troubled by brigands under one Hereweard 1; for it was surrounded by swamps.
282 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.266-7 Anonymous 10092, a fisherman from the Isle of Wight, suddenly went blind whilst in the sea. Rescued by his mates, we went to Christchurch hoping for a cure. Three years later he was prompted in a dream to go to Malmesbury, which he did. On the eighth day, a Sunday, he was prostate before the crucifix in the church, and his sight returned as blood burst dripping from his eyes. This event increased Aldhelm 3's prestige among the Normans, which resulted in the translation of his relics in the presence of bishop Osmund 23 in 1078.
283 Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.269 In the time of bishop Osmund 23 there was a boy called Folcwine 2 whose legs were defective from birth so that he could not walk, as there was no normal bending or separation in them. One, when he was 13 or 14, he fell asleep in the choir of the church on the day of Aldhelm 3's festival, and saw a dream: someone of average height with white beard and hair sat next to him and began to stroke gently his legs, gradually straightening them and restoring them to their natural state. Thus was the boy healed by the vision of St Aldhelm 3.