Location: Normandy / France

Factoid List

View Factoid Type Source Ref. Primary Person Short Description
Event EncomiumEmmae  3.4   Alfred 54 came into Flanders, boarded ship and crossed the sea. He was recognised by Anonymi 1773 but left that shore and landed in another port.
Event EncomiumEmmae  2.18, 3.1   Emma 2 and Cnut 3 sent their other legitimate sons (Alfred 54 and Edward 15) to be brought up in Normandy.
Event EncomiumEmmae  2.16   Emma 2 was conveyed over the seas.
Event EncomiumEmmae  3.7   Emma 2 sent messengers (Anonymi 1780) to Edward 15.
Event EncomiumEmmae  3.8   Edward 15 mounted his horse and came to Emma 2.
Event EncomiumEmmae  3.8   Edward 15 returned to Normandy from Flanders.
Event ASC (C-F)  1000 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   The hostile fleet [F(Lat) has instead: the army of the Danes] (Anonymi 2204) went that summer to the kingdom of Richard 1 [i.e., Normandy].
Event ASC (C-F)  1031 EF(OE and Lat.)   [E: King] William 1 succeeded [F(OE) adds: to Normandy] [Robert 4], although a boy [F(OE) substitutes: child].
Office ASC (C-F)  1031 F(OE) William 1 held office of Eorl (Eorl of Normandy)
Office ASC (C-F)  1031 F(OE) Robert 4 held office of Eorl (Eorl of Normandy)
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066   Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066   Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066, 1067; E 1067   MS D (1066): King William 1 went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England.

MS D (1067):

This year the king came back to England on St Nicholas's day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church was burnt down. MS E (1067): In this year the king went overseas and took with him hostages and money and came back the next year on St Nicholas’s day [6 December]. And that day Christ Church at Canterbury was burnt down.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1075; E 1074   MS D: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Flanders into Scotland on St Grimbald’s day. And King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, received him with great honour. At the same time the king of France, Philip 1, sent a letter to him and ordered him to come to him, saying he would give him the castle of Montreuil so that he could do daily harm to those who were not his friends. So now King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister, Margaret 1, gave him and all his men great gifts and many treasures consisting of skins covered with purple cloth, and robes of marten’s skin and of grey fur and ermine, and costly robes and golden vessels and silver, and led him and all his naval force out of his jurisdiction with great honour. But on the journey it turned out badly for them when they were out at sea, in that they met very rough weather, and the raging sea and the strong wind cast them ashore so that all their ships foundered and they themselves got to land with difficulty and their treasure was nearly all lost. And some of his men were captured by the French, but he and his fittest men went back to Scotland, some walking miserably on foot, and some riding wretchedly. Then King Malcolm 5 advised him to send overseas to King William 1 and ask for his protection, and he did so; and the king granted it to him and sent for him. And again King Malcolm 5 and Edgar 14’s sister gave him and all his men immense treasure, and again very honourably sent him out of their jurisdiction. And the sheriff of York came to meet them at Durham and went all the way with them and had them provided with food and fodder at every castle they came to, until they got overseas to the king. And King William 1 received him with great honour and he stayed at court and received such dues as were appointed him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 went overseas to Normandy. And Edgar 14 Cild came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king reversed his outlawry and that of all his men. And he was in the king’s court and received such dues as the king granted him.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1076; E 1075   MS D: In this year King William gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger 1 [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to drive their royal lord of his kingdom. And the king in Normandy was informed about this. Earl Ralph 3 and Earl Roger 1 were the ringleaders in the conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and they also sent to Denmark for a naval force. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, as he thought, but it turned out to his own great harm. Ralph 3 also wanted to go forward with the men of his earldom, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against them and prevented them all from doing anything; but he was glad to escape to the ships. And his wife remained behind in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England, and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and captured Earl Roger 1, his kinsman and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof 2 went overseas and accused himself and asked for pardon and offered treasure. But the king made light of it until he came to England and then had him captured. And soon after this 200 ships came from Denmark, and the commanders aboard were Cnut 3, son of King Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but went to York and broke into St Peter’s minster and captured a large amount of property there and so departed. But all who took part in this scheme died – that is to say the son of Earl Hakon 2 and many others with him.

MS E: In this year King William 1 gave to Earl Ralph 3 the daughter of William 3 fitzOsbern [Emma 3]. This same Ralph 3 was Breton on his mother’s side, and Ralph 2 his father was English, and was born in Norfolk, and the king therefore gave the earldom there and Suffolk as well to his son. He then took the lady to Norwich. Earl Roger [of Bretueil, second son of William 3 fitzOsbern by his first wife and thus brother of the bride] was there and Earl Waltheof 2 and bishops and abbots, and there they plotted to expel the king from the realm of England. And soon the king in Normandy was informed about this, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger 1 and Earl Ralph 3 who were the principals in this conspiracy; and they lured the Bretons to their side; and also sent east to Denmark for a naval force to help them. And Roger 1 went west to his earldom [Hereford] and assembled his people for the king’s undoing, but he was prevented. And Ralph 3 also in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle garrisons which were in England and also the local people came against him, and brought it about that he did nothing, but went on board ship at Norwich. And his wife was in the castle, and held it until she was given safe-conduct; and then she went out of England and all her men who wished to go with her. And the king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger 1, his kinsman, and imprisoned him, and he seized Earl Waltheof 2 as well. And soon after that 200 ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were two commanders on board, Cnut 3, son of Swein 5, and Earl Hakon 2. And they dared not fight with King William 1 but proceeded overseas to Flanders.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1086   King William 1 died in Normandy on the day after the Nativity of St Mary [9 September].
Event Okasha93      May God help Æadan 1 who made this casket.
Status WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.1 Edward 15 held status of Exile
Status WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.1 Alfred 54 held status of Exile
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.1   Exiles Edward 15 and Alfred 54 were living in the court of their kinsman William 1.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.1   Edward 15 and Alfred 54 fled as boys to their maternal uncles in Normandy to avoid being murdered.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.2   In Southampton Edward 15 came up against a great multitude of English lying in ambush to kill him. Edward 15 swiftly overcame them with great slaughter, turned round his ships and returned to Normandy with great booty.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.14   William of Poitiers claims that Edward 15 promised William 1 the English crown on account of their consanguinity and as a token of his gratitude for the honour and affection Edward 15 had been shown by William 1 in Normandy.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.41   William of Poitiers claims that Edward 15, preparing for his nearing death, confirmed his pledge of making of William 1 his heir with an oath, sending Harold 3 [to Normandy].
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.41   To confirm the pledge with an oath, Edward 15 sent [to Normandy] Harold 3, whose brother [Wulfnoth 26] and nephew [Hakon 3] had been received as hostages for William 1's succession, see also I.14.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  I.46   On his return to Normandy, William 1 kept Harold 3 as his valued guest for a while longer and then sent him back to Edward 15 with rich gifts for Harold 3 and Edward 15.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.1   William 1 took counsel with his men and decided to claim his inheritance by force of arms, although many argued that the enterprise was too arduous and far beyond the resources of Normandy.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.2   William 1 directed ships to be built and equipped with arms, men, provisions, and the other things necessary for war [with England]. Normandy eagerly bent to the task. Foreign knights flocked to join William 1 in great numbers, attracted by his liberality and the justice of his cause.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.4   Harold 3 sent spies across the sea to William 1. One was captured and tried to conceal the purpose of his journey from William 1. William 1 exposed him and sent the spy back to Harold 3 with a message: Harold 3 will have nothing to fear from William 1 if, within the space of one year, he has not seen William 1 in the place Harold 3 thinks safest for his fleet.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.38   Leaving for Normandy from Pevensey William 1 was determined to take away with him those Englishmen of high rank whose loyalty and power he particularly suspected: Archbishop Stigand 1, Edgar 14 the Ætheling, kinsman of King Edward 15, the three earls Edwin 33, Morcar 3 and Waltheof 2, and many others..., so that during his absence no revolt instigated by them might break out, and the general populace, deprived of their leaders, would be less capable of rebellion.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  V.4   William of Jumièges claims that Æthelred 32 sent ships with a great and well-equipped army to Normandy in order to devastate the land by robbery and fire, with the exception of Mont-St-Michel... and that they should conquer the duchy [of Normandy], capture Duke Richard 2... and return with him alive to England. Nigel 1 with his knights, together with a multitude of common people, launched an unexpected attack upon the English and slaughtered many of them. Those who returned to Æthelred 32 told him their story, making him blush and feel deeply ashamed.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  V.7   As Swein 1 was triumphantly advancing from Yorkshire southwards, King Æthelred 32, who at that time was at Winchester and who found himself completely deserted by the English, dug up his treasure from the earth and went with his wife [Emma 2] and sons, Edward 15 and Alfred 54, to Duke Richard 2 of Normandy, where he was suitably welcomed.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  V.8; VI.9(10)   Having heard of Swein 1's death, Æthelred 32 prepared everything in order to sail to his kingdom [of England] with his wife [Emma 2], leaving his sons Edward 15 and Alfred 54 behind with their uncle [Richard 2].
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VI.10(11)   William of Jumièges claims that Cnut 3 sent envoys to duke Robert 4 [to Normandy] with the message that he was willing to return half the kingdom of England to the sons of King Æthelred 32 [Edward 15 and Alfred 54] and to settle peace for his lifetime, because he was seriously ill.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.5(8)   When King Edward 15, how lived at that time in the duke [William 1's] household, heard of [Cnut 3's] long-desired death, he immediately sailed with forty ships full of soldiers to Southampton, where he met an innumerable multitude of Englishmen ready to join battle with him. He started to fight against them the minute he came on land and swiftly sent a considerable part of their number to their death. As a victor he and his men then returned to their ships. Seeing, however, that he could not possibly obtain the kingdom of the English without a larger army, Edward 15 turned the fleet about and, richly laden with booty, sailed back to Normandy.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.6(9)   Soon after [Harthacnut 1] was established as king, he summoned his brother Edward 15 from Normandy to come and live with him.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.(32)   William 1 sent Earl Tosti 2 to England, but Harold 3's fleet forcefully drove him away, so Tosti 2, prevented from entering England safely or returning to Normandy because of a contrary wind, went instead to King Harald 5 Fairhair of Norway and begged him for support as a suppliant. The king granted Tosti 2's request with pleasure.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.14   William 1 crossed the sea [from Normandy] and landed at Pevensey, where at one he built a strongly entrenched fortification. He entrusted it to his warriors and speedily went to Hastings, where he quickly raised another one. Harold 3, hastening to take him by surprise, gathered innumerable English forces and, riding through the night, arrived at the battlefield at dawn.
Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  I.1   Amid the festive joy of all the people, earls and bishops were sent to fetch [Edward 15]. By these he was brought back safely [from Normandy], by those acknowledged with alacrity; and before he was raised to the royal throne, he was consecrated God's anointed at Christ Church, Canterbury. Everywhere he was acclaimed with loyal undertakings with loyal undertakings of submission and obedience. Now that the kingdom was settled under its native rule there was rejoicing by all... not only the English... but indeed the whole of Gaul on account of its close kinship.
Event Anon.VitaEdwardiRegis  II.2   Although it seems new and strange, the Franks aver that Edward 15 had done [healing from regium morbum with water] often as a youth when he was in Neustria, now known as Normandy.
Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  i.23.5-8   William 1 duke of Normandy came to England and subdued the country by force for arms. He spread the terror of his name far and wide by winning the battle of Hastings and receiving the surrender of Dover Castle, and then came to London. There, Stigand 1 and the most powerful of the English came out to show their support; after negotiations, William 1 received him as father and archbishop, while Stigand 1 received William 1 as king and son. But the king drew the line at receiving the crown from his hand, with his customary ingenuity arranging for people to forbid it in the pope’s name. Soon afterwards, he sailed over to Normandy, and took with him the reluctant Stigand 1 under a show of Honouring him, for he wanted to make sure the archbishop’s influence did not cause any emergence of treason in his absence. It is difficult to exaggerate the civilities he showed Stigand 1: he rose to his feet to do him honour on every occasion, and made sure he was welcomed by long and elaborate processions in every see and abbey of Normandy. But what lay behind this façade was revealed when there arrived in England Ermenfrid 1, bishop of Sion and Pope Alexander 1’s legate. At the king’s instance he summoned a council and deposed Stigand 1, though he called on William 1 to keep faith with him and protested that he was being subjected to violence. The king made smooth excuses, citing the pope’s command, but he did not efface the impression that he had engineered the deposition, for he kept Stigand 1 in prison at Winchester for the rest of his life. Stigand 1 lived a simple life there; the public purse provided little, and Stigand 1, with his innate obstinacy, refused to have anything brought in from his own estates. Indeed when his friends, especially Eadgyth 3, King Edward 15’s widow, urged him to dress and eat less austerely, he swore by everything sacred a false oath that he had not a penny to his name. That this oath had no basis in truth was proved by the vast riches found after his death in underground caves. They were given away by a key hanging round the neck of the dead man. This turned lock of his private chest, and the records thus disclosed revealed the types of metals he owned, and their weights.
Event WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  v.263   Queen Emma 2, on the death of king Æthelred 32, had gone over to join her brother [Richard 2] to Normandy. While staying in Rouen, she purchased the relics of St Ouen. On her return to England, she presented the body to Canterbury, while privily keeping the head. Years later, when her son Edward 15 had come to the throne, memories of the past provoked the king's heart against his mother; for she had been all to niggardly with her son when he was in his tender years. So he now commanded the expropriation of all her property, including the shrine housing the saint's head, which was eventually given to the monastery of Malmesbury.