Location: Sandwich / Kent

Factoid List

View Factoid Type Source Ref. Primary Person Short Description
Event Asser.VitAlfredi  6   Æthelstan 3 and Ealhhere 11 destroyed an army (Anonymi 9) and captured ships.
Occupation Asser.VitAlfredi  6 Anonymi 9 Army
Event ASC  845 A   Æthelstan 3 and Ealhhere 11 slew a great army (Anonymi 9) at Sandwich in Kent.
Event ASC  851 ADEF(OE)G, <853> B, 853 C   Æthelstan 3 and Ealhhere 11 slew a great army (Anonymi 9) at Sandwich in Kent.
Event EncomiumEmmae  2.3-5   The force (Anonymi 1762) put to sea and in good order and with a favourable wind they touched at Sandwich.
Occupation EncomiumEmmae  2.5 Anonymi 1756 Scout
Event ASC (A)  993 A, <991> G   Olaf 5 and his ships (Anonymi 2047) came and harried in the vicinity of Folkestone and beyond.
Event ASC (A)  1031 A   Cnut 3 gave into Christ Church at Canterbury the harbour at Sandwich with defined rights.
Event ASC (C-F)  1015 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   Cnut 3 came to Sandwich and immediately went [F(Lat.) has instead: sailed] round Kent [CDEF(OE): to the West Saxons (Anonymi 2291) until he came to] [F(Lat.) has instead: and he arrived in the port called] the mouth of the Frome.
Event ASC (C-F)  1014 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   Cnut 3 had the hostages which had been given to his father (Anonymi 2345) put ashore there [sc. at Sandwich] and cut off their hands, ears and noses.
Event ASC (C-F)  1014 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   Cnut 3 went away with his fleet (Anonymi 2285) and went southwards until he came to Sandwich.
Event ASC (C-F)  1013 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   Swein 1 came with his fleet (Anonymi 2267) to Sandwich before August.
Event ASC (C-F)  1009 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   An immense [CDE: hostile] here came after Lammas [= 1 August] to Sandwich and went directly to Canterbury.
Event ASC (C-F)  1009 CDEF(OE and Lat.)   Here in this year the ships were ready and all were brought together at Sandwich.
Event ASC (C-F)  1029 F(OE and Lat.)   Cnut 3 gave to Christ Church at Canterbury the harbour at Sandwich and all that derived from either side of the harbour as further defined.
Event ASC (C-F)  1040 CD, 1039 EF(OE and Lat.)   CD: Harthacnut 1 was sent for at Bruges and he came here [sc. to England] with sixty ships (Anonymi 2371) in midsummer; EF(OE and Lat.): In this same year Harthacnut 1 came to Sandwich.
Transaction S808      King Edgar 11 to the church of Canterbury 1; grant of Sandwich, Kent
Event Æthelweard.Chron  iii.4 (p. 31)   Æthelstan 3 and Ealhhere 11 waged war against an army of Danes (Anonymi 9), killed many of them, put their squadrons to flight and captured nine ships.
Transaction S959      King Cnut 3 to Canterbury, Christ Church 1; grant of the port of Sandwich
Transaction S1467      King Harold 5 Harefoot from Canterbury, Christ Church 1; seizure of Sandwich against the wishes of the house.
Transaction S1467      In exchange for gold and silver, Ælfstan 66, abbot of Canterbury, St Augustine's, acquired for his house, the third penny on the toll at Sandwich from Steorra 1, the king's rædesmann [steward?].
Event S1467      Account of the restoration of Sandwich to Christ Church, Canterbury, by King Harold 5, and of a dispute between Christ Church and St Augustine's, Canterbury, concerning Sandwich.
Event Stephen.VitWilfridi  13   Wilfrid 2 and his party, driven ashore in a storm, managed successfully to repulse attacks on them by the South Saxons (Anonymi 313) and escaped on their ship to Sandwich.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1044; E 1043   The king [Edward 15] went out with 35 ships from Sandwich.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1045; D 1046   MS C: King Edward 15 went out with his ships at Sandwich, and there was so large a force collected there that no one had ever seen a larger naval force in this country. MS D: King Edward 15 collected a great naval force at Sandwich because of the threat of Magnus 1 of Norway, but the fighting between him and Swein 4 of Denmark prevented him from coming here.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1046   Lothen 1 and Yrling 1 came to Sandwich with 25 ships and captured an indescribable amount of plunder in men and gold and silver, so that nobody knew how much it was altogether; and then they went round Thanet and meant to do the same there, but the local people firmly resisted them, and prevented them both from coming ashore and from obtaining water, and drove them out completely from those parts. So they went off to Essex, which they ravaged, and there they captured people and whatever they could find, and then they went east to Baldwin 4’s country, and sold whatever they had got from their raid, and thence they went east to the country from which they had come.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050   MSS CD: In this year ... the emperor [Henry 2 III] sent to King Edward 15 and asked him for naval support – that he would not let Baldwin 4 [V of Flanders] escape by sea. The king therefore went to Sandwich and stayed there with a large naval force until the emperor obtained from Baldwin 4 all he wanted.

MS E: King Edward 15 went out to Sandwich with a large naval force.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046   MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052   Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052   The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum].
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1052   The king and his council decided that ships should be sent to Sandwich, and they appointed Earl Ralph 1 and Earl Odda 8 as their captains [heafodmannum]. Then Earl Godwine 51 went out from Bruges with his ships to the Isere, and put out to sea a day before the eve of the midsummer festival, so that he came to Dungeness, which is south of Romney. Then it came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they then went out in pursuit of the other ships, and a land force was called out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine 51 was warned; and he went to Pevensey, and the storm became so violent that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine 51. And then Earl Godwine 51 put out again so that he got back to Bruges, and the other ships went back again to Sandwich. Then it was decided that the ships should go back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen [hasæta] should be appointed to them. But there was so long a delay that the naval expedition was quite abandoned and all the men went home. Earl Godwine 51 found out about this and hoisted his sail – and so did his fleet – and they went westward direct to the Isle of Wight and there landed, and ravaged there so long that the people paid them as much as they imposed on them, and then they went westward until they came to Portland and landed there, and did whatever damage they could. Then Harold 3 had come from Ireland with 9 ships, and he landed at Porlock, and there was a great force gathered there to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to obtain provisions for himself, and he landed and killed a great part of the force that opposed him, and seized for himself what came his way in cattle, men, and property; and then he went east to his father, and they both went eastward until they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took what they had left behind them. Then they went on to Pevensey and took with them as many ships as were serviceable and so proceeded to Dungeness. And he took all the ships that were at Romney and Hythe and Folkestone, and then they went east to Dover and landed and seized ships for themselves and as many hostages as they wished. So they came to Sandwich and there they did exactly the same, and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked for them. They went on to Northmouth [Kentish Stour] and so towards London, and some of the ships went within Sheppey and did much damage there, and they went to Milton Regis and burnt it down to the ground. Thus they proceeded on their way to London in pursuit of the earls. When they came to London the king and earls were all lying there with 50 ships ready to meet them. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him legally to return to them all those things of which they had been unjustly deprived. But the king refused for some time – for so long that the men who were with the earl were so incensed against the king and against his men that the earl himself had difficulty calming those men. Then Bishop Stigand 1 with the help of God went there and the wise men both inside the city and without, and they decided that hostages should be arranged for on both sides. And so it was done. Then Archbishop Robert 5 found out about this, and the Frenchmen, so that they took horses and departed, some west to Pentecost’s castle, and some north to Robert 5’s castle. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop Ulf 13 and their companions went out at the east gate and killed or otherwise injured many young men, and went right on to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and he there got on board a broken-down ship, and went right on overseas, and left behind him his pallium and all the Church in this country. This was God’s will, in that he had obtained the dignity when it was not God’s will. Then a big council was summoned outside London, and all the earls and the chief men who were in the country were at the council. Then Earl Godwine 51 expounded his case, and cleared himself before King Edward 15, his lord [hlaford], and before all his country-men, declaring that he was guiltless of the charges brought against him, and against Harold 3 his son and all his children. Then the king granted the earl and his children his full friendship and full status as an earl, and all that he had had. And all the men who were with him were treated likewise. And the king gave the lady [Eadgyth 3] all that she had had. And Archbishop Robert 5 was declared utterly an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen too, because they were most responsible for the disagreement between Earl Godwine 51 and the king.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1066   Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given them him. And then he went away from there and did damage everywhere along the sea coast wherever he could reach, until he came to Sandwich. When King Harold 3, who was in London, was informed that his brother Tosti 2 was come to Sandwich, he assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told as a fact that Count William 1 from Normandy, King Edward 15’s kinsman, meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. When Tosti 2 found that King Harold 3 was on his way to Sandwich, he went from Sandwich and took some of the sailors with him, some willingly, some unwillingly, and then went north to [ ] and ravaged in Lindsey and killed many good men there. When Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 understood about this, they came there and drove him out of the country; and then he went to Scotland, and the king of the Scots [Malcolm 5 Canmore] gave him protection, and helped him with provisions, and he stayed there all the summer. Then King Harold 3 came to Sandwich and waited for his fleet there, because it was long before it could be assembled, he went to the Isle of Wight and lay there all that summer and autumn; and a land force was kept everywhere along by the sea, though in the end it was no use. When it was the feast of the Nativity of St Mary [8 September], the provisions of the people were gone, and nobody could keep them there any longer. Then the men were allowed to go home, and the king rode inland, and the ships were brought up to London, and many perished before they reached there. When the ships came home, Harald 5, king of Norway [cynge on Norwegan], came by surprise north into the Tyne with a very large naval force – no small one: it could be [ ] or more. And Earl Tosti 2 came to him with all those he had mustered, just as they had agreed beforehand, and they both went with all the fleet up the Ouse towards York. Then King Harold 3 in the south was informed when he disembarked that Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 were come ashore near York. Then he went northwards day and night as quickly as he could assemble his force. Then before Harold 3 could get there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 assembled from their earldom as large a force as they could muster, and fought against the invaders and caused them heavy casualties, and many of the English host were killed and drowned and put to flight, and the Norwegians remained masters of the field [Fulford]. And this fight was on the eve of St Matthew the Apostle, and that was a Wednesday. And then after the fight Harald 5, king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 went into York with as large a force as suited them, and they were given hostages from the city and also helped with provisions, and so went from there on board ship and settled a complete peace, arranging that they should all go with him southwards and subdue this country. Then in the middle of these proceedings Harold 3, king of the English [Engla cyningc], came on the Sunday with all his force to Tadcaster, and there marshalled his troops, and then on Monday went right on through York. And Harald 5 king of Norway, and Earl Tosti 2 and their divisions were gone inland beyond York to Stamford Bridge, because they had been promised for certain that hostages would be brought to them there out of all the shire. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came against them by surprise beyond the bridge, and there they joined battle, and went on fighting strenuously till late in the day. And there Harald 5, king of Norway, was killed and Earl Tosti 2, and numberless men with them both Norwegians and English, and the Norwegians fled from the English. There was one of the Norwegians [Anonymous 10023] there who withstood the English host so that they could not cross the bridge nor win victory. Then an Englishman [Anonymous 10024] shot an arrow, but it was no use, and then another [Anonymous 10025] came under the bridge and stabbed him under the corselet. Then Harold 3, king of the English, came over the bridge and his host with him, and there killed large numbers of both Norwegians and Flemings, and Harold 3 let the king’s son Mundus 1 go home to Norway go home to Norway with all the ships.
Transaction S1047      King Edward 15 to Christ Church, Canterbury; grant of land at Chartham, Kent, and Walworth, Surrey, and confirmation of land at Sandwich, Eastry, Folkestone, Thanet, Adisham, Ickham, Chartham, Godmersham, Westwell, East Chart, the other Chart, Berwick, Brook, Warehorne, Appledore, Mersham, Orpington, Preston, Meopham, Cooling, Farningham, Hythe, Hollingbourne, Farleigh, Peckham, all in Kent; at Patching and Wootton in Sussex; at Walworth, Merstham, Cheam, and Horsley in Surrey; at Southchurch, Laver, Milton (Hall) in Prittlewell, Lawling in Latchingdon, Bocking, St Osyth and Stisted in Essex; at Hadleigh and Monks Eleigh, Suffolk; at Monks Risborough in Bucks.; and at Newington and Britwell Prior, Oxon..
RecordedNames EMC Coin  1988.0189 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Scule 5
Office EMC Coin  1988.0189 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Scule 5 held office of Moneyer for Edward 15
Office EMC Coin  1988.0189 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Edward 15 held office of King
Possession GDB  11 (Kent 5:198) Odo 7 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 32 urban tenements in Sandwich, Kent (in 1086)
Possession GDB  11 (Kent 5:198) Bayeux 1 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 32 urban tenements in Sandwich, Kent (in 1086)
Possession GDB  5 (Kent 3:23) Canterbury, Christ Church 1 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Sandwich, Kent (in 1086)
Possession GDB  5 (Kent 3:23) Stigand 1 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Sandwich, Kent (in 1066)
Possession GDB  5 (Kent 3:23) Canterbury, Christ Church 1 Property recorded in Domesday Book: [fiscal data not specified] in Sandwich, Kent (in 1066)
Possession GDB  3 (Kent 2:2) Canterbury, Christ Church 1 Property recorded in Domesday Book: 307 urban tenements in Sandwich, Kent (in 1086)
Office EMC Coin  2001.0514 (N 188/N 190 ('Styca' of Æthelred II; unclear which reign)) Eardwulf 26 held office of Moneyer for Æthelred 44
Office EMC Coin  2001.0514 (N 188/N 190 ('Styca' of Æthelred II; unclear which reign)) Æthelred 44 held office of King
Office EMC Coin  2001.0678 (Series E (runic Æthiliræd) (Type 105) (N 155-156)) Æthelred 58 held office of Moneyer