Location: Hastings / Sussex

Factoid List

View Factoid Type Source Ref. Primary Person Short Description
Transaction S133      Offa 7, king of the Mercians, to the abbey of Paris, St Denis 1; grant of privileges for and confirmation of land at London, and confirmation of land at Rotherfield, Hastings and Pevensey, Sussex granted by Beorhtwald 7 and Eadbald 10
Transaction S1186      Beorhtwald 7, dux, to the Abbey of Paris, Saint-Denis 1; grant of land at Rotherfield, Hastings and Pevensey, Sussex
Office S1186    Beorhtwald 7 held office of Dux (dux of Hastings)
Transaction S318      Æthelwulf 1, king of the English, to the Abbey of Saint-Denis (Paris, Saint-Denis 1); confirmation of lands at Rotherfield, Hastings, Pevensey, Sussex; and at Lundenuuic (London)
Transaction S686      King Edgar 11 to the Paris, Saint-Denis 1 Abbey; restoration of property at Rotherfield, Hastings and Pevensey, Sussex
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  C 1049; D 1050; E 1046   MS C: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back again to Edward 15 and asked him for land to support himself upon. But Harold 3, his brother, opposed it together with Earl Beorn 3 [brother of Swein Estrithson]. They declared they would give up to him nothing that the king had given them. Swein 3 came hypocritically and said he would be his man, and he asked Earl Beorn 3 for support. But the king refused him in everything. Then Swein 3 went to his ships at Bosham, and Earl Godwine 51 came from Sandwich to Pevensey with 42 ships, and Earl Beorn 3 along with him. And then the king allowed all the Mercians to go home, and they did so. When the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 lay at Wulpe with 29 ships the king sent for all the ships he could summon which were within the Northmouth [of the Kentish Stour]. But Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife in Bruges and turned back again with 6 ships, and the other went to Essex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and there they did damage, and then turned back to the ships. Then Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were lying at Pevensey with their ships. Then Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3 to accompany him to the king at Sandwich, saying that he would swear oaths to him and be faithful to him. Then Beorn 3 thought that because of their kinship he would not be betrayed. He took with him 3 companions [geferan] and, exactly as if they were going to Sandwich, they rode to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying. But he was bound at once and carried on board, and then they went to Dartmouth and there he was put to death, and buried deep. Harold 3, however, his kinsman, fetched him and took him to Winchester and buried him there near Cnut 3 his uncle. And the king and all the host declared Swein 3 a scoundrel [nothing]. He had 8 ships before he murdered Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him, and he then went to Bruges and stayed there with Baldwin 4.

MS D: Then Earl Swein 3 [son of Godwine 51] came back also who had gone from this country into Denmark, and there ruined himself with the Danes. He came here hypocritically and said he wished to submit to the king, and Earl Beorn 3 promised to help him. Then after the agreement between the emperor and Baldwin 4 many of the ships went home, but the king stayed at Sandwich with a few ships. And Earl Godwine 51 also went with the 42 ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn 3 went with him. Then the king was informed that Osgod Clapa 1 was at Wulpe with 39 ships, and the king sent for all the ships he could summon from among those which had gone home. And Osgod Clapa 1 placed his wife at Bruges, and they went back again with 6 ships, and the others went to Sussex to Eadulfesness [The Naze, Essex], and they did damage there and then returned to the ships, and then a strong wind overtook them so that they were all lost except for 4 that were killed overseas. While Earl Godwine 51 and Earl Beorn 3 were staying at Pevensey, Earl Swein 3 came and treacherously asked Earl Beorn 3, who was his uncle’s son, to accompany him to the king at Sandwich in order to improve his relations with the king. Beorn 3 went then with 3 companions because of their kinship, but he was taken to Bosham where Swein 3’s ships were lying, and there he was bound and carried on board. Then he was taken to Dartmouth and there Swein 3 ordered him to be killed and buried deep. He was found again, however, and taken to Winchester and buried with Cnut 3 his uncle. A little before this the men of Hastings and its neighbourhood captured 2 of his ships with their ships, and they killed all the men and brought the ships to the king at Sandwich. Swein 3 had 8 ships before he betrayed Beorn 3, but afterwards all but 2 deserted him.

MS E: Earl Swein 3 came in with 7 ships to Bosham and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he should be restored to every honour that he had previously held. Then Earl Harold 3, his brother, and Earl Beorn 3 withstood it, contending that Swein 3 was not entitled to any of those things that the king had granted him. He was however given 4 days’ safe conduct to enable him to get back to his ships. Now it happened meanwhile that word had come to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were ravaging there. Then Earl Godwine 51 turned west with 2 of the king’s ships, one of which was captained by Earl Harold 3 and the other Tosti 2 his brother, and also with 42 ships belonging to the local people. Then Earl Beorn 3 was appointed to the king’s ship that Earl Harold 3 had captained, and they went west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within two days Earl Swein 3 came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn 3 and asked him to go with him to the king at Sandwich in order that he might help him regain the king’s friendship. Beorn 3 agreed to do this and they departed as if they were meaning to go to the king. Then as they were riding Swein 3 asked him to go with him to his ships, telling him that his sailors would desert him unless he got there quickly. So they both went to where his ships were lying. When they got there Earl Swein 3 asked him to go aboard with him. Beorn 3 refused firmly and so long that the sailors took him and threw him into the boat and bound him and rowed to a ship and put him on board. Then they hoisted sail and ran west to Axmouth. And they kept Beorn 3 with them until they killed him, and they took the body and buried it in a church. But his friends and his sailors came from London and disinterred him and took him to the Old Minster at Winchester, where they buried him with his uncle. And Swein 3 went east to Baldwin 4’s country and stayed there all winter at Bruges under Baldwin 4’s full protection.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  CD 1052   Earl Harold 3 came from Ireland with his ships to the mouth of Somerset and Devon, and there did much damage, and the local people gathered together against him out of Somerset and Devon, and he put them to flight and killed more than 30 good thegns, apart from other people, and immediately after that he went round Land’s End. Then King Edward 15 had 40 small boats manned which lay at Sandwich in order that they might keep watch for Earl Godwine 51, who was in Bruges that winter. But despite this, he got into this country without their knowing anything about it. And while he was here in this country he enticed all the men of Kent and all the sailors [butsecarl] from the district of Hastings and from the region round about there by the sea coast, and all Essex and Surrey and much else beside. Then they all said they would live and die with him. When the fleet that was lying at Sandwich found out about Godwine 51’s expedition, they set out after him; and he escaped them, and the fleet turned back to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 51 found out that the fleet that had been lying at Sandwich was on its way home, he went back again to the Isle of Wight, and lay off the coast there long enough for Earl Harold 3 his son to join him. And they would not do any great harm afterwards except that they lived off the countryside. But they enticed all the local people to their side, both along the sea coast and inland also. And they went towards Sandwich and kept on collecting all the sailors that they met, and so they came to Sandwich with an overwhelming force. When Edward 15 found out about this, he sent inland for more help, but it came very slowly, and Godwine 51 kept on advancing towards London with his fleet until he came to Southwark, where he waited some time until the tide came up. In that interval he treated with the citizens so that they nearly all wanted what he wanted. When Godwine 51 had arranged all his expedition, the tide came in, and they forthwith weighed anchor and proceeded through the bridge always keeping to the southern bank, and the land force came from above and drew themselves up along the shore, and they formed a wing with their ships as if they meant to encircle the king’s ships. The king had also a large land force on his side in addition to the sailors. But it was hateful to almost all of them to fight against men of their own race, for there was little else that was worth anything apart from Englishmen on either side; and also they did not wish the country to be laid the more open to foreigners through their destroying each other. Then it was decided that wise men should go between parties, and they made a truce on both sides. And Godwine 51 and his son Harold 3 went ashore and as many of their sailors as suited them, and then there was a meeting of the council, and Godwine 51 was given his earldom unconditionally and as fully and completely as he had ever held it, and all his sons all that they had held before, and his wife [Gytha 1] and his daughter [Eadgyth 3] as fully and completely as they had held it before. And they confirmed full friendship with them, and promised the full benefits of the laws to all the people. And they outlawed all the Frenchmen who had promoted injustices and passed unjust judgments and given bad counsel in this country, with the exception, they decided, of as many as the king should wish to have with him, who were loyal to him and to all the people. And Archbishop Robert 5 and Bishop William 2 and Bishop Ulf 13 escaped with difficulty with the Frenchmen who were with them and so got away overseas.
PersonInfo ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066 Leofric 23 he fell ill on the Hastings campaign
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066   Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066   Earl Tosti 2 came from overseas into the Isle of Wight with as large a fleet as he could muster, and both money and provisions were given him. And King Harold 3 and his brother assembled a naval force and a land force larger than any king had assembled before in this country, because he had been told that William 1 the Bastard [Wyllelm Bastard] meant to come here and subdue this country. This was exactly what happened afterwards. Meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out, and the sailors deserted him. And he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and there Harald 5, king of Norway, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him and became his vassal [him to beah 7 his man wearth]; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And there Earl Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 his brother fought against them; but the Norwegians had the victory. Harold 3, king of the English, was informed that things had gone thus; and the fight was on the Vigil of St Matthew [20 September]. Then Harold 3 our king came upon the Norwegians by surprise and met them beyond York at Stamford Bridge with a large force of the English people; and that day there was a very fierce fight on both sides. There was killed Harald 5 Fairhair [Harfagera recte Hardrada] and Earl Tosti 2, and the Norwegians who survived took to flight; and the English attacked them fiercely as they pursued them until some got to the ships. Some were drowned, and some burned, and some destroyed in various ways so that few survived and the English remained in command of the field. The king gave quarter to Olaf 8 [Olafe], son of the Norse king [Norna cyng], and their bishop [Anonymous 10021] and the earl of Orkney [Anonymous 10022]and all those who survived on the ships, and they went up to our king and swore oaths that they would always keep peace and friendship with this country; and the king let them go home with 24 ships. These two pitched battles were fought within five nights. Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people. Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him. All the same he laid taxes on people very severely, and then went in spring overseas to Normandy, and took with him Archbishop Stigand 1, and Æthelnoth 46, abbot of Glastonbury, and Edgar 14 Cild and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Waltheof 2 and many other good men from England. And Bishop Odo 3 and Earl William 2 stayed behind and built castles far and wide throughout this country, and distressed the wretched folk, and always after that it grew much worse. May the end be good when God wills!
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  E 1066   In the same year that he [Harold 3] became king he went out with a naval force against William 1, and meanwhile Earl Tosti 2 came into the Humber with 60 ships; and Earl Edwin 33 came with a land force and drove him out and the sailors deserted him, and he went to Scotland with 12 small vessels, and Harold 3, the Norse king, met him with 300 ships, and Tosti 2 submitted to him; and they both went up the Humber until they reached York. And Earl Morcar 3 and Earl Edwin 33 fought against them, and the Norse king had the victory. And King Harold 3 was informed as to what had been done, and what had happened, and he came with a very great force of Englishmen and me him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and Earl Tosti 2 and valiantly overcame all the invaders. Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king, and people paid taxes to him, and gave him hostages and afterwards bought their lands. And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066   MS D: Then Count William 1 came from Normandy to Pevensey on Michaelmas eve, and as soon as they were able to move on they built a castle at Hastings. King Harold 3 was informed of this and he assembled a large army and came against him at the hoary apple-tree. And William 1 came against him by surprise before his army was drawn up in battle array. But the king nevertheless fought hard against him, with the men who were willing to support him, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. There King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Meanwhile Count William 1 landed at Hastings on Michaelmas day, and Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69; and William 1 conquered this country ... And Leofric 23, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign and fell ill there, and came home died soon after, on the eve of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  DE 1066   MS D: Archbishop Ealdred 37 and the citizens of London wanted to have Edgar 14 Cild [Edgar 14 Cild] as king, as was his proper due; and Edwin 33 and Morcar 3 promised him that they would fight on his side; but always the more it ought to have been forward the more it got behind, and the worse it grew from day to day, exactly as everything came to be at the end. The battle took place on the festival of Calixtus the pope [14 October]. And Count William 1 went back to Hastings and waited there to see whether submission would be made to him. But when he understood that no one meant to come to him, he went inland with all his army that was left to him, and that came to him afterwards from overseas, and ravaged all the region that he overran until he reached Berkhampstead. There he was met by Archbishop Ealdred 37 and Edgar 14 Cild, and Earl Edwin 33 and Earl Morcar 3, and all the chief men [betstan men] of London. And they submitted out of necessity after most damage had been done – and it was a great piece of folly that they had not done it earlier, since God would not make things better, because of our sins. And they gave hostages and swore oaths to him, and he promised them that he would be a gracious lord, and yet in the meantime they ravaged all that they overran. Then on Christmas day Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king at Westminster. And he promised Ealdred 37 on Christ’s book and swore moreover (before Ealdred 37 would place the crown on his head) that he would rule all this people as well as the best of the kings before him, if they would be loyal to him.

MS E: William 1 conquered this country, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Ealdred 37 consecrated him king.
Event ASC (C-F) 1042-1087  D 1066; E 1067   MS D: King Harold 3 was killed and Earl Leofwine 69 his brother, and Earl Gyrth 1 his brother, and many good men, and the French remained masters of the field, even as God granted it to them because of the sins of the people.

MS E: Harold 3 came from the north and fought with him before all the army had come, and there he fell and his two brothers Gyrth 1 and Leofwine 69.
Event Bayeux Tapestry      Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3.
Event Bayeux Tapestry      And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed.
Event Bayeux Tapestry      Here Duke William 1 asks Vital whether he has seen Harold 3's army. This man informs King Harold 3 about Duke William 1's army. Here Duke William 1 exhorts his soldiers to prepare themselves like men and wisely for the battle against the English army. Here fell Leofwine 69 and Gyrth 1, brothers of King Harold 3. Here fell the English and the French simultaneously in the battle. Here Bishop Odo 3 with a staff in his hand encourages his Squires. Here is Duke William 1. Eustace 1. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold 3 fell. Here King Harold 3 was killed. And the English fled.
Event WilliamofPoitiers.GestaGuillelmi  II.9   William 1 and his men occupied Pevensey and Hastings, and then went to investigate the region with no more than twenty-five knights.
Event WilliamofJumieges.Gesta Normannorum Ducum  VII.14   William 1 crossed the sea [from Normandy] and landed at Pevensey, where at one he built a strongly entrenched fortification. He entrusted it to his warriors and speedily went to Hastings, where he quickly raised another one. Harold 3, hastening to take him by surprise, gathered innumerable English forces and, riding through the night, arrived at the battlefield at dawn.
Event Bates17      Bishop Stigand 5 consecrated Gausbert 1 abbot of St Martin's, Battle.
Event NorthernAnnals.FirstSet  47   In 771 Offa 7, king of the Mercians, subdued the people of Hastings by force of arms.
Office EMC Coin  1958.9916 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Dunning 5 held office of Moneyer for Edward 15
RecordedNames EMC Coin  1958.9916 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Dunning 5
Office EMC Coin  1958.9916 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Edward 15 held office of King
RecordedNames EMC Coin  1958.9916 (N 828 (Hammer Cross) (Hild. G)) Edward 15